Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

August 05, 2013
New insight on vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination
Key factors have been identified that help determine the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination.

Breastfeeding may reduce Alzheimer's risk
Mothers who breastfeed their children may have a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's Disease, with longer periods of breastfeeding also lowering the overall risk, a new study suggests.

Odd Martian crater type made by impacts into ancient ice
The surface of Mars it pocked by more than 600

Annals of Internal Medicine tip sheet for Aug. 6, 2013
Below is information about an article being published in the Aug.

Proteins hoist the anchor
Researchers have for the first time successfully reproduced the recycling process of proteins regulating cellular transport in a biophysical experiment.

Trial finds more support for universal HIV screening in emergency departments
Screening everyone for HIV in the emergency department may be superior to testing only those with apparent risk, when trying to identify patients with undiagnosed HIV infection, according to a new results by researchers at the University of Cincinnati and published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.

Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease do not appear to share common genetic risk
A study by Valentina Moskvina, Ph.D., of the Cardiff University School of Medicine, Wales, United Kingdom, and colleagues, examined the genetic overlap between Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease.

New initiative could help improve surgical outcomes in children, study suggests
A group of pediatric surgeons at hospitals around the country have designed a system to collect and analyze data on surgical outcomes in children -- the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program is the first national database able to reliably compare outcomes among different hospitals where children's surgery is performed.

Smoke-free casinos reduce medical emergencies
Commercial casinos throughout the country are often exempt from smoke-free workplace laws.

Seeing depth through a single lens
Researchers at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have developed a way for photographers and microscopists to create a 3D image through a single lens -- i.e. a regular camera or microscope -- without moving the camera.

Fred Hutch awarded $4.4 million from NCI for pioneering immunogenic cancer research
Scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have received $4.4 million over four years from the National Cancer Institute to pioneer an ambitious new way to harness the power of the adaptive immune system to control cancer.

New therapy strategy could help treat cancer that has spread from breast to brain
Researchers at UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have successfully combined cellular therapy and gene therapy in a mouse model system to develop a viable treatment strategy for breast cancer that has spread to the patient's brain.

Celiac disease patients with ongoing intestine damage at lymphoma risk
Celiac disease patients with ongoing intestine damage have a greater than two-fold increased risk of lymphoma compared with those whose intestines healed.

Young vs. old: Who performs more consistently?
Older adults tend to exhibit less variability on cognitive tasks due to higher motivation, a balanced routine, and mood stability, according to new research published in Psychological Science.

Improving teamwork in operating room can boost patient safety
Improving communication and strengthening teamwork among cardiac surgery teams are among recommendations for reducing preventable mistakes in the cardiac operating room, according to a new scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

Astronomers image lowest-mass exoplanet around a sun-like star
Using infrared data from the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, an international team of astronomers has imaged a giant planet around the bright star GJ 504.

Looking to the past to predict the future of climate change
Climate changes how species interact with one another -- and not just today.

NASA eyes 2 Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones: 1 up, 1 down
Tropical Depression Gil has been weakening for a couple of days, while Tropical Storm Henriette appears to be strengthening in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

How a cancer drug unties knots in the chromosome that causes Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes
UC Davis researchers have identified how and where in the genome a cancer chemotherapy agent acts on and

Understanding interface properties of graphene paves way for new applications
Researchers from North Carolina State University and the University of Texas have revealed more about graphene's mechanical properties and demonstrated a technique to improve the stretchability of graphene -- developments that should help engineers and designers come up with new technologies that make use of the material.

Researchers re-evaluate swine nutrition
Animal scientists are looking for new ways to improve swine health.

Breastfeeding may protect against persistent stuttering
A study of 47 children who began stuttering at an early age found that those who were breastfed in infancy were more likely to recover from stuttering and return to fluent speech.

Disappearance of coral reefs, drastically altered marine food web on the horizon
If history's closest analog is any indication, the look of the oceans will change drastically in the future as the coming greenhouse world alters marine food webs and gives certain species advantages over others.

Making a mini Mona Lisa
Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have

Ozone-protection treaty had climate benefits, too, study says
The global treaty that headed off destruction of earth's protective ozone layer has also prevented major disruption of global rainfall patterns, even though that was not a motivation for the treaty, according to a new study in the Journal of Climate.

