Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 29, 2013
Wit, grit and a supercomputer yield chemical structure of HIV capsid
Researchers report that they have determined the precise chemical structure of the HIV capsid, a protein shell that protects the virus's genetic material and is a key to its virulence.

Simplified solutions to deforestation ineffective in the long run
Deforestation is the second largest source of CO2 emissions after consumption of fossil fuels.

Early brain responses to words predict developmental outcomes in children with autism
The pattern of brain responses to words in 2-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder predicted the youngsters' linguistic, cognitive and adaptive skills at ages 4 and 6, according to a new study.

Team describes molecular detail of HIV's inner coat, pointing the way to new therapies
A team led by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine has described for the first time the 4-million-atom structure of the HIV's capsid, or protein shell.

Are children who take Ritalin for ADHD at greater risk of future drug abuse?
Children who take medication such as Ritalin and Adderall for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at no greater risk for later taking alcohol, marijuana, nicotine and cocaine than children with ADHD who do not take the medication, report UCLA psychologists who have conducted the most comprehensive assessment ever on this question.

Avatar therapy helps silence voices in schizophrenia
An avatar system that enables people with schizophrenia to control the voice of their hallucinations is being developed by researchers at UCL with support from the Wellcome Trust.

A little less protein may be the answer in neurodegenerative disorders
In some neurodegenerative diseases, and specifically in a devastating inherited condition called spinocerebellar ataxia 1, the answer may not be an

New method to sensitize human ovarian cancer cells to a targeted cytotoxic drug
A novel, targeted approach to chemotherapy that makes ovarian cancer cells more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of an anti-tumor drug may offer a safer, more effective treatment option for this often deadly form of cancer.

Science academies issue 'G-Science' statements to call world leaders' attention to global challenges
Science academies from around the globe issued joint statements today to call world leaders' attention to the role science, technology, and innovation can play in the pursuit of sustainable development, and to raise their awareness of the emerging threat of drug resistance in infectious agents including tuberculosis.

Task master: Categorizing rewards improves motivation
When it comes to motivating others and ourselves, it turns out offering rewards in defined categories, even when they are largely meaningless, can heighten motivation.

Systematic analysis: High global burden of oral conditions -- 3.9 billion affected
Today, the International and American Associations for Dental Research (IADR/AADR) published a paper titled

NRL geochemistry survey at Chatham Rise reveals absence of modern day greenhouse gas emissions
Scientists from Germany, New Zealand and United States aboard the German research vessel, R/V Sonne, investigate and map giant seafloor anomalies off the New Zealand coast.

MRSA study slashes deadly infections in sickest hospital patients
Using germ-killing soap and ointment on all intensive-care unit (ICU) patients can reduce bloodstream infections by up to 44 percent and significantly reduce the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in ICUs.

American Cancer Society honors Isaiah J. Fidler for outstanding research
When Isaiah J. Fidler, D.V.M., Ph.D., left his veterinary surgical practice to pursue a doctorate that would allow him to study and combat the lethal spread of cancer to other organs, he got lots of advice.

NASA's Swift reveals new phenomenon in a neutron star
Astronomers using NASA's Swift X-ray Telescope have observed a spinning neutron star suddenly slowing down, yielding clues they can use to understand these extremely dense objects.

More precision from less predictability: A new quantum trade-off
Researchers at Griffith University's Centre for Quantum Dynamics have demonstrated that, contrary to what the Heisenberg uncertainty relation may suggest, particle properties such as position and momentum can be measured simultaneously with high precision.

A statistical model predicts the number of goals for each footballer
After analyzing football league players over nine seasons, from 2000 to 2009, Spanish researchers have come up with a mathematical method for estimating the goal-scoring performance of each player.

Recovery of Hawaiian green sea turtles still short of historic levels, Stanford-led study suggests
Hawaiian green sea turtle populations have increased in recent years, but their numbers still fall far short of historic levels.

