Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

April 28, 2014
Study: Tart cherry juice increases sleep time in adults with insomnia
Researchers from Louisiana State University found that drinking Montmorency tart cherry juice twice a day for two weeks helped increase sleep time by nearly 90 minutes among older adults with insomnia.

Applying lessons from NASA helps manage threats and errors in pediatric cardiac surgery
Investigators propose that NASA's 'threat and error model' -- derived from analyzing >30,000 commercial flights and which explains >90 percent of crashes -- is directly applicable to pediatric cardiac surgery.

High doses of antidepressants appear to increase risk of self-harm in children young adult
Children and young adults who start antidepressant therapy at high doses, rather than the 'modal' -- average or typical -- prescribed doses, appear to be at greater risk for suicidal behavior during the first 90 days of treatment.

How Brazilian cattle ranching policies can reduce deforestation
A new study led by UC Berkeley researchers finds that policies to support sustainable cattle ranching practices in Brazil could reduce deforestation and the industry's greenhouse gas impact.

Adhesion molecule shows promise for treating colitis
The adhesion molecule CD146 plays a vital role in inflammation and offers a promising therapeutic target for treating inflammatory bowel disease as well as preventing colitis-associated colorectal cancer, say scientists.

UEA research shows bacteria combat dangerous gas leaks
Bacteria could mop up naturally occurring and man-made leaks of natural gases before they are released into the atmosphere and cause global warming.

Immunology touted as next big thing for popular science
A University of Manchester professor says scientific jargon could be making the science of the human immune system a turn-off for the general public.

Weekly emails to hospital C-suite halt 2 decades of superbug outbreak
Efforts to reduce and stop the spread of infections caused by a highly resistant organism, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, at a large Florida hospital proved ineffective until they added another weapon -- weekly emails from the medical director of Infection Control to hospital leadership, according to a study published in the May issue of the American Journal of Infection Control, the official publication of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology.

Overlooked cells hold keys to brain organization and disease, UCSF study shows
Scientists studying brain diseases may need to look beyond nerve cells and start paying attention to the star-shaped cells known as 'astrocytes,' because they play specialized roles in the development and maintenance of nerve circuits and may contribute to a wide range of disorders, according to a new study by UC San Francisco researchers.

Irrigation, soil management strategies investigated for cold climate sweet cherry
A study investigated growth, yield, and fruit quality response of sweet cherry to water and soil management over three successive fruiting seasons in a cold climate production area.

UCLA research team selected to present original epilepsy research on Capitol Hill
A graduate student in Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, and two of his undergraduate trainees, were selected by the Council on Undergraduate Research to present their original research on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., on Tuesday.

Impact of pelargonic acid for weed control in yellow squash
Charles Webber III, Merritt Taylor, and James Shrefler conducted a research study published in HortTechnology to determine the impact of pelargonic acid -- a fatty acid that occurs naturally in plants and animals and is found in many foods -- on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and squash yields of yellow squash.

Teens who use alcohol and marijuana together are at higher risk for unsafe driving
Teenagers who drink alcohol and smoke marijuana may be at increased risk for unsafe driving, according to a study in the May issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.

Decrease in large wildlife drives an increase in rodent-borne disease and risk to humans
Populations of large wildlife are declining around the world, while zoonotic diseases -- those transmitted from animals to humans -- are on the rise.

AGA showcases its commitment to improving the pipeline of minority researchers
Showcasing its commitment to the support of underrepresented minority researchers, the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) Research Foundation is pleased to announce the 2014 AGA Investing in the Future Student Research Fellowship Award recipients.

Genetic disorder causing strokes and vascular inflammation in children has been discovered
Academy research fellows from University of Turku, Andrey and Anton Zavialov, and a team of researches from the National Institutes of Health, USA, discovered that inherited mutations in a blood enzyme called ADA2 cause a syndrome of sporadic fevers, skin rashes and recurring strokes, beginning early in childhood.

Mount Sinai scientists identify first gene linked to heart muscle disease in children
Scientists at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, along with collaborators at institutions in India, Italy, and Japan, have identified the first gene linked to childhood-onset familial dilated cardiomyopathy, one of the most common heart muscle diseases in children.

Cyberspace scholarship nets higher grades, better thinking for class Facebook group
University students who used a Facebook group as part of a large sociology class did better on course assignments and felt a stronger sense of belonging, Baylor University researchers found.

