Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 31, 2013
Is global heating hiding out in the oceans?
In a reconstruction of Pacific Ocean temperatures in the last 10,000 years, researchers have found that its middle depths have warmed 15 times faster in the last 60 years than they did during apparent natural warming cycles in the previous 10,000.

Experimental drug shows encouraging results in treating most common form of lung cancer
MK-3475, an anti-PD1 immunotherapy drug with promising results in advanced trials in melanoma is also showing potential in lung cancer based on preliminary phase 1b data presented at the 15th World Conference on Lung Cancer in Sydney, Australia.

Public health policies and practices may negatively affect marginalized populations
Despite the best intentions of those working in public health, some policies and practices inadvertently further disadvantage marginalized populations, according to a commentary by a researcher at St.

Gene found to foster synapse formation in the brain
Researchers at Johns Hopkins say they have found that a gene already implicated in human speech disorders and epilepsy is also needed for vocalizations and synapse formation in mice.

UTSA researchers develop prototype football kicking simulator
In football, kicking is a fundamental and vital part of the game.

AGU Fall Meeting: Hotel reservation deadline -- Nov. 8
AGU 2013 Fall Meeting Media Advisory including hotel, journalism awards ceremony, Northern California Science Writers Association dinner and press registration information.

Gaming technology unravels 1 of the most complex entities in nature
BBSRC-funded researchers at the University of Manchester's Institute of Biotechnology have used the power of off-the-shelf computer gaming technology to capture previously unobservable atomic movements.

Knowing who their physician is boosts patient satisfaction
Knowing who your doctor is -- and a couple of facts about that person -- may go a long way toward improving patient satisfaction, according to a Vanderbilt study in the Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma.

Stem cell scarring aids recovery from spinal cord injury
In a new study, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden show that the scar tissue formed by stem cells after a spinal cord injury does not impair recovery; in fact, stem cell scarring confines the damage.

Houston we have a problem: Microgravity accelerates biological aging
As nations strive to put humans farther into space for longer periods of time, the real loser in this new space race could be the astronauts themselves.

How protein suicide assure healthy cell structures
Centrioles are tiny structures in the cell that play an important role in cell division and in the assembly of cilia and flagella.

New stem cells go back further
A new method of producing naïve induced pluripotent stem cells holds promise for the future of regenerative biomedical research.

Exposure to cortisol-like medications before birth may contribute to emotional problems and brain changes
Neonatologists seem to perform miracles in the fight to support the survival of babies born prematurely.

Plant production could decline as climate change affects soil nutrients
As drylands of the world become even drier, water will not be the only resource in short supply.

Sandia's Katherine Guzman receives national Hispanic award for technical contributions
The Hispanic Engineer National Achievement Awards Corp. (HENAAC) recently named Sandia National Laboratories' Katherine Guzman one of its 2013 Luminary honorees.

Study tracks risk of VL exposure in Brazil's urban areas
The factors involved in VL transmission are poorly understood, especially in urban and densely populated counties.

Dogs know a left-sided wag from a right
You might think a wagging tail is a wagging tail, but for dogs there is more to it than that.

Evolution of new species requires few genetic changes
Only a few genetic changes are needed to spur the evolution of new species -- even if the original populations are still in contact and exchanging genes.

Magnetic 'force field' shields giant gas cloud during collision with Milky Way
Doom may be averted for the Smith Cloud, a gigantic streamer of hydrogen gas that is on a collision course with the Milky Way galaxy.

Results of the ARCTIC-INTERRUPTION trial presented at TCT 2013
According to a new study, patients that do not experience a major cardiac event in the first year after receiving drug-eluting stent may not need to receive prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy.

NYU study on incarcerated youth shows potential to lower anti-social behavior and recidivism
It is the first study to show that mindfulness training can be used in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy to protect attentional functioning in high-risk incarcerated youth.

A high protein diet and meal replacements can reduce rebound weight gain
New research shows that there are several effective strategies available to people wanting to avoid regaining weight after a successful diet.