Obese black Americans half as likely as whites to have bariatric surgery
White Americans who are obese are twice as likely as black Americans to have surgery to tackle the problem, a study has found.

NASA's Firestation on way to the International Space Station
An experiment to study the effects of lightning flashes on Earth's atmosphere hitched a ride to the International Space Station on Aug.

Great Recession onset spurs harsh parenting, researchers find
The onset of the Great Recession and, more generally, deteriorating economic conditions lead mothers to engage in harsh parenting, such as hitting or shouting at children, a team of researchers has found.

Not only bone density, but also quality of bone predicts fracture risk
In a study carried out at the University of Eastern Finland, bone histomorphometry and infrared spectroscopy revealed abnormal bone properties in children with vertebral fractures and in children after solid organ transplantation.

Tumor cell vaccination trial to promote anti-leukemia responses
In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Catherine Wu and colleagues at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute in Boston report the results of a clinical trial that tested the effectiveness of vaccination with a CLL patient's own leukemia cells in the development of anti-tumor responses and relapse reduction.

Ultraviolet flashes can create vitamin D-enriched mushrooms
Quick zaps of ultraviolet light can boost the vitamin D levels in mushrooms in seconds, turning the fungi into an even healthier food, according to Penn State food scientists.

Putting the brakes on pain
In a mouse model of neuropathic pain, researchers used antioxidants to preserve GABA neurons post-injury.

Team finds gene mutation that increases risk of schizophrenia, learning impairment
A collaborative team of researchers, including scientists from UCLA, has uncovered evidence for a genetic alteration that appears to contribute to disorders of brain development, including schizophrenia.

The doctor will email you now
Patients like it and so do health organizations, but electronic communications in clinical care will likely not be widely adopted by primary care physicians unless patient workloads are reduced or they are paid for the time they spend phoning and emailing patients, both during and after office hours.

Eating a big breakfast fights obesity and disease
Professor Daniela Jakubowicz of Tel Aviv University has found that people who eat their largest daily meal at breakfast are far more likely to lose weight and waist line circumference than those who eat a large dinner.

As data flow, scientists advocate for quality control
In a review published recently in the journal Bioscience, research ecologists John Campbell and Lindsey Rustad of the US Forest Service's Northern Research Station and colleagues make a case for incorporating automated quality control and quality assurance procedures in sensor networks.

Mindfulness meditation IBMT trims craving for tobacco
Addiction to smoking and other substances involves a particular set of brain areas related to self-control, according to numerous research.

Mayo Clinic researchers decode origin of inflammation-driven pancreatic cancer
Researchers at Mayo Clinic in Florida have revealed the process by which chronic inflammation of the pancreas, pancreatitis, morphs into pancreatic cancer.

Questions answered with the pupils of your eyes
Patients who are otherwise completely unable to communicate can answer yes or no questions within seconds with the help of a simple system -- consisting of just a laptop and camera -- that measures nothing but the size of their pupils.

Salk scientists add new bond to protein engineering toolbox
Proteins are the workhorses of cells, adopting conformations that allow them to set off chemical reactions, send signals and transport materials.

Depressed fish could help in the search for new drug treatments
Antidepressant normalizes the behavior of zebrafish with a defective stress hormone receptor.

Consumer satisfaction an indicator of quality of care in nursing homes
Consumer satisfaction surveys of nursing home residents and their families track closely with other quality of care measures.

Effect of mailed outreach invitations to underserved patients for colorectal cancer screening
Among underserved patients whose colorectal cancer (CRC) screening was not up to date, mailed outreach invitations appear to result in higher CRC screening compared with usual care, according to a study by Samir Gupta, M.D., M.S.C.S., of the Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, and the University of California, San Diego, and colleagues.

ORNL research reveals new challenges for mercury cleanup
More forms of mercury can be converted to deadly methylmercury than previously thought, according to a study published Sunday in Nature Geoscience.

Carbon emissions to impact climate beyond the day after tomorrow
Future warming from fossil fuel burning could be more intense and longer-lasting than previously thought.

