Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

February 17, 2014
HRCT scans can identify deadly lung disease
People who have suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) without typical patterns on high resolution computed tomography scans could in future be spared the substantial risks of lung biopsy and be given a confident diagnosis of IPF based on clinical and radiological findings alone, according to new research published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine.

JCI early table of contents for Feb. 17, 2014
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, Feb.

New materials open door to electronics in extreme environments
A spin-out company from the University of Leeds is set to transform industry's ability to electronically monitor and interact with extreme environments.

It's alive! Bacteria-filled liquid crystals could improve biosensing
Plop living, swimming bacteria into a novel water-based, nontoxic liquid crystal and a new physics takes over.

Why tackling appetite could hold the key to preventing childhood obesity
A heartier appetite is linked to more rapid infant growth and to genetic predisposition to obesity, according to two papers published in JAMA Pediatrics today (Monday).

A better way to purify peptide-based drugs
During the production of peptide drugs, amino acids attach to each other in chains, but some of the chains are never completed.

Experimental drug could enhance multiple myeloma and myeloid leukemia therapies
A pre-clinical study led by Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center and Department of Internal Medicine researchers suggests that an experimental drug known as dinaciclib could improve the effectiveness of certain multiple myeloma and myeloid leukemia therapies.

Water safety proposal wins top prize for Israeli student at Singapore science summit
A Hebrew University of Jerusalem doctoral student has proposed using biosensors based on genetically engineered bacteria to detect hazardous materials in large water supply systems.

Zoonotic diseases and global viral pandemics
Professor Malik Peiris, Chair Professor and Acting Director of School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, the University of Hong Kong is one of the speakers at the 2014 Annual Meeting in Chicago organized by The American Association for the Advancement of Science on Monday, Feb.

Researchers identify new way to control stone fruit disease
Researchers at the University of Kent and East Malling Research have identified a new way of controlling a fungal disease that can have a devastating impact on the UK's valuable cherry and plum crops.

Environmental issues examined through cohesive efforts
Solving crucial environmental issues such as global warming and water supply involves managing competing interests, uncertainty and risk, and this is best done through meaningful collaboration in a neutral environment.

New finding points to potential options for attacking stem cells in triple-negative breast cancer
New research finds that a protein that fuels an inflammatory pathway does not turn off in breast cancer, resulting in an increase in cancer stem cells.

Researchers shed new light on the genetic history of the European beaver
An international team of scientists has used detailed analysis of ancient and modern DNA to show that the distribution and lack of genetic diversity among modern European beavers is due largely to human hunting.

Caps not the culprit in nanotube chirality
The energy involved in carbon cap formation does not dictate the chirality of a single-walled nanotube, according to theoretical research at Rice University.

Ancient herring catch nets fisheries weakness
Archaeological data indicate modern herring management needs to take a longer look into the past to manage fisheries for the future says a new study involving Simon Fraser University researchers.

Northwestern Medicine researchers discover new way to prevent some strokes
Clinical trial links stroke and atrial fibrillation; findings will help better treat and prevent strokes for hundreds of thousands of people in the United States every year.

Kidney cancer reveals its weak link
A team of researchers at Chalmers University of Technology has found that kidney cancer cells have a quite different metabolism than other types of malignancies.

Chemist gets US patent for solution to resistance problem
A chemist based at the University of Copenhagen has just taken out a patent for a drug that can make previously multidrug-resistant bacteria once again responsive to antibiotics.

Common medicines should mimic timing of body's natural systems to prevent side-effects
Debilitating side effects associated with prescription medication for some of today's most common conditions could be eradicated if they mimicked the body's natural hormone secretion cycles, a new report has said.

Perception of job insecurity results in lower use of workplace programs
Efforts to increase the use of workplace support programs for employees may be hindered by the impression that doing so undermines job security, says research co-written by T.

Outsmarting nature during disasters
The dramatic images of natural disasters, including hurricanes Katrina and Sandy and the Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and tsunami, show that nature, not the people preparing for hazards, often wins the high-stakes game of chance.