Researchers identify molecule that orients neurons for high definition sensing
Many animals have highly developed senses, such as vision in carnivores, touch in mice, and hearing in bats.

Research finds severe hot flashes reduced with quick neck injection
An image-guided single injection may offer a hormone-free way to deal with menopausal symptoms.

Can putting your child before yourself make you a happier person?
While popular media often depicts highly-involved parents negatively as

Cellular tail length tells disease tale
Simon Fraser University molecular biologist Lynne Quarmby's adventures in pond scum have led her and four student researchers to discover a mutation that can make cilia, the microscopic antennae on our cells, grow too long.

Increasing rate of knee replacements linked to obesity among young, researchers say
Contrary to popular myth, it is not the aging Baby Boomer or weekend warrior that is causing the unprecedented increase in knee replacement surgeries.

Study gives Catholic schools poor marks
A national study led by a Michigan State University economist suggests Catholic schools are not superior to public schools after all.

Could a milky way supernova be visible from Earth in next 50 years?
Astronomers at The Ohio State University have calculated the odds that, sometime during the next 50 years, a supernova occurring in our home galaxy will be visible from Earth.

Geoengineering the climate could reduce vital rains
Although a significant build-up in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere would alter worldwide precipitation patterns, geoengineering would also interfere with rainfall and snowfall.

Global warming as viewed from the deep ocean
Yair Rosenthal of Rutgers, Braddock Linsley of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, and Delia W.

Results of the TRANSLATE-POPS trial presented at TCT 2013
According to a new study of heart attack patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, free access to platelet function testing had only a modest impact on anti-clotting drug selection and dosing.

NIH scientists develop candidate vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus
An experimental vaccine to protect against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a leading cause of illness and hospitalization among very young children, elicited high levels of RSV-specific antibodies when tested in animals, according to a report in the journal Science.

Microsatellite DNA analysis reveals genetic change of P. vivax in Korea, 2002-2003
Malaria is one of the major infectious diseases transmitted by mosquitos, with enormous impact on quality of life.

New knowledge about serious muscle disease
Recent research from University of Copenhagen sheds light on previously unknown facts about muscular dystrophy at molecular level.

Danish research provides new knowledge about the body's fight against HIV
A study of the body's reactions to the HIV virus by Danish researchers has led to new understanding of the immune system's fight against HIV.

Results of the GIANT trial reported at TCT 2013
According to a new study, genetic profiling of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention may help cardiology teams adjust treatment and improve ischemic outcomes for patients that do not properly metabolize thienopyridine blood thinning therapies such as clopidogrel.

Results of the OPTIMIZE trial presented at TCT 2013
A new study demonstrates that some patients may not need to receive prolonged anti-clotting therapy after drug-eluting stent implantation with the Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent, and that shortening the duration could reduce bleeding risks and treatment costs.

Women working in Head Start programs report poor physical and mental health
Women working in Head Start, the nation's largest federally funded early childhood education program, report higher than expected levels of physical and mental health problems, according to the first-ever survey conducted on the health of Head Start staff.

Opportunities abound for nonprofit hospitals aiming to address obesity through community benefit
New research from the Strategies to Overcome and Prevent (STOP) Obesity Alliance sheds light on the challenges and opportunities for nonprofit hospitals to address obesity through community benefit activities.

Partisan news wields little direct influence
Pundits and politicians posit that partisan media like MSNBC and Fox News have polarized the public, making it difficult to reach mass consensus on public-policy issues.

Scientists discover why newborns get sick so often
If you think cold and flu season is tough, trying being an infant.

Research identifies ways to improve access to mental health services
A study by researchers from the Universities of Liverpool and Manchester has identified ways to improve how older people and ethnic minority populations access mental health care services.

Important breakthrough in identifying effect of epilepsy treatment
Fifty years after valproate was first discovered, research published today in the journal Neurobiology of Disease, reports how the drug works to block seizure progression.