Beyond graphene: Controlling properties of 2-D materials
Researchers at the University of Manchester have shown how they can control the properties of stacks of two-dimensional materials, opening up opportunities for new, previously-unimagined electronic devices.

Studies affirm crabs killing Northeast saltmarshes
Two newly published studies by a team of Brown University researchers provide ample new evidence that the reason coastal saltmarshes are dying from Long Island to Cape Cod is that hungry crabs, left unchecked by a lack of predators, are eating the cordgrass.

Boston Medical Center cardiologist Gary Balady, M.D., receives AHA's Paul Dudley White Award
Gary Balady, M.D., director of Preventive Cardiology and the Non-Invasive Cardiovascular Laboratories at Boston Medical Center, will receive the American Heart Association's most prestigious tribute, the Paul Dudley White Award, at the group's annual Heart Ball on May 3.

Extremes in wet, dry spells increasing for South Asian monsoons, Stanford scholars say
Stanford climate scientists and statisticians have found changing patterns in South Asian monsoons since 1980: more extreme wet and dry spells.

Scientific Style and Format, 8th edition, now available
The most recognized, authoritative reference source on scientific editorial style and publishing practices for authors, editors, publishers, students, and translators is available as an online reference for the first time in the publication's history.

Fluorescent-based tool reveals how medical nanoparticles biodegrade in real time
For nanoparticles to deliver medicines to patients, the tiny structures must safely decompose so they can be cleared from the body after their job is done.

Carnegie Mellon-Disney researcher invents 3-D printing technique for making cuddly stuff
A new type of 3-D printer developed by Carnegie Mellon University and Disney Research Pittsburgh can turn wool and wool blend yarns into fabric objects that people enjoy touching.

Surveys indicate decline in children's exposure to violence
Children's exposure to violence and crime declined between 2003 and 2011.

Flexible battery, no lithium required
A Rice University laboratory has created a thin, flexible film that combines the best qualities of batteries and supercapacitors.

How to create nanowires only 3 atoms wide with an electron beam
A Vanderbilt graduate student who is a visiting scientist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has used a focused beam of electrons to create some of the smallest nanowires ever made.

Research shows smartphone sensors leave trackable fingerprints
Research at the University of Illinois has demonstrated that smartphone sensors -- not just the ones meant to track your location -- can leave real-time fingerprints unique to each individual device.

Identification of genetic mutations involved in human blood diseases
A study published today in Nature Genetics has revealed mutations that could have a major impact on the future diagnosis and treatment of many human diseases.

$2.3 million study to examine how neighborhoods influence child maltreatment rates
The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development awarded a $2.3 million grant to three Case Western Reserve University schools and colleges.

Criminal behavior: Older siblings strongly sway younger siblings close in age
If a sibling commits a violent criminal act, the risk that a younger sibling may follow in their footsteps is more likely than the transmission of that behavior to an older sibling, according to a new study conducted by researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University and Lund University in Sweden.

Precise brain mapping can improve response to deep brain stimulation in depression
Precisely defining white matter connections in the brain can help physicians choose optimal target sites for stimulation and significantly improve outcomes in deep brain stimulation for depression.

NIH scientists establish monkey model of hantavirus disease
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases researchers have developed an animal model of human hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in rhesus macaques, an advance that may lead to treatments, vaccines and improved methods of diagnosing the disease.

Research shows strategic thinking strengthens intellectual capacity
Strategy-based cognitive training has the potential to enhance cognitive performance and spill over to real-life benefit according to a data-driven perspective article by the Center for BrainHealth at the University of Texas at Dallas published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience.

Imaging gives clearer picture of cancer drugs' chances of success
The quest for new cancer treatments could be revolutionized by advances in technology that can visualize living cells and tissues, scientists claim.

Success really does breed success, unique online experiments find
Success really does breed success -- up to a point -- found researchers from University College London and Stony Brook University, following a series of unique online experiments.

Complications from kidney stone treatments are common and costly
Despite their overall low risk, procedures to treat kidney stones lead to complications that require hospitalization or emergency care for one in seven patients, according to researchers at Duke Medicine.

Study of stem cell trials links discrepancies in data with reported success of treatment
New research looking at the success of clinical trials of stem cell therapy shows that trials appear to be more successful in studies where there are more discrepancies in the trial data.

