Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 25, 2013
Nanoscale engineering boosts performance of quantum dot light emitting diodes
Dramatic advances in the field of quantum dot light emitting diodes could come from recent work by the Nanotechnology and Advanced Spectroscopy team at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

New low-cost, nondestructive technology cuts risk from mercury hot spots
Hot spots of mercury pollution in aquatic sediments and soils can contaminate local food webs and threaten ecosystems, but cleaning them up can be expensive and destructive.

Loss and damage from climate change
An open access special issue of the International Journal of Global Warming brings together, for the first time, empirical evidence of loss and damage from the perspective of affected people in nine vulnerable countries.

Understanding DNA damage
Every day, all day, our DNA gets beaten up by chemicals and radiation -- but remarkably, most of us stay healthy.

Baylor, DNAnexus, Amazon Web Services collaboration enables largest-ever cloud-based analysis of genomic data
With their participation in the completion of the largest cloud-based analysis of genome sequence data, researchers from the Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center are helping to usher genomic scientists and clinicians around the world into a new era of high-level data analysis.

Synthetic vitamin D receptor ligands reduce murine kidney fibrosis
In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Junn Yanagisawa and colleagues at the University of Tsukuba found that vitamin D binding to its receptor inhibited the TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway and prevented renal fibrosis in mice.

Reduction of reactive oxygen species in diabetes-associated nephrology
In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Kumar Sharma and colleagues at the University of California, San Diego determined that ROS production was actually reduced in kidneys of diabetic mice, and this decrease was associated with lowered activity of the major energy-sensing enzyme, AMPK.

Mexico does not love Raymond, NASA sees weaker storm
South-central Mexico was inundated with heavy rains from Hurricane Raymond during the week of Oct.

Measuring blood sugar with light
One key to healthful living with diabetes is monitoring sugar levels to ensure they remain stable.

National Robotics Initiative grant to create smarter surgical robots
Providing surgical robots with a new kind of machine intelligence that significantly extends their capabilities and makes them much easier and more intuitive for surgeons to operate is the goal of a major new grant announced as part of the National Robotics Initiative.

Next-gen sequencing identifies genes associated with speech disorder
A collaborative team of researchers has used next generation sequencing to identify clinically relevant genetic variants associated with a rare pediatric speech disorder.

Ionizing radiation exposure promotes fusion oncogene formation
In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, James Fagin and colleagues at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute, examined tissues from Ukrainian PTC patients that were children at the time of the Chernobly catastrophe and identified their cancer-driving mutations.

ASU, Georgia Tech create breakthrough for solar cell efficiency
The ASU and Georgia Tech team's elimination of these two seemingly insurmountable defects (non-uniform composition and mismatched lattice alignment) ultimately means that LEDs and solar photovoltaic products can now be developed that have much higher, efficient performance.

Lou Gehrig's disease: From patient stem cells to potential treatment strategy in one study
A study, led by researchers at the Cedars-Sinai Regenerative Medicine Institute and published in Science Translational Medicine, is believed to be one of the first in which a specific form of Lou Gehrig's disease, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, was replicated in a dish, analyzed and

BUSM researchers identify molecule that could aid lung cancer detection, treatment
Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine have discovered a molecule that could help lead to the non-invasive detection of lung cancer as well as its treatment.

Cold front coming to swallow remnants of Tropical Storm Lorenzo
Satellite imagery on Oct. 25 showed a cold front approaching the remnants of Tropical Storm Lorenzo in the central Atlantic Ocean.

NASA sees Typhoon Lekima stretching out and closing its eye
NASA's TRMM satellite observed Typhoon Lekima's shrinking eye on Oct.

No longer a man's race
Men might be faster, but women are stronger in numbers in the nation's largest 10-kilometer road running races, according to a Northwestern Medicine® study.

Expert panel issues recommendations for 'Dyspnea Crisis'
An American Thoracic Society panel of experts is calling for better care for thousands of Americans who suffer severe shortness of breath as a result of advanced lung and heart disease.

Hope of new treatment for severe asthma patients
New research from Japan brings hope of a new treatment for asthma patients resistant to corticosteroids.

New study shows positive personal growth following breast cancer diagnosis
Although being diagnosed with breast cancer is usually an extremely stressful experience for most women, a new study by researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center has found that there also can be unexpected benefits.