Study highlights need for more social responsibility by online gaming industry
Online game companies need to be more socially responsible for over-addictive use of their products to avoid government intervention, according to a new study by Cardiff, Derby and Nottingham Trent universities.

Necrostatin-1 counteracts aluminum's neurotoxic effects
Investigators have linked aluminum accumulation in the brain as a possible contributing factor to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

Noninvasive test optimizes colon cancer screening rates, UTSW study finds
A study of nearly 6,000 North Texas patients suggests sweeping changes be made to the standard of care strategy for colorectal screenings, finding that participation rates soared depending on the screening method offered and how patient outreach was done.

ASU-Mayo research project targets carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis
With a grant from the Mayo Clinic Center for Regenerative Medicine, an Arizona State University neurophysiologist and professor of biomedical engineering will collaborate with a Mayo Clinic Arizona neurologist to improve measurement of patients' recovery of sensorimotor function after carpal tunnel release surgery.

The molecule 'scanner'
Molecules could soon be

Scientists learn how soy foods protect against colon cancer
University of Illinois scientists have evidence that lifelong exposure to genistein, a bioactive component in soy foods, protects against colon cancer by repressing a signal that leads to accelerated growth of cells, polyps, and eventually malignant tumors.

Non-invasive test optimizes colon cancer screening rates
Organized mailing campaigns could substantially increase colorectal cancer screening among uninsured patients, a study published in the August 5 online edition of JAMA Internal Medicine reveals.

Antihypertensives linked with increased breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women
Older women who take certain types of high blood pressure drugs may be putting themselves at greater risk for developing breast cancer, according to a new study by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center's Christopher Li, M.D., Ph.D.

More intestinal cells than thought can absorb larger particles
A new study reports that the small intestine uses more cells than scientists had realized to absorb microspheres large enough to contain therapeutic protein drugs, such as insulin.

Working-life training and maternity spells are related to slower cognitive decline in later life
Employment gaps may promote but also reduce cognitive function in older age, as new research from the University of Luxembourg has shown.

Abused children found to smoke more as teens and adults
Researchers have long suspected some kind of link between childhood abuse and smoking.

Escape from poverty helps explain diabetes epidemic in the American South
The strikingly high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the American South can be partially traced to rapid economic growth between 1950 and 1980, new research suggests.

Heterogeneous nanoblocks give polymers an edge
Building structures by mixing Lego bricks of two different sizes is child's play.

USGS science at the Ecological Society of America
About 4,000 people are expected to attend the annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America in Minneapolis from Aug.

Percentage of cancers linked to viruses potentially overestimated
The results of a large-scale analysis of the association between DNA viruses and human malignancies suggest that many of the most common cancers are not associated with DNA viruses.

A real-time system that provides detection and identification of epilepsy
The automatic detection and identification of electroencephalogram waves play an important role in the prediction, diagnosis and treatment of epileptic seizures.

Feelings for fetus may vary smoking amount
In a small new study in the Maternal and Child Health Journal, researchers report that pregnant smokers who felt less emotional attachment to their fetuses may have smoked more than women with greater feelings of attachment.

Tom Bowman's Climate Report delves into Arctic methane controversy
Tom Bowman, climate science communications expert and host of the Climate Report with Tom Bowman, interviews economist Chris Hope and oceanographer Peter Wadhams, two of the three authors of an article in the journal Nature that has stirred scientific controversy.

Chronic harvesting threatens tropical tree
Chronic harvesting of a tropical tree that many local communities in Western Africa depend on can alter the tree's reproduction and drastically curtail fruit and seed yields over the tree's lifetime, according to a new study.

'Insect soup' holds DNA key for monitoring biodiversity
Scientists at the University of East Anglia have shown that sequencing the DNA of crushed up creepy crawlies can accelerate the monitoring and cataloging of biodiversity around the world.

Tumors elude anti-cancer drugs through 'fork reversal' repair, SLU scientists discover
Researchers hope to combine new RECQ1 inhibitors with existing drugs to create more effective therapies with fewer toxic side effects.

Conservation efforts might encourage some to hunt lions, CU-Boulder-led study finds
Some East African Maasai pastoralists may be hunting lions as a form of political protest, according to a new University of Colorado Boulder study.