Pregnant women who snore at higher risk for C-sections, delivering smaller babies
Snoring during pregnancy may be more than a nuisance -- moms who snored three or more nights a week had a higher risk of poor delivery outcomes.

Scientists modify Botox for the treatment of pain
Scientists have manufactured a new bio-therapeutic molecule that could be used to treat neurological disorders such as chronic pain and epilepsy.

Results of the REPRISE II trial reported at TCT 2013
In a clinical trial, a second-generation transcatheter aortic valve demonstrated low rates of complications that are sometimes seen in transcatheter aortic valve replacement, including challenges with positioning, post-procedure paravalvular aortic regurgitation, vascular complications, and stroke.

Akron researcher awarded NIH grant for advancing 3-D tumor models for anticancer drug testing
University of Akron assistant professor of biomedical engineering Hossein Tavana was awarded $511,000 from the National Institutes of Health to support his efforts to improve chemotherapeutic drug testing and effectiveness.

LSUHSC's Noel recognized nationally for outstanding achievement
Dr. R. Adam Noel, Associate Professor of Pediatrics at the LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans School of Medicine, was selected by the American Academy of Pediatrics as one of two recipients of the 2013 Outstanding Achievement Award for his work in documenting injuries and raising awareness of the danger of neodymium, or rare earth, magnets to kids.

Can an oil bath solve the mysteries of the quantum world?
For the past eight years, two French researchers have been bouncing droplets around a vibrating oil bath and observing their unique behaviour.

Study offers new theory of cancer development
Researchers have devised a way to understand patterns of aneuploidy -- an abnormal number of chromosomes -- in tumors and predict which genes in the affected chromosomes are likely to be cancer suppressors or promoters.

US policy should encourage highly skilled, foreign Ph.D. students to stay, CU-led study finds
Attracting more talented foreign students to study at US universities and encouraging them to launch entrepreneurial ventures here could help

Butterflies show origin of species as an evolutionary process, not a single event
The evolution of new species might not be as hard as it seems, even when diverging populations remain in contact and continue to produce offspring.

A new way to monitor induced comas
An automated system could offer better control of patients' brain states.

Primary GOES-R instrument ready to be installed onto spacecraft
A key instrument that will fly on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R) spacecraft, NOAA's next-generation of geostationary satellites, is cleared for installation on the spacecraft.

Results of the HYBRID trial presented at TCT 2013
A hybrid approach to treating coronary artery disease that involves a

Scent marking
The smell of urine may not strike people as pleasant, but female mice find it as attractive as cologne.

Microbleeds important to consider in brain-related treatments, UCI neurologist says
As growing numbers of America's baby boomers reach retirement, neuroscientists are expanding their efforts to understand and treat one of the leading health issues affecting this population: age-related neurological deterioration, including stroke and dementia.

Results of DUTCH PEERS (TWENTE II) trial reported at TCT 2013
Results of the DUTCH PEERS (TWENTE II) clinical trial demonstrate comparable safety and efficacy of two third-generation permanent polymer-based drug-eluting stents with low rates of adverse clinical events and establish the non-inferiority of the newest zotarolimus-eluting stent.

Automated system promises precise control of medically induced coma
Putting patients with severe head injuries or persistent seizures into a medically induced coma currently requires that a nurse or other health professional constantly monitor the patient's brain activity and manually adjust drug infusion to maintain a deep state of anesthesia.

New techniques produce cleanest graphene yet
Columbia Engineering researchers demonstrate for the first time that it's possible to electrically contact an atomically thin 2D material only along its 1D edge.

Stress eaters may compensate by eating less when times are good
When faced with stress, some people seem to lose their appetite while others reach for the nearest sweet, salty, or fatty snack.

NASA sees Halloween Typhoon Krosa lashing Luzon, Philippines
There's nothing more scary for Halloween than a typhoon, and the residents in Luzon, in the northern Philippines are being lashed by Typhoon Krosa today, Oct.