New study shows promise for first effective medicine to treat cocaine dependence
New research published in JAMA Psychiatry reveals that topiramate, a drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat epilepsy and migraine headaches, also could be the first reliable medication to help treat cocaine dependence.

New research on innovative ways to prevent, treat childhood obesity presented at AAP conference
A special session at the 2013 American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference & Exhibition in Orlando will highlight innovative, successful ways pediatricians are working to prevent and treat childhood obesity.

Social service barriers delay care among women with abnormal cancer screening
A recent study performed by researchers at Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University School of Public Health, and Tufts Medical Center found that women with multiple barriers to healthcare, especially those with social barriers such as problems with housing and income, experienced delays in cancer screening follow up compared to those with fewer barriers or no social barriers.

Salvianolate for treatment of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries
Salvianolic acid B, also called salvia magnesium acetate, is a phenolic acid compound composed of three Danshensu units and one molecule of caffeic acid.

Green algae move to the beat
Max Planck researchers in Dresden explain the flagellar synchronization of swimming algae.

Researchers track lethal prostate cancer to determine clonal origin
In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University track the development of lethal prostate cancer in a patient.

Recognizing cancer diseases at an early stage
Researchers have developed a new spectroscopic method to support pathologists in diagnosing cancer.

Important step towards stem cell-based treatment for stroke
Brain infarction or stroke is caused by a blood clot blocking a blood vessel in the brain, which leads to interruption of blood flow and shortage of oxygen.

Oregon researchers say supplement cuts muscle loss in knee replacements
Twenty grams of essential amino acids taken twice daily for a week before and for two weeks after knee-replacement surgeries helped 16 patients, mean age 69, recover faster and with much less muscle atrophy than a control group ingesting a placebo.

Children with brain injuries nearly twice as likely to suffer from depression
In a study presented Oct. 25 at the American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference and Exhibition in Orlando, researchers found that compared to other children, 15 percent of those with brain injuries or concussions were diagnosed as depressed -- a 4.9 fold increase in the odds of diagnosed depression.

Why belief in the supernatural is only natural
From disguises to belief in magic, Halloween is rich with stories that share insight into human behavior.

Repeal SGR formula and replace sequestration cuts internists tell Budget Conference Committee
Internists today provided input to the recently appointed Congressional Budget Conference Committee members, providing them with specific recommendations to reform Medicare physician payments and replace the sequestration cuts with more responsible ways to reduce the deficit.

Johns Hopkins Medicine news tips from the 2013 American Society of Human Genetics conference
Tip sheet for the American Society of Human Genetics Conference at the Boston Convention and Exhibition Center on Oct.

DNA variants may influence COPD patients' response to inhaled bronchodilators
Identifying DNA variants associated with bronchodilator responsiveness may reveal genetic pathways associated with the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and may identify novel treatment methods, researchers said.

New spectrometry standard for handheld chemical detectors aids first responders
The recent publication of a new standard--a culmination of years of research at NIST--provides confidence that results from handheld chemical detectors can be compared, apples-to-apples.

NASA sees Tropical Storm Francisco becoming extra-tropical
Cold air, mid-latitude westerly winds and wind shear are taking a toll on Tropical Storm Francisco and transitioning the storm into a cold core low pressure area.

Angel or demon: Can a potentially invasive plant bring a positive influence to a region?
Could invasive species be beneficial for a region? Scientists have attempted to answer this question in Fiji by studying the influence of the invasive creeping daisy Sphagneticola trilobata on the feeding activity of a solitary bee.

The most widespread ant and its new relative: A revision of the genus Paratrechina
The long-horned crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis, is one of the world's worst invasive ant species.

Sleep apnea is associated with subclinical myocardial injury
Obstructive sleep apnea is known to be associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease.

Scientists develop new method to help global coasts adapt to sea-level rise
A team of scientists, led by the University of Southampton, has developed a new method to help the world's coasts adapt to global sea-level rises over the next 100 years.

Scientists' new approach improves efficiency of solar cells
An international team of scientists, led by researchers from the Universities of York and St Andrews, has developed a new method to increase the efficiency of solar cells.

GVSU students contribute to growing medical field
A group of four Grand Valley students and graduates, and Anthony Chang from VAI, presented three years worth of research at the World Molecular Imaging Congress, one of the largest meetings in the medical imaging field, Sept.

