Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 12, 2013
A new path for growth in Latin America
In a new book,

MAVEN Solar Wind Electron Analyzer seeks answers at microscopic levels
When the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission launches in November to study why the Red Planet is losing its atmosphere, one of its instruments will look to electrically charged particles called electrons for answers.

Bring a 50,000-degree plasma into your living room
A new system will allow users to log on and remotely control a working plasma physics experiment from their own browser.

Conscientious people more likely to provide good customer service
Conscientious people are more likely to provide good customer service, according to a new study from researchers at Rice University.

American Chemical Society podcast: A greener source of ingredients for plastics
The latest episode in the American Chemical Society's award-winning Global Challenges/Chemistry Solutions podcast series highlights a first-of-its-kind process that can convert vegetable and animal fats and oils into a key ingredient for plastics.

Dr. Robert Gallo named first Homer & Martha Gudelsky Distinguished Professor in Medicine
Robert C. Gallo, M.D., has been named the first Homer & Martha Gudelsky Distinguished Professor in Medicine at the University of Maryland School of Medicine during a ceremony November 7.

Studies explore potential origins of addiction and treaments
Studies released today suggest promising new treatments for nicotine and heroin addiction, and further our understanding of pathological gambling and heroin abuse in those suffering chronic pain.

Wayne State researchers discover specific inhibitor for rheumatoid arthritis treatment
Researchers from Wayne State University and Northwestern University have contributed to an important discovery in the inflammatory stress mechanism and specific inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Animal, human health benefits anticipated from university's premier biomedical instrument
Kansas State University will have the nation's first biomedical instrument that can heat specific cells in the body while simultaneously producing real-time, high-resolution images of the heat's effects on tumors and inflamed cells.

UEA research reveals why timing of bird migration is changing
Researchers at the University of East Anglia have found out why birds are migrating earlier and earlier each year.

Penn and Drexel team demonstrates new paradigm for solar cell construction
Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania and Drexel University have experimentally demonstrated a new paradigm for solar cell construction which may ultimately make them less expensive, easier to manufacture and more efficient at harvesting energy from the sun.

New ethics guidelines from American Thyroid Association published in Thyroid journal
In this changing era of health care delivery, physician guidelines on ethics are more important than ever.

The secrets of a bug's flight
Researchers have identified some of the physics that may explain how insects can so quickly recover from a midflight stall -- unlike conventional fixed wing aircraft, where stalls often lead to crash landings.

Mayo Clinic: Add bone deterioration to diabetes complications
The list of complications from type 2 diabetes is long: Vascular and heart disease, eye problems, nerve damage, kidney disease, hearing problems and Alzheimer's disease.

Successful grant applications and scholarly impact in neurosurgery
Researchers found a strong relationship between scholarly impact and success in receiving awards from the National Institutes of Health among faculty in academic neurosurgery departments.

Building block for exoskeleton could lead to more independence among the elderly
Researchers are studying human movement as they work on creating an exoskeleton to benefit elderly patients, stroke patients and paraplegics.

Tailored pre-transplant therapy boosts survival rate in rare immune deficiency
Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare immune deficiency that seriously compromises organ function and is life-threatening, with 20-30 percent of patients dying within the first two decades of life.

NASA sees Veteran's Day solar flare
The sun emitted a significant solar flare that peaked at 12:14 a.m.

'Regenerative Sustainable Development of Universities and Cities'
Edited by Dr. Ariane K├Ânig, University of Luxembourg, this new book explores how universities are establishing living laboratories for sustainable development, and examines the communication networks and knowledge infrastructures that underpin impact both on and beyond the campus.

NREL developed mobile app for alternative fueling station locations released
iPhone users now have access to a free application that locates fueling stations offering alternative fuels, including electricity, natural gas, biodiesel, e85 Ethanol, propane and hydrogen.

A nano-sized sponge made of electrons
During chemical reactions, ceria nanoparticles behave in a completely different way than previously thought: the electrons absorbed and released during the reaction are not bound to individual atoms but, like a cloud, distribute themselves over the whole nanoparticle.