Safe for stroke patients to continue blood thinners before minor surgical procedures
It is is likely safe to continue taking blood thinners before minor procedures such as dental procedures, cataract surgery or dermatologic procedures, according to a new guideline from the American Academy of Neurology.

Springer to collaborate with renowned mathematical institutions in Vietnam
Starting in 2013, Springer will publish two prestigious mathematics journals from Vietnam, Acta Mathematica Vietnamica and the Vietnam Journal of Mathematics.

ENDO 2013 news conference and webcast schedule
The latest research discoveries on diabetes, obesity, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, adolescent health and clinical trials will be highlighted in a series of press conferences at ENDO 2013: The 95th Annual Meeting & Expo of The Endocrine Society.

A molecular chain reaction in Alzheimer's disease
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have identified the molecular mechanism behind the transformation of one of the components in Alzheimer's disease.

Twitter may become less interactive and more an advertising broadcast medium like TV or radio
Popular social media site Twitter may eventually resemble a broadcast medium like television or radio, with users reading messages written by celebrities and corporations rather than writing their own

Janssen, J&J Innovation, VIB, KU Leuven and UZ Leuven join forces to combat neurological diseases
Stellar is launched to overcome the inefficiencies in translating basic molecular insights to diagnostics and therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases.

Low-sodium 'diet' key to a stellar old age
Astrophysicists have found that contrary to decades of orthodoxy, stars with a high sodium content die before reaching the final, spectacular stages of life.

A sustainable environment and a new American dream
A new book by Wildlife Conservation Society senior conservation ecologist Dr.

New test assesses gestational diabetes risk early in pregnancy
Levels of a biomarker in a pregnant woman's blood can help physicians gauge her risk of developing gestational diabetes during the first trimester, according to a recent study accepted for publication in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Nordic diet lowers cholesterol, study finds
A healthy Nordic diet lowers cholesterol levels, and therefore the risk of cardiovascular disease, a pan-Nordic study where Lund University participated has found.

First detailed clinical study of novel coronavirus cases in France suggests that incubation period may be longer than previously thought
A detailed clinical description of two cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus in France, published online in the Lancet today, suggests that the incubation period for the virus may be longer than previously thought, and longer quarantine periods may be required to rule out infection among patient contacts.

Study finds that radiation oncology research is critically underfunded by NIH
Radiation oncology research received 197 grants, totaling only 1.6 percent ($85.5 million) of the $5.4 billion in cancer research funding from the National Institutes of Health in Fiscal Year 2013, according to a study available online and in the June 1, 2013, print issue of the International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (Red Journal), the official scientific journal of the American Society for Radiation Oncology.

Wildfires in Siberia
The snow is mostly gone in Siberia which means that the time is ripe for wildfires.

Thermal limit for animal life redefined by first lab study of deep-sea vent worms
Forty-two may or may not be the answer to everything, but it likely defines the temperature limit where animal life thrives, according to the first laboratory study of heat-loving Pompeii worms from deep-sea vents, published May 29 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Bruce Shillito and colleagues from the University Pierre and Marie Curie, France.

Organic polymers show sunny potential
A new version of solar cells created by laboratories at Rice and Pennsylvania State universities could open the door to research on a new class of solar energy devices.

Science news from Harvard Stem Cell Institute
May brought a major advancement in the science of aging when two Harvard Stem Cell Institute researchers announced their discovery of a protein circulating in the blood of mice and humans that shows potential to be a treatment for age-related heart failure.

NASA IRIS: Improving our view of the sun
In late June 2013, NASA will launch a new set of eyes to offer the most detailed look ever of the sun's lower atmosphere, called the interface region.

Genetic engineering alters mosquitoes' sense of smell
In one of the first successful attempts at genetically engineering mosquitoes, Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers have altered the way the insects respond to odors, including the smell of humans and the insect repellant DEET.

Brain haemorrhage patients offered better treatment
An international trial has provided surgeons with a formula which predicts when brain haemorrhage patients need surgery for the best outcome.