Surprising survey: Most small businesses remain silent rather than report employee theft
A new University of Cincinnati survey of small businesses finds that even in these tight economic times, small businesses only report theft by employees 16 percent of the time -- due to a mix of factors that include emotional ties and concerns about the criminal justice system.

First biological marker for major depression could enable better diagnosis and treatment
Teenage boys who show a combination of depressive symptoms and elevated levels of the 'stress hormone' cortisol are up to fourteen times more likely to develop major depression than those who show neither trait, according to research funded by the Wellcome Trust.

Reindeer counteract the effects of climate warming
One of the consequences of a warmer climate can be that lowland and southern plants migrate higher up in the mountains.

Learning to see better in life and baseball
With a little practice on a computer or iPad -- 25 minutes a day, 4 days a week, for 2 months -- our brains can learn to see better, according to a study of University of California, Riverside baseball players reported in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on February 17.

The conditions for a society to become a democracy are analyzed
In view of the changes that have taken place in Europe, Jule Goikoetxea, a lecturer at the UPV/EHU's Faculty of Social Sciences and Communication, has been conducting research into 'the conditions needed for a people to become a democracy or sustain its democratization process over time.' The study has been published in the specialized journal Nationalities Papers.

Finding ways to detect and treat Alzheimer's disease
Sadly, Alzheimer's disease has been the least prone to progress in the one area where we'd like to find change the most -- in our ability to fight it.

How evolution shapes the geometries of life
An interdisciplinary team re-examines Kleiber's Law, a famous 80-year-old equation that accurately describes many biological phenomena, although scientists don't agree on why it works.

Targeted campaigns provoke judges to cater to majority sentiment on the death penalty
While it may seem that judges in nonpartisan elections would be less influenced by popular majority opinion, a Princeton University-led report finds the opposite is true.

Annals of Internal Medicine tip sheet for Feb. 18, 2014
Below is information about articles being published in Annals of Internal Medicine.

HIV drug used to reverse effects of virus that causes cervical cancer
Drs. Ian and Lynne Hampson, from the University's Institute of Cancer Sciences and Dr.

Natural compound attacks HER2 positive breast cancer cells
A common compound known to fight lymphoma and skin conditions actually has a second method of action that makes it particularly deadly against certain aggressive breast tumors, researchers at Duke Medicine report.

UT Southwestern launches Center for Patient-Centered Outcomes Research
UT Southwestern Medical Center has been funded to establish a Center for Patient-Centered Outcomes Research that supports and conducts high-quality research comparing the outcomes and effectiveness of different strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions to improve patient care.

Leeds researchers build world's most powerful terahertz laser chip
University of Leeds researchers have taken the lead in the race to build the world's most powerful terahertz laser chip.

Sweet taste receptors act as sentinels in defense against upper airway bacterial infections
A new study from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania reveals the functional role of sweet taste receptors in the human airway.

Gender and genes play an important role in delayed language development
Boys are at greater risk for delayed language development than girls, according to a new study using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

Researchers warn against abrupt stop to geoengineering method
As a range of climate change mitigation scenarios are discussed, University of Washington researchers have found that the injection of sulfate particles into the atmosphere to reflect sunlight and curb the effects of global warming could pose a severe threat if not maintained indefinitely and supported by strict reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.

Stress hormones in traders may trigger 'risk aversion' and contribute to market crises
New study's findings overturn theory of personal risk preference as a

Theory on origin of animals challenged: Animals needs only extremely little oxygen
One of science's strongest dogmas is that complex life on Earth could only evolve when oxygen levels in the atmosphere rose to close to modern levels.

Extensive renewal of the T cell repertoire following autologous stem cell transplant in MS
In the Immune Tolerance Network's HALT-MS study, 24 patients with relapsing, remitting multiple sclerosis received high-dose immunosuppression followed by a transplant of their own stem cells to potentially reprogram the immune system so that it stops attacking the brain and spinal cord.