Oxytocin promotes social behavior in infant rhesus monkeys
The hormone oxytocin appears to increase social behaviors in newborn rhesus monkeys, according to a study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health, the University of Parma in Italy, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Transplant success tied to naturally high levels of powerful immune molecule package
Patients with highest levels of the most powerful version of the immune molecule HLA-G appear to have the lowest risk of rejecting their transplanted kidney, researchers report.

Using a foreign language changes moral decisions
Would you sacrifice one person to save five? Such moral choices could depend on whether you are using a foreign language or your native tongue.

Scientists identify antibodies against deadly emerging disease
Dana-Farber researchers have identified antibodies against the deadly Middle East respiratory syndrome -- an infectious disease with a 40 percent death rate.

AAN issues findings on use of medical marijuana in treatment of certain brain diseases
A review by the American Academy of Neurology of available scientific research on the use of medical marijuana in brain diseases finds certain forms of medical marijuana can help treat some symptoms of multiple sclerosis, but do not appear to be helpful in treating drug-induced (levodopa) movements in Parkinson's disease.

Wildfire outbreak in far eastern Russia
According to the Voice of Russia, 'As of Saturday morning, in Russia continue 103 wildfires at 27,412 hectares, including big 26 wildfires in the Far East and in Siberia.

Mystery of the pandemic flu virus of 1918 solved by University of Arizona researchers
UA researchers have solved the mystery of the origin of the 1918 pandemic flu virus and found compelling evidence that its severity resulted from a mismatch between its surface proteins and prior immunity in certain age groups, which could inform future vaccine design and pandemic prevention.

Polymer announces winners 8th Feng Xinde Polymer Prize: Best Chinese paper published '13
The journal Polymer has announced the winning paper of its annual Feng Xinde Polymer Prize.

Catastrophic thoughts about the future linked to suicidal patients
Suicide has been on the increase recently in the United States, currently accounting for almost 40,000 deaths a year.

Patients report high satisfaction with pain treatment
An international research group with members from the University of Basel, several EU countries, Israel and the USA, analyzed patient satisfaction with pain treatment after surgery.

PETA among finalists for global social progress award
PETA's work to stop medical training drills and replace them with superior simulators is being recognized by the country's largest social impact competition, the Classy Awards.

First production of synthesized 'solar' jet fuel
With the first ever production of synthesized 'solar' jet fuel, the EU-funded SOLAR-JET project has successfully demonstrated the entire production chain for renewable kerosene obtained directly from sunlight, water and carbon dioxide, therein potentially revolutionizing the future of aviation.

Dipping blood sugars cause surprisingly irregular heart rhythms in diabetics
Dangerous overnight blood sugar levels often go undetected and cause prolonged periods of heart rhythm disturbances in older patients with Type 2 diabetes and associated heart problems, new research reveals.

Ames Lab researchers see rare-earth-like magnetic properties in iron
Scientists at the Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have observed magnetic properties typically associated with those observed in rare-earth elements in iron.

Treat homelessness first, everything else later: Study
Providing safe, stable and affordable housing first is the best way to help homeless in Hamilton, Ontario, according to new research.

Well-informed patients key to accepting gene-based drug dosing
A new study out of Western University led by Dr.

Protecting computer hardware: Three universities tapped for cybersecurity research
The US Department of Defense has awarded a $7.5 million grant to the University of Connecticut, University of Maryland, and Rice University to support research that will analyze and upgrade security protections for nanoscale computer hardware.

Receiving chemotherapy after a breast cancer diagnosis may affect a patient's employment
A new study has found that loss of paid employment after a diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer may be common and potentially related to the type of treatment patients received.

Viral 'parasites' may play a key role in the maintenance of cell pluripotency
In a study published in Nature Genetics, scientists from the RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies in Japan, in collaboration with the RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, the University of Copenhagen and the Joint Genome Institute have discovered that 'jumping DNA' known as retrotransposons -- viral elements incorporated into the human genome -- may play a key role in the maintenance of pluripotency, the ability of stem cells to differentiate into many different types of body cells.

The scent of a man
Scientists' inability to replicate research findings using mice and rats has contributed to mounting concern over the reliability of such studies.