EORTC study identifies patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma that benefit from adjuvant PCV
A further report on the results of EORTC trial 26951 indicates that CpG island methylator phenotype status and O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation as assessed by MGMT-STP27 are the most informative for identifying grade III glioma patients who might benefit from the addition of procarbazine, CCNU and vincristine chemotherapy to radiation therapy.

Even short bouts of high intensity training improve fitness in inactive men
Many people think that getting in shape and staying there requires hard work and hours upon hours of training.

Meditation, stretching ease PTSD symptoms in nurses
Practicing a form of meditation and stretching can help relieve symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and normalize stress hormone levels, according to a recent study accepted for publication in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

From trauma to tau
In experiments with laboratory rats, scientists have found that traumatic brain injuries generate a toxic form of protein thought to cause damage in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative conditions.

Scientists find chemical that causes 'kidney' failure in mosquitoes
An Ohio State University researcher and his collaborators have discovered a chemical that causes

Health reform shields young adults from emergency medical costs, study finds
A new federal law allowing young adults to remain on their parents' medical insurance until age 25 has shielded them, their families and hospitals from the full financial consequences of serious medical emergencies, according to a new RAND Corporation study.

Thyroid conditions raise risk of pregnancy complications
Pregnant women who have thyroid disorders face greater risk of preterm birth and other complications that have short- and long-term consequences for the health of mother and child, according to a recent study accepted for publication in he Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Stanford scientists develop high-efficiency zinc-air battery
Stanford University scientists have developed an advanced zinc-air battery with higher catalytic activity and durability than similar batteries made with costly platinum and iridium catalysts.

Want to move up at work? Be a true believer
New research is tweaking an old adage about how to get ahead in a competitive workplace: It's not just who you know, but what you believe in.

Team finds gene that helps honey bees find flowers (and get back home)
Honey bees don't start out knowing how to find flowers or even how to get around outside the hive.

NASA's HS3 mission aircraft to double team 2013 hurricane season
During this year's hurricane season NASA will

Re-creating the original colors of treasured ivory carvings from the ancient past
The fabled ivory carvings from the ancient Phoenician city of Arslan Tash -- literally meaning

Results of the 'Global Research Council' in Berlin announced
Heads of 70 research funding organizations from around the world met on May 27-29, 2013, in Berlin.

Walking or bicycling to work influenced by others
People who walk or bike to work are likely to influence their co-workers and partners to do the same, according to health researchers.

Nanomedicines' impact on patients under the microscope
A pioneering imaging technique to track the effects of next-generation nanomedicines on patients has been harnessed by a University of Strathclyde academic.

Artificial sweeteners may do more than sweeten
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that a popular artificial sweetener can modify how the body handles sugar.

Gene therapies for regenerative surgery are getting closer, says review in PRS
Experimental genetic techniques may one day provide plastic and reconstructive surgeons with an invaluable tool -- the ability to promote growth of the patient's own tissues for reconstructive surgery.

A new addition to the Hall of Fame of science venues
A building that helped launch generations of scientists, including Nobel laureates, on their careers of discovery has joined the Hall of Fame of notable venues, being named a National Historic Chemical Landmark by the American Chemical Society (ACS).

Immigration status affects educational achievement
Mexican American mothers' formal immigration status affects the educational achievement of their children and even their grandchildren, according to a study written by Penn State and University of California, Irvine, sociologists and released by the US2010 Project at Brown University.

Charred micro-bunny sculpture shows promise of new material for 3-D shaping
Researchers in Japan used state-of-the-art micro-sculpting techniques on a new type of resin that can be molded into complex, highly conductive 3-D structures (in this case the famous

Flexible opals
A synthetic material which mimics the brightest and most vivid colours in nature, and changes colour when twisted or stretched, has been developed by researchers at the University of Cambridge, and could have important applications in the security, textile and sensing industries.

The value of randomized clinical trials in radiation oncology clinical practice
Are there enough clinical trials data to guide every radiation oncology decision in a cancer patient's care?