CONRAD presents new technology combining contraception, HIV and herpes simplex virus-2 prevention
CONRAD Head of drug delivery, Meredith Clark, Ph.D., today presented preclinical data on a new intravaginal ring that provides contraception as well as HIV-1 and HSV-2 prevention at the 2013 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Annual Meeting and Exposition in San Antonio, Texas.CONRAD's deputy director of clinical research, Marianne Callahan, will also present information on MPTs at the International Conference on Family Planning in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

ACC/AHA publish new guideline for management of blood cholesterol
The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association today released a new clinical practice guideline for the treatment of blood cholesterol in people at high risk for cardiovascular diseases caused by atherosclerosis, or hardening and narrowing of the arteries, that can lead to heart attack, stroke or death.

World's largest imaging congress reveals latest techniques in heart failure
EuroEcho-Imaging is the world's largest forum for clinicians and scientists to present the most up-to-date research and clinical findings on echocardiography and other cardiovascular imaging techniques.

Study finds aerobic exercise improves memory, brain function and physical fitness
A new study conducted by researchers at the Center for BrainHealth at the University of Texas at Dallas published online in the open-access journal Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience found that engaging in a physical exercise regimen helps healthy aging adults improve their memory, brain health and physical fitness.

Evidence of 3.5 billion-year-old bacterial ecosystems found in Australia
Reconstructing the rise of life during the period of Earth's history when it first evolved is challenging.

The secret of short stems
Arabidopsis plants that only reach half their normal height have a mutation in the biosynthesis of the plant growth factor gibberellin.

Cancer can't hide; better heart shocks; mechanical leeches
An invention that strips cancer tumors' ability to hide from the body's immune system, and a better way to shock hearts back into their normal rhythm took top honors today at America's most prestigious collegiate inventing competition.

Polish study on MRI-ultrasound for targeted prostate biopsy wins CEM award
Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy has high sensitivity to detect prostate abnormalities compared with transrectal ultrasonography of MRI positive findings.

New solar cell is more efficient, less costly
American innovators still have some cards to play when it comes to squeezing more efficiency and lower costs out of silicon, the workhorse of solar photovoltaic cells and modules worldwide.

Stepparents are not always evil
If there is a reasonable chance of increasing wealth in the parents' environment then no difference is made between one's own children and stepchildren.

Women who have undergone obesity surgery should be classed as at-risk during pregnancy, say research
Women with a history of obesity surgery are at increased risk of giving birth to preterm or small-for-gestational age babies and should be regarded as an at-risk group, a paper published on bmj.com today suggests.

CWRU psychologist leads $1.4 million project to study spiritual struggles and stress links
Psychologists from Case Western Reserve and Bowling Green State universities were awarded a three-year, $1.4 million grant from The John Templeton Foundation to study the factors behind religious and spiritual struggles.

Structure of bacterial nanowire protein hints at secrets of conduction
Tiny electrical wires protrude from some bacteria and contribute to rock and dirt formation.

Analysis of health care in US indicates that improvement in outcomes has slowed
An examination of health care in the US finds that despite the extraordinary economic success of many of its participants, the health care system has performed relatively poorly by some measures; and that outcomes have improved, but more slowly than in the past and more slowly than in comparable countries, according to an article in the November 13 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on critical issues in US health care.

ACC/AHA release new guideline for assessing cardiovascular risk in adults
The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association today released a new clinical practice guideline to help primary care clinicians better identify adults who may be at high risk for developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, potentially serious cardiovascular conditions caused by atherosclerosis, and who thus may benefit from lifestyle changes or drug therapy to help prevent it.

Sanford-Burnham receives US Air Force grant to perform next-generation toxicity screens
A bicoastal group of scientists at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute was recently awarded a three-year grant from the US Department of the Air Force to assess the potential toxicity of large collections of chemicals.

NPL and Astrium launch measurement service to improve analysis of greenhouse gas emissions
NPL and Astrium unveil new service to complement current 'inventory approach' models and validate national and international energy saving measures.

Studies explore potential origins of addiction and treatments
Studies released today suggest promising new treatments for nicotine and heroin addiction, and further our understanding of pathological gambling and heroin abuse in those suffering chronic pain.

Biomaterial-delivered chemotherapy could provide final blow to brain tumors
A polymer originally designed to help mend broken bones could be successful in delivering chemotherapy drugs directly to the brains of patients suffering from brain tumours, researchers at The University of Nottingham have discovered.