SAGE partners with Japanese publishers Shinyosha to co-publish social science textbooks
SAGE, one of the world's leading publishers of the social sciences, today announced a partnership with local Japanese publisher Shinyosha to co-publish social science textbooks in the Japanese language.

Oligomeric proanthocyanidin suppresses the death of retinal ganglion cells
The death of retinal ganglion cells is a hallmark of many optic neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma and retinopathy.

Researchers discover how retinal neurons claim the best brain connections
Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute scientists have discovered how retinal neurons claim prime real estate in the brain by controlling the abundance of a protein called aggrecan.

Researchers model familial amyloidosis in vitro using iPSC technology
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center have generated the first known disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cell lines from a patient with familial transthyretin amyloidosis.

Study: Fast, painless alternative to liver biopsies for hepatitis patients proves accurate and reliable
A non-invasive alternative to liver biopsy, now the standard method of diagnosing cirrhosis in hepatitis patients, proved very reliable in a national multi-center study including Henry Ford Hospital.

Patients' 'immune fingerprints' may help diagnose bacterial infections and guide treatment
Bacterial infections in dialysis patients leave an

Critical gene in retinal development and motion sensing identified
Our vision depends on exquisitely organized layers of cells within the eye's retina, each with a distinct role in perception.

Darach Watson receives Lundbeck Research Prize
Darach Watson, Niels Bohr Institute has been awarded the Lundbeck Foundation Research Prize for Young Scientists for his outstanding and innovative research in astrophysics, where he has developed a groundbreaking method for measuring distances in the cosmos using the light from distant quasars.

Percutaneous repair of valve leaks: A new treatment for patients at high risk of cardiac surgery
Paul Sorajja M.D., of the Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation delivered a presentation at TCT on current percutaneous techniques that sheds light on the complexities of the treatment of paravalvular prosthetic regurgitation, or heart valve leakage.

New climate-studying imager makes first balloon flight
Understanding Earth's dynamic climate requires knowledge of more than just greenhouse gases.

Scientists capture most detailed picture yet of key AIDS protein
Collaborating scientists at the Scripps Research Institute and Weill Cornell Medical College have determined the first atomic-level structure of the tripartite HIV envelope protein -- long considered one of the most difficult targets in structural biology and of great value for medical science.

CTCA doctor presents studies at World Conference on Lung Cancer in Australia
Glen J. Weiss, M.D., Director of Clinical Research, Cancer Treatment Centers of America® is presenting two key studies, including one today at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer's 15th World Conference on Lung Cancer being held in Sydney, Australia.

HIV antibody infusions show promise for treating SHIV-infected monkeys
Two teams are reporting results from experiments in which they infused powerful anti-HIV antibodies into monkeys infected with an HIV-like virus, rapidly reducing the amount of virus, or viral load, to undetectable levels, where it remained for extended periods.

Patient in 'vegetative state' not just aware, but paying attention
A patient in a seemingly vegetative state, unable to move or speak, showed signs of attentive awareness that had not been detected before, a new study reveals.

Lefties more likely to have psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia: Yale study
Being left-handed has been linked to many mental disorders, but Yale researcher Jadon Webb and his colleagues have found that among those with mental illnesses, people with psychotic disorders like schizophrenia are much more likely to be left-handed than those with mood disorders like depression or bipolar syndrome.

Women under 60 with diabetes at much greater risk for heart disease
Results of a Johns Hopkins study published today in the journal Diabetes Care found that young and middle-aged women with Type 2 diabetes are at much greater risk of coronary artery disease than previously believed.

Results of the FREEDOM sub study reported at TCT 2013
According to a recent study of diabetic patients who underwent revascularization for multi-vessel coronary artery disease, patients treated with insulin experienced more major adverse cardiovascular events after revascularization than those not treated with insulin.

New drug could offer first safe and effective treatment for psychotic symptoms
Up to 10 million people worldwide have Parkinson's disease and more than 50 percent of them will experience psychosis (mainly hallucinations and delusions) at some time.