FuturaGene enters agreement with Danforth Center
FuturaGene, a world leader in the enhancement of yield and sustainability of woody crops for plantation forestry, biopower and biofuel markets, has entered into an agreement with the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, world's largest independent nonprofit research institute focused on plant science, which will see FuturaGene's plant yield-enhancing technology tested on staple crops grown by farmers in Asia, Africa and Brazil.

Physicians insufficiently informed of the side effects of drugs
An international study involving 255 physicians practicing in Vancouver, Montreal, Sacramento and Toulouse found that physicians are not given enough information about the adverse effects of drugs during presentations made by medical sales representatives from pharmaceutical companies.

Is YouTube an effective research tool?
YouTube has more than 10 million unique users a month who are younger than 18 years of age, making it an ideal online environment in which to study the impact of various media content and peer feedback on adolescents.

A new kind of cosmic glitch
The physics behind some of the most extraordinary stellar objects in the Universe just became even more puzzling.

New chemical approach to treat Alzheimer's
Scientists at the University of Liverpool and Callaghan Innovation in New Zealand have developed a new chemical approach to help harness the natural ability of complex sugars to treat Alzheimer's disease.

Californians with 'medical home' more likely to get flu shots, preventive treatment
A new study from the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research finds that Californians who jump from provider to provider rather than seeing a regular doctor who coordinates their care may be less likely to get the kind of preventive treatment that protects against the flu and flare ups in their chronic conditions.

Higher-dose RT results in inferior survival in patients with stage III lung cancer
In a randomized phase III clinical trial conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, high-dose, compared with standard-dose, radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy did not improve overall survival of patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer.

The German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina makes recommendations for the G8 summit
In partnership with 13 other national science academies the Leopoldina has elaborated two statements which will be handed to the governments participating in the upcoming G8 summit in Lough Erne.

NASA, researchers use weightlessness of space to design better materials for Earth
Researchers from Northeastern University are among the many scientists helping NASA use the weightlessness of space to design stronger materials here on Earth.

Coupled particles cross energy wall
For the first time, a new kind of so-called Klein tunnelling--representing the quantum equivalent of crossing an energy wall--has been presented in a model of two interacting particles.

More at-risk bird species in Brazilian forest than previously thought
In a study published today in the journal PLOS ONE, a team of researchers led by NJIT associate professor Gareth Russell has applied a novel method for linking large-scale habitat fragmentation to population sustainability.

New possibilities for prostate cancer treatment revealed
Researchers have identified a sub-group of cells that could contribute to prostate cancer recurrence, opening up new ways to treat the disease, which claims more than 3,000 lives a year in Australia.

Brain activity in sleep may impact emotional disturbances in children with ADHD
Sleep consolidates emotional memories in healthy children but not in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to research published May 29 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by TK and colleagues from TK.

NASA's HS3 mission may target Cape Verde Island hurricanes in 2013
The Cape Verde Islands off the coast of western Africa are well-known to hurricane scientists because that's a region where a number of tropical cyclones form during the Atlantic hurricane season.

Anorexic individuals' disturbed body image influences unconscious movements
Individuals suffering from anorexia nervosa perceive their bodies as being larger than they are and this disturbed body representation affects their movements, according to research published May 29 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Anouk Keizer and colleagues from Utrecht University in the Netherlands.

Study looks at sports-related facial fractures in kids, reports Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Facial fractures are relatively common, and potentially serious, sports-related injuries among children participating in a wide range of sports, according to a study in the June issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, the official medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.

British government to spread US program that supports caregivers
Schwartz Center Rounds, a program that helps health-care providers process the difficult emotional and social issues they face in caring for patients and families, has become a central part of England's strategy to create a more compassionate health-care system.

Researchers shed new light on egg freezing success rates
Researchers from New York Medical College and the University of California, Davis, have for the first time codified age-specific probabilities of live birth after in vitro fertilization (IVF) with frozen eggs.

Human scabs serve as inspiration for new bandage to speed healing
Human scabs have become the model for development of an advanced wound dressing material that shows promise for speeding the healing process, scientists are reporting.