Clinical trial finds concurrent therapy not necessary to achieve high pathological in breast cancer
Clinical trial finds concurrent therapy is not necessary to achieve high pathological complete responses in breast cancer patients with HER-2-positive disease.

Balloon mis-positioning during prostate cancer treatment could affect success of radiation delivery
A University of Colorado Cancer Center study recently published in the journal Physics in Medicine and Biology shows that endorectal balloons commonly used during precise radiation treatment for prostate cancer can deform the prostate in a way that could make radiation miss its mark.

Taking a new look at carbon nanotubes
Two of the biggest challenges in carbon nanotube research have been met with the development by Berkeley Lab researchers of a technique that can be used to identify the structure of an individual carbon nanotube and characterize its electronic and optical properties in a functional device.

Using morphine after abdominal surgery may prolong pain, CU-Boulder researchers find
Using morphine to fight the pain associated with abdominal surgery may paradoxically prolong a patient's suffering, doubling or even tripling the amount of time it takes to recover from the surgical pain, according to researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder.

Nemours receives Dept. of Defense award to study physicians' maintenance of optimal clinical program
The Department of Defense has awarded Nemours a $3.9 million grant to evaluate how physicians use best practice guidelines and to consider strategies to maintain clinical skills and consistency of care.

CSHL launches bioRxiv, a freely accessible, citable preprint server for biology
CSHL today announced the launch of a new stage in the evolution of life science communication -- a new, free service, called bioRxiv (pronounced

NASA sees ex-Tropical Depression 30W trying to re-form in Indian Ocean
Tropical Depression 30W formed in the northwestern Pacific Ocean basin and crossed into the Northern Indian Ocean from Nov.

Hebrew University professor receives honor in Istanbul
Amidst a prolonged background of strained Turkish-Israeli relations, a Hebrew University of Jerusalem professor was honored in Turkey recently, for his academic scholarship.

Mindfulness inhibits implicit learning -- the wellspring of bad habits
Being mindful appears to help prevent the formation of bad habits, but perhaps good ones too.

Duke wins $15 million renewal to study nanotech safety
A pioneering, multi-institution research center headquartered at Duke's Pratt School of Engineering has just won a $15-million grant renewal from the National Science Foundation and the US Environmental Protection Agency to continue learning more about where nanoparticles accumulate, how they interact with other chemicals and how they affect the environment.

Using airport screening technology to visualize waves in fusion plasma
A new, quasi-optical radar technique images millimeter-wave radiation reflected from fusion plasmas in 2D, time-resolved images.

Houston area survey: African-Americans are the most likely to value postsecondary education
African-Americans are the most likely of all ethnic groups to emphasize the importance of postsecondary education, according to the 2013 Houston Education Survey.

New study analyzes sharp rise in US drug poisoning deaths by county
A new study published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine gives new insight into the geographic variation in drug poisoning mortality, with both urban centers and rural areas showing a large increase in death rates.

LSUHSC's Rodriguez receives cancer immunotherapy Presidential Award
Paulo C. Rodriguez, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Research, of Microbiology, Immunology & Parasitology at LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans' Stanley S.

Men support cracking glass ceiling
Male workers appear to support women becoming CEOs even more than female workers do, finds new research on the proverbial glass ceiling and job satisfaction in six formerly socialist countries.

Mayo Clinic: Researchers to study body's defense system to find new treatments for Alzheimer's
Researchers at Mayo Clinic in Florida, the University of Florida in Gainesville, and the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle have received a $7.5 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to take a new and more expanded approach to identifying drug targets to treat and possibly prevent Alzheimer's disease.

Putting a new spin on tokamak disruptions
Scientists at Alcator C-Mod and DIII-D investigating plasma disruptions have discovered that injecting gases heavier than the background hydrogen fuel (such as argon or neon) just before an impending disruption will spread the resulting energy around the vessel.

Medicine: The heart's metronome
A specific cell population is responsible for ensuring that our heartbeat remains regular.

Shared medical appointments -- Key factors for successful implementation
Group visits, also called shared medical appointments (SMAs), can offer advantages over traditional one-on-one patient-physician visits.

Parental monitoring lowers odds of a gambling problem
Keeping an eye on your child can lower their odds for gambling by young adulthood.