Years after bullying, negative impact on a child's health may remain
The longer the period of time a child is bullied, the more severe and lasting the impact is on a child's health, according to a new study from Boston Children's Hospital published online Feb.

Einstein's conversion from a static to an expanding universe
Until 1931, physicist Albert Einstein believed that the universe was static.

Ben-Gurion U. researchers reveal that organic agriculture can pollute groundwater
According to the paper intensive organic matter using composted manure prior to planting resulted in significantly higher groundwater pollution rates compared with liquid fertilization techniques.

Vanderbilt study shows mother's voice improves hospitalization and feeding in preemies
Premature babies who receive an interventional therapy combining their mother's voice and a pacifier-activated music player learn to eat more efficiently and have their feeding tubes removed sooner than other preemies, according to a Monroe Carell Jr.

New digital publication Mosaic explores the science of life
Mosaic, a new digital publication dedicated to exploring the science of life, is set to launch on March 4, 2014.

NUS researchers make new discovery of protein as a promising target for treatment of ATC
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an aggressive type of cancer with a poor prognosis for which there is currently no effective treatment.

Nature: Ultra-small and ultra-fast electro-optic modulator
Thanks to optical signals, data can be transmitted rapidly. But also exchange of digital information between electronic chips may be accelerated by using optical signals.

Researchers discover how ALS spreads
An international study led by UBC and VCHRI researchers has found how the fatal neurodegenerative disease ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, spreads -- and suggests transmission can be blocked.

What good are footprints?
In Frontiers in Footprinting, a special feature in the new issue of Yale's Journal of Industrial Ecology, leading voices in the field of industrial ecology provide contrasting viewpoints on the value of footprinting and explore new directions in this still-evolving field.

Game-winning momentum is just an illusion
When a team goes on a multi-game winning streak, it has nothing to do with momentum, according to a new study in the journal Economics Letters.

KAIST developed low-powered, high-speed head-mounted display with augment reality chip
Researchers at KAIST developed K-Glass, a wearable ultra low-powered, high-performance head-mounted display with an augment reality chip.

Religious and scientific communities may be less combative than commonly portrayed
One of the largest surveys of American views on religion and science suggests that the religious and scientific communities may be less combative than is commonly portrayed in the media and in politics.

How well do football helmets protect players from concussions?
A new study finds that football helmets currently used on the field may do little to protect against hits to the side of the head, or rotational force, an often dangerous source of brain injury and encephalopathy.

Of mice and men: Fine-tuning salmonella-based vaccines
In a new study, lead author Karen Brenneman and her colleagues at the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, propose an improved method of screening salmonella vaccines in small animal studies and enhancing their effectiveness in humans.

Mechanism of dengue virus entry into cells
Despite its heavy toll, the prevention and clinical treatment of dengue infection has been a

Why does the brain remember dreams?
Some people recall a dream every morning, whereas others rarely recall one.

Small non-coding RNAs could be warning signs of cancer
Small non-coding RNAs can be used to predict if individuals have breast cancer conclude researchers who contribute to The Cancer Genome Atlas project.

Sochi games influenced by Lake Placid winter Olympics of 1932
Eight crashes that sent more than a dozen competitors to the hospital marred bobsled practice runs leading up to the 1932 winter Olympic games in Lake Placid, N.Y., but as dramatic as those incidents were, they also provide insight into more ordinary factors that continue to influence the Olympics, according to a Penn State researcher.

New strategies in fight against medicare and medicaid fraud could benefit your health
University of Cincinnati research shows advances in data analysis technology are proving to be effective weapons for controlling the billions of dollars lost to Medicare and Medicaid fraud.

Finding common ground fosters understanding of climate change
Grasping the concept of climate change and its impact on the environment can be difficult.

In search of lost genes
New genes arise regularly through mutation, although the number of genes in a particular organism does not seem to increase.
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