Can Aβ worsen cognitive impairment following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury?
According to a study, administration of amyloid β-peptide could further aggravate impairments to learning and memory and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus of rats subjected to cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Studies of experimental hepatitis C drug show promise for preventing recurrence in liver transplant
New drug therapies offer promise to some hepatitis C sufferers whose transplanted livers are threaten by a recurrence of the disease, including some patients who have had no treatment options.

Bachmann-Strauss Foundation awards $1.2 million to establish Centers of Excellence around US
The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia and Parkinson Foundation has awarded $1.2 million in matching grants to establish Dystonia and Parkinson's Disease Centers of Excellence at three major US medical centers: The University of Alabama at Birmingham, the University of Florida and the University of California, San Francisco.

CWRU researchers aim nanotechnology at micrometastases
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University have received two grants totaling nearly $1.7 million to build nanoparticles that seek and destroy metastases too small to be detected with current technologies.

Racism linked with gun ownership and opposition to gun control in white Americans
A new study has found that higher levels of racism in white Americans is associated with having a gun in the home and greater opposition to gun control policies.

NIH-funded scientists reveal structure of HIV protein key to cell entry
Using protein engineering and two different cutting-edge structural biology imaging techniques, researchers have developed a detailed picture of the protein largely responsible for enabling HIV to enter human immune cells and cause infection.

Low-frequency rTMS prevents chronic epileptic seizure
Prof. Xiaoming Wang and team from the Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, China investigated the influence of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation on changes in several nonlinear dynamic electroencephalographic parameters in rats with chronic epilepsy and explored the mechanism underlying repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation-induced antiepileptic effects.

A new weapon in the fight against superbugs
Nanoscale images, presented at the AVS Meeting in Long Beach, Calif., may provide the 'hole' story on pore-making antibiotic peptides.

Largest ever study of male breast cancer treatment shows more mastectomy, less radiation than in female disease
University of Colorado Cancer Center researchers used data from 4,276 cases of male breast cancer and 718,587 cases of female breast cancer to show that the disease is treated differently in men than in women.

The secret's in the (robotic) stroke
Recent studies from two research teams at the Polytechnic Institute of New York University demonstrate how underwater robots can be used to understand and influence the complex swimming behaviors of schooling fish.

Direct link established between stimulus-response learning and substance abuse
Véronique Bohbot, Ph.D., neuroscientist at the Douglas Mental Health University Institute, found that the region of the brain involved in stimulus-response learning is directly linked to the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and drugs.

Studies: Current hepatitis C treatments can't be used by more than half of patients; others lose opportunity for treatment
More than half of chronic hepatitis C patients studied in a new research project led by Henry Ford Hospital were not treated for the potentially fatal disease, either because they couldn't withstand current therapies or because they, or their doctors, were waiting for new treatments.

A 20 percent sugary drink tax would cut number of UK obese adults by 180,000
A 20 percent tax on sugar sweetened drinks would reduce the number of UK adults who are obese by 180,000 (1.3 percent) and who are overweight by 285,000 (0.9 percent), suggests a study published on bmj.com today.

New methods improve quagga and zebra mussel identification
The earliest possible detection of quagga and zebra mussels has long been a goal of biologists seeking to discover their presence in water bodies.

Long-term use of prescription-based painkillers increases the risk of depression, SLU researcher finds
The study has discovered a link between chronic use of pain-relieving medication and increase in the risk of developing major depression.

Newly identified proteins make promising targets for blocking graft-vs.-host disease
Researchers from the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center have identified new proteins that control the function of critical immune cell subsets called T-cells, which are responsible for a serious and often deadly side effect of lifesaving bone marrow transplants.

Scientists capture most detailed picture yet of key AIDS protein
Collaborating scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and Weill Medical College of Cornell University have determined the first atomic-level structure of the tripartite HIV envelope protein--long considered one of the most difficult targets in structural biology and of great value for medical science.