'Let it go,' but not in the boardroom
A USC study examines how the interpretation of facial expressions can impact economic decision making such as negotiation.

First disease-specific human embryonic stem cell line by nuclear transfer
Using somatic cell nuclear transfer, a team of scientists led by Dr.

Urbanization, higher temperatures can influence butterfly emergence patterns
An international team of researchers has found that a subset of common butterfly species are emerging later than usual in urban areas located in warmer regions, raising questions about how the insects respond to significant increases in temperature.

Optimizing sweet potato production
Experiments investigated the yield increase and grade proportions in response to plant spacing and extension of growing periods for 'Beauregard' and 'Evangeline' sweet potato.

Satellite movie shows US tornado outbreak from space
NASA has just released an animation of visible and infrared satellite data from NOAA's GOES-East satellite that shows the development and movement of the weather system that spawned tornadoes on April 27.

Mayo Clinic launches 50-gene cancer panel test
Mayo Clinic announces the launch of CANCP, a new gene panel cancer test to help tailor chemotherapy to the individual patient based on the unique genomic signature of the patient's tumor.

New program in Malawi addresses critical shortage of health care workers in rural areas
The Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation is proud to launch a new training program to address health care worker shortages in Malawi.

Studies presented at ACOG Annual Meeting reveal new information about weight and pregnancy
Two studies from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania reveal new information about the effects of weight gain and obesity among pregnant women.

UH petroleum engineering director wins SPE Award
Tom Holley, professor and director of the UH Cullen College of Engineering's petroleum engineering program, has won the Society of Petroleum Engineers Gulf Coast Regional Distinguished Achievement Award for Petroleum Engineering Faculty.

Researchers identify potential new strategy to treat ovarian cancer
Scientists studying cancerous tumor tissues in a laboratory believe they have identified a potential new strategy to treat ovarian cancer -- which affects around 7,000 women in the UK each year.

Gulf War illness: New report lauds treatment research, confirms toxic causes
A new report from the Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses indicates progress has been made toward understanding the physiological mechanisms that underlie Gulf War illness and identifying possible treatments.

The thin-crusted US Sierra Nevada Mountains: Where did the Earth go?
In an addition to Geosphere's ongoing themed issue series, 'Geodynamics and Consequences of Lithospheric Removal in the Sierra Nevada, California,' Craig H.

A system detects global trends in social networks 2 months in advance
A new method of monitoring identifies what information will be relevant on social networks up to two months in advance.

Abuse jeopardizes new mothers' mental health
Ashley Pritchard, a Simon Fraser University doctoral student, is among four authors of a new research paper calling for closer monitoring of new mothers for mental health problems in light of their findings.

Establish the presence for the first time in Alava the fungus that causes potato blight
Scientists at the Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development, Neiker-Tecnalia, led by the Doctor in Biology Jose Ignacio Ruiz de Galarreta, have for the first time identified the existence in Alava-Araba of the two sexual types A1 and A2 of the fungus Phytophthora infestans, responsible for potato blight.

Higher calcium intake may reduce body fat, mitigating genetic risk for diabetes
Study shows calcium intake mitigates genetic risk for increased body fat in African-American children, a population with historically low calcium intake and high risk for diabetes.

Mathematicians trace source of Rogers-Ramanujan identities, find algebraic gold
Mathematicians have found a framework for the celebrated Rogers-Ramanujan identities and their arithmetic properties, solving another long-standing mystery stemming from the work of Indian math genius Srinivasa Ramanujan.

Terrorism works, but only when governments allow it to
Terrorism can be a successful strategy for rebel groups during civil war, but only when governments allow it to work, finds a new study by a Michigan State University political scientist.

Unemployment common after breast cancer treatment
Nearly one-third of breast cancer survivors who were working when they began treatment were unemployed four years later.

Newborn Tropical Storm Tapah threatens Saipan and Tinian
A tropical storm warning is in force for Saipan and Tinian as Tropical Storm Tapah moves north through the Northwestern Pacific Ocean on April 28.

Variable gene expression in zebrafish
Early embryonic development of vertebrates is controlled by the genes and their 'grammar.' Decoding this grammar might help understand the formation of abnormalities or cancer or develop new medical drugs.