Arctic current flowed under deep freeze of last ice age, study says
During the last ice age, when thick ice covered the Arctic, many scientists assumed that the deep currents below that feed the North Atlantic Ocean and help drive global ocean currents slowed or even stopped.

Professor emeritus George Stegeman receives an honorary degree
INRS University awarded an honorary doctorate to professor emeritus George Stegeman of the University of Central Florida at its convocation, which took place in Montreal on May 25, 2013.

Study shows longer treatment for children with langerhans cell hystiocytosis improves survival rates
A new international study finds that prolonged, intense initial treatment in children with multi-system Langerhans cell histiocytosis can achieve survival rates as high as 84 percent -- a full 15 percent improvement over the previous clinical trial in this series.

Cholesterol sets off chaotic blood vessel growth
A study at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine identified a protein that is responsible for regulating blood vessel growth by mediating the efficient removal of cholesterol from the cells.

Researchers help threatened wheat crops in Asia, Africa
Researchers at Oregon State University have helped develop new environmental monitoring technology that will allow farmers thousands of miles away, in west and central Asia, to save millions of dollars while more effectively combating a pest that is threatening their wheat crops.

PharmedOut conference to address responsibilities of physicians, industry and journals
PharmedOut announces its fourth annual conference,

Adult stem cells could hold key to curing Type 1 diabetes
Millions of people with Type 1 diabetes depend on daily insulin injections to survive.

Low sodium diet key to old age for stars
Astronomers expect that stars like the Sun will blow off much of their atmospheres into space near the ends of their lives.

Weight of tissue flaps affects complication risk after breast reconstruction
For women undergoing breast reconstruction after mastectomy, the weight of the tissue flap used affects the risk of an important complication called fat necrosis, reports a study in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery -- Global Open, the official open-access medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.

Despite safety and other concerns, nuclear power saves lives, greenhouse gas emissions
Global use of nuclear power has prevented about 1.84 million air pollution-related deaths and release of 64 billion tons of greenhouse gases that would have resulted from burning coal and other fossil fuels, a new study concludes.

Temporary blood clot filters may do more harm than good for bariatric surgery patients
The temporary placement of umbrella-like, metal mesh filters in abdominal veins to stop potentially lethal blood clots from traveling to the lungs during and after weight loss surgery may actually increase the risk of death in morbidly obese patients, according to new Johns Hopkins research.

Living in poor area as teen could increase risk for chlamydia in young adulthood
Living in a poor neighborhood as an adolescent is linked to an increased risk of getting the sexually transmitted infection chlamydia in young adulthood, according to new research.

Mexican-American mothers' immigration status affects children, grandchildren
Mexican-American mothers' formal immigration status influences the educational achievement of their children and even their grandchildren, according to a new study led by a UC Irvine sociologist.

UCSB music professor's book examines composer Charles Ives and the shifting American identity
With growing immigrant populations, industrialization, and colonial ventures changing the country, America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was bustling and chaotic.

Pigeons peck for computerized treat
New research by University of Iowa psychologists show pigeons can make informed choices, and use a computerized touch-screen as well.

Change, conflict cue memories of life's milestones: Study
What will your kids remember about the life stories you tell them?

Meta-analysis confirms common painkillers increase risk of heart problems and death but suggests size of these risks can be predicted
New research published Online First in The Lancet, shows that higher-dose use of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increases major vascular events (non-fatal heart attacks, strokes, and death) by around a third, mainly by increasing the risk of heart attacks.

Putting the brakes on distracted driving
If you're still using your mobile phone behind the wheel, University of Alberta sociology researcher Abu Nurullah likely has your number.

Small dams on Chinese river harm environment more than expected, study finds
A fresh look at the environmental impacts of dams on an ecologically diverse and partially protected river in China found that small dams can pose a greater threat to ecosystems and natural landscape than large dams.