Saarbrücken physicists aim to make transition to quantum world visible
Theoretical physicist Frank Wilhelm-Mauch and his research team at Saarland University have developed a mathematical model for a type of microscopic test lab that could provide new and deeper insight into the world of quantum particles.

Cantilever sensory array: The Rosetta Stone for antibiotic resistance?
On Oct. 25, JoVE, the Journal of Visualized Experiments will publish a novel technique to confront the problem of antibiotic resistance.

Itch maintains regulatory T cell stability
In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Yun-Cai Liu and colleagues at the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch as a regulator of Tregs stability.

Call for World Bank to redefine poverty indicator to include the life of the unborn child
The World Bank must define life expectancy, its key poverty indicator, as starting at the time of conception and not at the time of birth if millions of lives are to be saved from injury or death.

Nano-dwarves turn tumor assassins
Chemotherapy is often preferred for fighting cancer, but its side effects can be considerable.

Peer pressure can influence food choices at restaurants
A University of Illinois study showed that when groups of people eat together at a restaurant at which they must state their food choice aloud, they tend to select items from the same menu categories.

'High-risk' organs from deceased donors safe when screened with current methods
After a median of 2.4 years of follow up, 86.5 percent of transplants of donor kidneys considered

What determines which sources within an episode are successfully remembered?
What determines which sources within an episode are successfully remembered?

Portable vision screening devices accurately identify vision problems in young children
Portable screening devices allow pediatricians to successfully screen children for vision problems, including amblyopia, according to an abstract presented Oct.

Genetic variants associated with bronchodilator responsiveness
A new study from Brigham and Women's Hospital reveals several new gene variants that are associated with how people living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease respond to inhaled bronchodilators.

Multiple, distinct Y chromosomes associated with significant excess risk of prostate cancer
Multiple, distinct Y chromosomes associated with significant excess prostate cancer risk, according to analysis of Utah's multi-generational families.

New microscopes at NIH reveal live, developing cells in unprecedented 3-D clarity
Researchers at NIH have developed two new microscopes, both the first of their kind.

Surprises discovered in decoded kiwifruit genome
A new study that decoded the DNA sequence of the kiwifruit has concluded that the fruit has many genetic similarities between its 39,040 genes and other plant species, including potatoes and tomatoes.

Young obese women could reduce their stroke risk
The global campaign to tackle stroke is highlighted today on World Stroke Day with the slogan

A cost-effective way toward personalized cancer drugs
Before a cancer patient embarks on a course of treatment, tests can be carried out to establish whether or not the chosen cytostatic agent combination is likely to be effective.

IUPUI physicist collaborates in new study of the cell's 'shredder'
Steve Pressé, Ph.D., assistant professor of physics in the School of Science at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, collaborates as the theorist of a new University of California-Berkeley study that provides novel insight into how proteins function in cells.

Reading ancient climate from plankton shells
Climate changes from millions of years ago are recorded at daily rate in ancient sea shells, new research shows.

How does ursolic acid induce neural regeneration after sciatic nerve injury?
How does ursolic acid induce neural regeneration after sciatic nerve injury?

An antibody fragment designed at the UAB ameliorates first hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease in mice
A mouse model of Alzheimer's disease has been treated successfully with an antibody fragment designed by Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona researchers.

Parents greatly underestimate how often their children are cyberbullied
Cyberbullying has become a destructive force in many children's lives.

Depressiona key link between intimate partner violence and food insecurity
Women who experience physical, mental or sexual abuse at the hands of their partners have an increased likelihood of being food insecure.

Optimizing the early years to ensure a lifetime of health
The Pediatrics for the 21st Century (Peds21) symposium,

Enzyme restores function with diabetic kidney disease
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine say that, while a prevailing theory suggests elevated cellular levels of glucose ultimately result in diabetic kidney disease, the truth may, in fact, be quite the opposite.

Proteins in one of the world's main biodiesel plants have been mapped -- and it does not look good
The castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) produces beans with a high content of fatty acids from which oil is refined into biodiesel in several countries, eg.

How bacteria with a sweet tooth may keep us healthy
Some gut bacterial strains are specifically adapted to use sugars in our gut lining to aid colonisation, potentially giving them a major influence over our gut health.
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