Two breath compounds could be associated with larynx cancer
Researchers at the Rey Juan Carlos University and the Alcorcon Hospital (Madrid) have compared the volatile substances exhaled by eleven people with cancer of larynx, with those of another twenty healthy people.

The power of protein at breakfast; higher amounts may deliver more benefits
Many consumers are aware they should make protein a priority at breakfast, but it may be equally important for them to choose an optimal amount of protein to maximize its benefits, suggests new research presented at the American Society for Nutrition's Experimental Biology conference this week.

UCLA scientists hunt down origin of Huntington's disease in the brain
The gene mutation that causes Huntington's disease appears in every cell in the body, yet kills only two types of brain cells.

The International Society for Stem Cell Research 12th Annual Meeting, June 18-21, 2014
The ISSCR's 12th Annual Meeting will bring together approximately 4,000 stem cell scientists, bioethicists, clinicians and industry professionals from over 50 countries to present and discuss the latest research and technologies within the field.

Annals of Internal Medicine tip sheet for April 29, 2014
The April 29, 2014, issue of Annals of Internal Medicine includes papers titled 'Measles outbreaks prompt concern about physician knowledge gaps' and 'Viral hepatitis remains a major health concern in the US.'

Carnegie Mellon awarded $7.5 million Department of Defense grant to reshape mathematics
Carnegie Mellon University's Steve Awodey has received a $7.5 million, five-year grant from the Department of Defense to reshape the foundations of mathematics by developing a new approach that allows for large-scale formalization and computer verification.

Urgent care centers must be made ready for kids: New AAP guidelines
Today the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued an updated policy statement making recommendations and highlighting gaps in knowledge about the treatment of children in urgent care centers.

Breast cancer patients place huge emphasis on gene expression profiling test
Gene expression profiling tests play a critical role when women with early-stage breast cancer decide whether to have chemotherapy, but many of them do not fully understand what some of the test results mean, new research suggests.

Increasing the diversity of marketable raspberries
Scientists compared the postharvest quality of red, yellow, purple, and black raspberries.

More coral babies staying at home on future reefs
Researchers have found that increasing ocean temperatures due to climate change will soon see reefs retaining and nurturing more of their own coral larvae, leaving large reef systems less interconnected and potentially more vulnerable.

Ozone levels drop 20 percent with switch from ethanol to gasoline
A Northwestern University study by an economist and a chemist reports that when fuel prices drove residents of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to mostly switch from ethanol to gasoline in their flexible-fuel vehicles, local ozone levels dropped 20 percent.

UM chemist selected as Fulbright-Nehru Distinguished Scholar
V. Ramamurthy, professor of chemistry and former chemistry department chair at the UM College of Arts & Sciences, is one of just four scholars from America (including all arts, science, engineering, and medical disciplines) to be named a 2014 Fulbright-Nehru Distinguished Chair.

Estimating baby's size gets more precise
New Michigan State University research aims to help doctors estimate the size of newborns with a new set of birth weight measurements based on birth records from across the country.

Elsevier and the American Urological Association launch new journal: Urology Practice
Elsevier, world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, and the American Urological Association, a premier urological association providing invaluable support to the urology community, announce their collaboration to launch a new journal, Urology Practice.

What lies beneath modern New England? Mountain-building and the end of an ancient ocean
When and where did the ancient Iapetus Ocean suture (the most fundamental Appalachian structure) form?

NYU Steinhardt researchers to study why male millennials risk HIV transmission
The number of new HIV infections in the United States had remained steady in recent years, but rates among urban millennial gay, bisexual, and other young men who have sex with men have steadily increased in the past decade.

Oxford University Press to publish Entomological Society of America publications in 2015
Oxford University Press is pleased to announce its new partnership with the Entomological Society of America.

Australian marine reserves provide safe passageway for endangered species
The value of Australia's newly established network of marine parks has been highlighted by an international project that used satellites to track the vulnerable flatback sea turtle.

Researchers identify mechanism of cancer caused by loss of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene function
Inherited mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes are by far the most frequent contributors of hereditary cancer risk in the human population, often causing breast or ovarian cancer in young women of child-bearing age.

Determining biocontainers' carbon footprint
A study assessed material and energy inputs required to produce a petunia plant from propagation to delivery.

Whitefly confused by cacophony of smells
Biologists at Newcastle University, UK, show how whitefly become confused when they are bombarded with a mixture of plant smells, hindering their ability to feed.