Michael M. Yartsev wins Eppendorf/Science Prize
Michael Yartsev is the 2013 Grand Prize winner in the annual international competition for the Eppendorf & Science Prize for Neurobiology.

EurekAlert! announces the recipients of the 2014 AAAS-EurekAlert! Fellowships for International Science Reporters
EurekAlert!, the global science news service operated by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and its sister site, EurekAlert!

Project could save the eyesight of thousands
Scientists from the University of Sheffield have partnered with a team in India for a project which could save the eyesight of thousands of people living in the South Asian country.

Making electrical contact along 1-D edge of 2-D materials
Dr. Cory Dean, assistant professor of physics at the City College of New York, is the lead author of a paper published today in the journal Science that demonstrates it is possible for an atomically thin two-dimensional material to have electrical contact along its one-dimensional edge.

Mid-level health workers as effective as physicians
Countries facing severe shortages and poor distribution of health workers could benefit from training and deploying more mid-level health workers, such as midwives, nurses, medical assistants and surgical clinicians, according to a study published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization today.

Results of the TATORT-NSTEMI trial presented at TCT 2013
According to a new study, aspirating blood clots does not significantly reduce microvascular obstruction or reduce the risk of death in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, when compared to standard percutaneous coronary intervention without thrombectomy.

CU-Boulder-led team gets first look at diverse life below rare tallgrass prairies
For the first time, a research team led by the University of Colorado Boulder has gotten a peek at a vitally important community that once called the tallgrass prairie home: The diverse assortment of microbes that thrived in the dark, rich soils beneath the grass.

Pizza perfect! A nutritional overhaul of 'junk food' and ready-meals is possible
Pizza is widely regarded as a fully-paid up member of the junk food gang -- maybe even the leader -- at least the versions found on supermarket shelves or delivered to your door by scooter.

Chickens to benefit from biofuels bonanza
Chickens could be the unexpected beneficiaries of the growing biofuels industry, feeding on proteins retrieved from the fermenters used to brew bioethanol, thanks to research supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

Simple plants aren't always easy: Revision of the liverwort Radula buccinifera complex
Simple plants aren't always easy, proves the Radula buccinifera complex, formed of

Former missile-tracking telescope helps reveal fate of baby pulsar
A radio telescope once used to track ballistic missiles has helped astronomers determine how the magnetic field structure and rotation of the young and rapidly rotating Crab pulsar evolves with time.

Tagging aquatic animals can disrupt natural behavior
American and Canadian researchers have for the first time quantified the energy cost to aquatic animals when they carry satellite tags, video cameras and other research instruments.

Supreme Court's Obamacare decision established new limits on federal authority, IU paper says
A new paper by an Indiana University professor sheds new light on the US Supreme Court's rejection of legal challenges to the Affordable Care Act, which many critics said threatens state sovereignty and individual liberties.

'Flipping the switch' reveals new compounds with antibiotic potential
Researchers have discovered that one gene in a common fungus acts as a master regulator, and deleting it has opened access to a wealth of new compounds that have never before been studied -- with the potential to identify new antibiotics.

Sex determiner gene of honey bee more complicated that previously assumed
The gene that determines the sex of the bees is much more complex than has been assumed up until now and has developed over the course of evolution at a very high rate.

Suzaku study points to early cosmic 'seeding'
Most of the universe's heavy elements, including the iron central to life itself, formed early in cosmic history and spread throughout the universe, according to a new study of the Perseus Galaxy Cluster using Japan's Suzaku satellite.

Biochemists find incomplete protein digestion is a useful thing for some bacteria
Protein degradation by energy-dependent proteases normally results in the complete destruction of target proteins, Chien notes.

Leading cause of heart disease ignored in North America's poorest communities
A leading cause of heart disease remains overlooked in North America's most impoverished communities, researchers said today in an editorial published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.

Defective nanotubes turned into light emitters
Scientists are usually after defect-free nano-structures. Yet in this case the UPV/EHU researcher Angel Rubio and his collaborators have put the structural defects in boron nitride nanotubes to maximum use.
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