Riding an electron wave into the future of microchip fabrication
Advanced plasma-based etching is a key enabler of Moore's Law that observes that the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles nearly every two years.

New textbook tackles the sustainable recycling of manure
Humans the world over, are hungry for more meat, milk and eggs in their diets.

Researchers at Penn add another tool in their directed assembly toolkit
An interdisciplinary team of University of Pennsylvania researchers has already developed a technique for controlling liquid crystals by means of physical templates and elastic energy, rather than the electromagnetic fields that manipulate them in televisions and computer monitors.

SDSC uses Meteor Raspberry Pi cluster to teach parallel computing
Researchers at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California, San Diego, have built a Linux cluster using 16 Raspberry Pi computers as part of a program to teach children and adults the basics of parallel computing using a simple model that demonstrates how computers leverage their capacity when working together.

Researchers call for health-care changes to help adults with developmental disabilities
Adults with developmental disabilities such as autism and Down syndrome are having a harder time accessing health care even though they have more health issues than people without developmental disabilities, according to research done at Canada's Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

New links between social status and brain activity
New studies released today reveal links between social status and specific brain structures and activity, particularly in the context of social stress.

Bariatric surgery can lead to premature birth
Babies born of women who have undergone bariatric (weight-loss) surgery are more likely to be premature and to be small for gestational age, according to a large registry study carried out at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and published in the BMJ.

Politicization of health care preventing real changes to out-of-control system, researchers suggest
Over the last decade, the biggest driver of the high health care costs in the United States has been neither the aging of the population nor the large numbers of tests and treatments being prescribed.

NYU researchers find a new solution in detecting breast-cancer related lymphedem
Doctors struggle to detect and diagnose breast-cancer related Lymphedema -- a condition affecting the lymphatic system and causing psychosocial distress and physical challenges for patients.

News media reinforce sexual exploitation stereotypes
News stories about sexually exploited youth in Canada perpetuate unhelpful stereotypes, according to new research from the University of British Columbia.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Drexel University, Hebrew University launch research consortium
The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Drexel University, and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem signed a research agreement to focus on pediatric translational research and to develop a collaborative platform for advancing pediatric medicine from the lab to the bedside.

Joint Center for Cancer Precision Medicine established
The Joint Center for Cancer Precision Medicine, a collaborative initiative among Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston Children's Hospital, and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, has been established to create

Like shopping at home
A new study in the Journal of Consumer Research proves that a sense of homeyness results in a fierce loyalty in customers, who in turn demonstrate an enthusiasm and sense of commitment that goes beyond the norms.

Putting the brakes on immunity
While the immune system's primary role is to fight infections, it can also become overactive, leading to problems like allergies and autoimmune diseases.

First dual-protection intravaginal ring design shows promise in long-term HIV and pregnancy prevention
A new intravaginal ring has been developed for the sustained 90-day co-delivery of tenofovir and levonorgestrel, an anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug and a contraceptive.

Plant fuel project moves to second phase under US Energy Department grant
The US Department of Energy is making good on the second phase of a plant fuel research project, pumping another $3 million into the study led by Dr.

NASA satellites see Cyclone 03A make landfall in Somalia
Tropical Cyclone 03A made landfall in Somalia and moved inland where it is dissipating over eastern Ethiopia today, Nov.

UTHealth study aims to change traditional approach to preventing pressure ulcers
A study led by Nancy Bergstrom, Ph.D., associate dean at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Nursing, found that nursing homes that utilize high-density foam mattresses may not need to turn residents every two hours to prevent pressure ulcers, a practice that has been used for over 50 years.

Springer cooperates with Brazilian society on new open access journal
Springer and the Brazilian Society of Adhesion and Adhesives are partnering to publish the new open access journal Applied Adhesion Science.

Thin, active invisibility cloak demonstrated for first time
Invisibility cloaking is no longer the stuff of science fiction: two researchers in The Edward S.

Controlling the hormonal environment in endometrial cancer sensitizes tumors to PARP inhibitors
Modulating the hormonal environment in which endometrial cancers grow could make tumors significantly more sensitive to a new class of drugs known as PARP inhibitors.

Bold new partnership launches to harness potential of data scientists and big data
New York University, the University of California, Berkeley and the University of Washington are launching a new 5-year, $37.8 million, cross-institutional partnership to harness the potential of data scientists and big data for basic research and scientific discovery, with support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and Alfred P.