Super-dense star is first ever found suddenly slowing its spin
One of the densest objects in the universe, a neutron star about 10,000 light years from Earth, has been discovered suddenly putting the brakes on its spinning speed.

New Mayo Clinic approach could lead to blood test to diagnose Alzheimer's in earliest stage
Blood offers promise as a way to detect Alzheimer's disease at its earliest onset, Mayo Clinic researchers say.

Travelers play valuable role assisting crew in common medical emergencies on flights
Medical emergencies during commercial airline travel can be a frightening experience, but most situations are well-treated by other passengers and flight attendants, in collaboration with consulting physicians on the ground.

Queen's University receives Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation grants
Queen's University Belfast has been announced as a Grand Challenges Explorations winner, an initiative founded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Father and son to present their respective cancer research at ASCO
What started as a dinner-table conversation between a teen and his father has become a bona fide cancer research study for Matthew Lara, a Davis High School sophomore and the son of UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center medical oncologist and researcher Primo (Lucky) Lara Jr.

Carnegie Mellon neuroscientists discover new phase of synaptic development
Students preparing for final exams might want to wait before pulling an all-night cram session -- at least as far as their neurons are concerned.

Gene therapy gives mice broad protection to pandemic flu strains, including 1918 flu
Researchers have developed a new gene therapy to thwart a potential influenza pandemic.

Apes get emotional over games of chance
Like some humans, chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to outcomes of their decisions by pouting or throwing angry tantrums when a risk-taking strategy fails to pay off, according to research published May 29 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Alexandra Rosati from Yale University and Brian Hare from Duke University.

Professor collaborates on most comprehensive analyses of NSAIDs and coxibs
Under the direction of the CTS at the University of Oxford, a researcher at FAU collaborated on a worldwide meta-analysis using individual participant data from 280 trials of NSAIDs vs. placebo and 474 trials of NSAID vs. another NSAID, which involved a total of 353,809 participants and a total of 233,798 person-years.

Forest and soil carbon is important but does not offset fossil fuel emissions
Leading world climate change experts have thrown cold water on the idea that planting trees can offset carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels.

Improving 'crop per drop' could boost global food security and water sustainability
Improvements in crop water productivity -- the amount of food produced per unit of water consumed -- have the potential to improve both food security and water sustainability in many parts of the world, according to a study published online in Environmental Research Letters May 29 by scientists with the University of Minnesota's Institute on the Environment and the Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation at the University of Bonn, Germany.

Philadelphia conference will showcase untapped potential in the aging marketplace
Healthy Aging Means Business is a new consultative conference that will examine market opportunities across aging trends, health and longevity, and money and finances.

The University of Huddersfield produces the first book on child sexual abuse in the Caribbean
Professor Adele Jones has written several chapters, and acted as overall Editor for the first academic book to be published on the issue of child sexual abuse in the Caribbean.

'Junk DNA' plays active role in cancer progression, researchers find
Scientists at The University of Nottingham have found that a genetic rogue element produced by sequences until recently considered 'junk DNA' could promote cancer progression.

Childhood abuse linked with food addiction in adult women
Women who experienced severe physical or sexual abuse during childhood are much more likely to have a food addiction as adults than women who did not experience such abuse, according to a new study published in the journal Obesity.

Radiotherapy remains the treatment of first choice for high-risk low-grade glioma
In a large, international, randomized trial, initial radiotherapy was compared to temozolomide chemotherapy.

New research finds hernia surgery offers value for money
New research suggesting that elective hernia surgery offers value-for-money and improved quality of life for patients has been published by the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.

EORTC led intergroup trial investigates Imatinib failure-free survival in patients with GIST
These are the interim results of an EORTC intergroup trial have confirmed that adjuvant imatinib impacts short-term freedom from relapse in patients with localized, surgically resected, high/ intermediate-risk GIST.

People can 'beat' guilt detection tests by suppressing incriminating memories
New research published by an international team of psychologists has shown that people can suppress incriminating memories and thereby avoid detection in brain activity guilt detection tests.
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.