Prehistoric caribou hunting structure discovered beneath Lake Huron
Underwater archaeologists have discovered evidence of prehistoric caribou hunts that provide unprecedented insight into the social and seasonal organization of early peoples in the Great Lakes region.

One cell type may quash tumor vaccines
Researchers suspect that many cancer vaccines fail because the immune cells that would destroy the tumor are actively suppressed.

Wetlands likely to blame for greenhouse gas increases: Study
A surprising recent rise in atmospheric methane likely stems from wetland emissions, suggesting that much more of the potent greenhouse gas will be pumped into the atmosphere as northern wetlands continue to thaw and tropical ones to warm, according to a new international study led by a University of Guelph researcher.

Simply being called 'fat' makes young girls more likely to become obese
Girls who are told by a parent, sibling, friend, classmate or teacher that they are too fat at age 10 are more likely to be obese at age 19, a new study by University of California Los Angeles psychologists shows.

Smart home programming: Easy as 'if this, then that'
The idea of a smart home sounds promising enough, but how will users make sure all those automated devices are doing what they're supposed to do?

Studies offer insight on how to improve kidney and liver transplantation
The quality of kidney and liver donations is fundamentally important for the longevity of transplants and the health of recipients.

Disney Researchers use 3-D printing to produce interactive speakers of any shape
Forget everything you know about what a loudspeaker should look like.

Stanford scientists create circuit board modeled on the human brain
Stanford scientists have developed faster, more energy-efficient microchips based on the human brain -- 9,000 times faster and using significantly less power than a typical PC.

A glassy look for manganites
Researchers at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source discovered a glass-like re-ordering of electron-spin states as manganite crystals recovered from a photo-excited conductor state back to an insulator state.

Risk of cesarean delivery 12 percent lower with labor induction
The risk of a cesarean delivery was 12 percent lower in women whose labor was induced compared with women who were managed with a 'wait-and-see' approach (expectant management), according to a research paper published in CMAJ.

Nutrition experts chew the fat at ASN satellite symposium
A cross-disciplinary group of food and nutrition scientists highlighted the latest research on the role of fatty acids in health and new technologies that are changing the types of fats used in food production on Friday at the ASN Satellite Session: Let's Chew the Fat, sponsored by the Alliance for Potato Research and Education.

Increasing sugar concentration in tomato juice
A study determined whether a prototypic method of wire coiling increases the sugar concentration of tomato fruit.

Indiana University researchers gauge the toll of trampoline fractures on children
Trampoline accidents sent an estimated 288,876 people, most of them children, to hospital emergency departments with broken bones from 2002 to 2011, at a cost of more than $400 million, according to an analysis by researchers at the Indiana University School of Medicine.

Technological advancements extend survival of transplanted hearts across species
The use of transplant organs from animals (xenotransplantation) could help to compensate for the shortage of human organs available for transplant.

Basel Egyptologists identify tomb of royal children
Who had the privilege to spend eternal life next to the pharaoh?

Multilayer, microscale solar cells enable ultrahigh efficiency power generation
A printing approach, developed by John Rogers and colleagues at the University of Illinois, allows manipulation of ultrathin, small semiconductor elements that can be stacked on top of one another to yield an unusual type of solar cell capable of operating across the entire solar spectrum at exceptionally high efficiency.

R.I. nitrogen cycle differs in bay and sound
A new study reports that anammox, a key process in the nitrogen cycle, is barely present in Narragansett Bay even though it's a major factor just a little farther out into Rhode Island Sound.

A water test for the world
A group of McMaster researchers has solved the problem of cumbersome, expensive and painfully slow water-testing by turning the process upside-down.

Loss of Y chromosome can explain shorter life expectancy and higher cancer risk for men
It is generally well known that men have an overall shorter life expectancy compared to women.

Oxytocin promotes social behavior in infant rhesus monkeys
Earlier research in adults has shown that oxytocin increases certain social behaviors, says behavioral endocrinologist Jerrold Meyer of UMass Amherst, but the current study is the first to show that it may have the same effect in primate infants, including humans.

Brazilian agricultural policy could cut global greenhouse gas emissions
Brazil may be able to curb up to 26 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation by encouraging the intensification of its cattle production, according to a new study from researchers at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and international collaborators.
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