Seafood menus from Hawaii reflect long-term ocean changes
The colorful restaurant menus that thousands of tourists bring home as souvenirs from Hawaii hold more than happy memories of island vacations.

Reliable communication, unreliable networks
A new model of wireless networks that better represents the real world could lead to more robust communications protocols.

LA BioMed researchers find maternal smoking linked to asthma in the third generation
A study finds for the first time that the third generation's asthma may be linked to maternal smoking.

Is decimeter wave therapy a better choice for sciatic nerve regeneration?
Feng Zhao and colleagues from Hebei Medical University investigated the effects of intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter waves on sciatic nerve regeneration in a Mackinnon's model of rat sciatic nerve compression.

Long-term calcium-channel blocker use for hypertension associated with higher breast cancer risk
Long-term use of a calcium-channel blocker to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) is associated with higher breast cancer risk, according to a report published by JAMA Internal Medicine, a JAMA Network publication.

Shadows and light: Dartmouth researchers develop new software to detect forged photos
Dartmouth and UC Berkeley researchers have developed new software to detect faked photos, using a geometric algorithm to locate inconsistent shadows that are not obvious to the naked eye.

A moving experience: New navy transportation tool takes off
In a significant advance for military transportation, a new web-based tool sponsored by the Office of Naval Research brings an Expedia-like search capability to Navy planners looking to move personnel or equipment around the world quickly and affordably.

Study: Centers throughout the brain work together to make reading possible
A combination of brain scans and reading tests has revealed that several regions in the brain are responsible for allowing humans to read.

Cilostazo: A new treatment against cognitive dysfunction in chronic cerebral ischemia
Professor Zhongxin Xu and team from China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Jilin University clarified that the hypoxia-inducible factor-1/heme oxygenase-1 signaling pathway is activated following chronic cerebral ischemia and involved in the development of cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral ischemia.

Immune system molecule promotes tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy
A team of scientists, led by Napoleone Ferrara, M.D., has shown for the first time that a signaling protein involved in inflammation also promotes tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy.

KAIST's wireless Online Electric Vehicle, OLEV, runs inner city roads
The Online Electric Vehicle (OLEV), developed by KAIST, is an electric vehicle that can be charged while stationary or driving, thus removing the need to stop at a charging station.

Scripps Florida scientists devise new way to dramatically raise RNA treatment potency
Scientists from the Jupiter campus of the Scripps Research Institute have shown a novel way to dramatically raise the potency of drug candidates targeting RNA, resulting in a 2,500-fold improvement in potency and significantly increasing their potential as therapeutic agents.

Study reveals genes that drive brain cancer
A team of researchers at the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center at Columbia University Medical Center researchers has identified 18 new genes responsible for driving glioblastoma multiforme, the most common -- and most aggressive -- form of brain cancer in adults.

Researchers get close-up view of water pores needed in the eye's lens
Researchers have achieved dynamic, atomic-scale views of a protein needed to maintain the transparency of the lens in the human eye.

No-smoking law in Colorado casinos led to fewer ambulance calls
When smoking was banned from casinos in Colorado, ambulance calls to casinos in Gilpin County dropped about 20 percent, according to research reported in the American Heart Association journal Circulation.

An infallible quantum measurement
For quantum physicists, entangling quantum systems is one of their every day tools.

NYU Langone researchers offer new model, helping clinicians prioritize recommended preventive
With physicians facing increasing demands on their time, it can be extremely difficult to prioritize which preventive care methods should be used for their patients.

3D IR Images Now3D IR images now in full color in Full Color
Berkeley Lab and University of Wisconsin researchers have created the first technique to offer full color IR tomography, a non-destructive 3D imaging process that provides molecular-level chemical information of unprecedented detail on biological and other specimens with no need to stain or alter the specimen.

Stem cells found in gum tissue can fight inflammatory disease
Stem cells found in mouth tissue can not only become other types of cells but can also relieve inflammatory disease, according to a new Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC study in the Journal of Dental Research.

Discovery could lead to end of sunburn pain
The painful, red skin that comes from too much time in the sun is caused by a molecule abundant in the skin's epidermis, a new study shows.
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