American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology joint clinical practice guideline
Eating an overall heart-healthy diet and being physically active is critical for preventing heart attacks, strokes and other cardiovascular diseases according to a new lifestyle guideline.

Epigenetic silencing of the HAND2 tumor suppressor promotes endometrial cancer
A study published this week in PLOS Medicine suggests that epigenetic modification of the HAND2 gene plays a critical role in the development of endometrial cancer.

Lumosity presents on Human Cognition Project at Society for Neuroscience annual meeting
Lumosity, the online cognitive training and neuroscience research company, is presenting today at the annual 2013 Society for Neuroscience meeting on its research platform, the Human Cognition Project.

Die-hard sports fans view ads associated with rival teams negatively, regardless of the message
A new study concludes that it doesn't matter how compelling an advertisement may be, most die-hard Oregon State Beavers fans will simply not purchase a product associated with the Oregon Ducks.

Johns Hopkins research may improve early detection of dementia
Using scores obtained from cognitive tests, Johns Hopkins researchers think they have developed a model that could help determine whether memory loss in older adults is benign or a stop on the way to Alzheimer's disease.

Penn Medicine researcher calls for halt of US health care spending spiral
In order to evoke a true transformation, the US health care system needs an audacious goal, one equivalent to President Kennedy's call for a man on the moon in 1962, says Ezekiel J.

A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synaesthesia in childhood
In the first long-term study on grapheme-color synesthesia, researchers followed 80 children, including 8 synesthetes, to determine when and how associations between graphemes and colors develop.

New discovery on early immune system development
Researchers at Lund University have shed light on how and when the immune system is formed, raising hope of better understanding various diseases in children, such as leukemia.

Researcher finds potential new use for old drugs
A class of drugs used to treat parasitic infections such as malaria may also be useful in treating cancers and immune-related diseases, a new WSU-led study has found.

Solar working group releases standard contracts
A working group representing solar industry stakeholders has developed standard contracts that should help lower transaction costs and make it easier to access low-cost financing for residential and commercial solar power projects.

American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology and the Obesity Society Clinical Practice Guideline offers roadmap to treat adults affected by obesity, overweight
Healthcare providers are on the front line of the obesity epidemic -- poised to identify who needs to lose weight for health reasons and in a prime position to direct successful weight loss efforts.

Prosthetic hands viewed as eerie by the public new study shows
Researchers hope their study, published in the Journal Perception, and future work in this area will help improve designs for prosthetic limbs.

NASA satellites track Typhoon Haiyan's second landfall and flood potential
NASA satellites provided data to meteorologists at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center who were updating forecasts for Tropical Storm Haiyan as it weakened from a typhoon and made a second landfall in northern Vietnam.

Deaths from pancreatic cancer rise, fall along racial lines
Pancreatic cancer death rates in whites and blacks have gone in opposite directions over the past several decades in the United States, with the direction reversing in each ethnicity during those years.

Our relationship with food: What drives us to eat and new insights into eating disorders
A growing body of evidence shows the impact of diet on brain function, and identifies patterns of brain activity associated with eating disorders such as binge eating and purging.

Fifth Annual World Pneumonia Day marks successes and challenges in tackling #1 killer of children
Global health advocates today commemorated the fifth annual World Pneumonia Day by calling on global leaders to scale up existing interventions and invest in new diagnostics and treatments to defeat pneumonia.

Altering surface textures in 'counterintuitive manner' may lead to cooling efficiency gains
Researchers across the globe are racing to find ways to improve the cooling of hot surfaces -- for technologies ranging from small electronics to nuclear power plants.

Clinical trial looks at impact of platelet-rich plasma therapy on tennis elbow
Tiger Woods and other big name athletes have reportedly used PRP therapy for injuries.

Musical training shapes brain anatomy and affects function
New findings show that extensive musical training affects the structure and function of different brain regions, how those regions communicate during the creation of music, and how the brain interprets and integrates sensory information.

Molecular dissection of respiratory syncytial virus infection
A study published this week in PLOS Medicine reveals profound systemic dysregulation of the immune response induced by RSV infection in young children and suggest that molecular markers might be able to predict disease severity.
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