Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 03, 2014
Outcomes of steroid therapy following surgery for infants with bile duct disorder
Among infants who underwent surgery to repair bile ducts that do not drain properly (biliary atresia), the administration of high-dose steroid therapy following surgery did not significantly improve bile drainage after six months, although a small clinical benefit could not be excluded, according to a study in the May 7 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on child health.

Steroids after surgery do not help infants with rare liver disease
Infants with biliary atresia -- a rare liver disease -- did not benefit from corticosteroid treatment after bile duct surgery and could face more harm, according to a study funded by the National Institutes of Health.

Poverty threatens long-term health of children
Pediatricians, social scientists, economists and policy experts will come together on Saturday, May 3, to discuss the critical problem that childhood poverty presents in the US -- and steps to end poverty.

Vibrating capsule shows promising results in treating chronic constipation
An oral capsule that vibrates as it moves through the digestive tract has shown notable promise as a non-pharmacological treatment for constipation, according to new research presented today at Digestive Disease Week.

Supermarket access key ingredient in obesity programs
Living close to a supermarket appears to be a key factor in the success of interventions to help obese children eat better and improve their weight, according to a study to be presented Saturday, May 3, at the Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Discrimination associated with mental health woes in black teens
The vast majority of African-American and Afro-Caribbean youth face racial discrimination, and these experiences are associated with an increased risk of mental health problems, according to a study to be presented Saturday, May 3, at the Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Nearly 50 percent of M.D.s believe diversion of ADHD stimulant medications among teens is a problem
Two recent studies by investigators at the Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York examined physicians' perceptions and knowledge of diversion of stimulant medications for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as well as practices physicians use to prevent diversion among their patients prescribed these medications.

Study shows lower verbal test score for toddlers who play non-educational games on touch screens
A recent study by pediatricians from the Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York examined infants 0-3 years old that used touch-screen devices to determine if their use was of any educational benefit to infants and toddlers.

Many heavily breastfed infants not getting needed dietary diversity
Approximately three of every four Cincinnati infants heavily breastfeed after the age of six months is not obtaining the level of dietary diversity recommended by the World Health Organization, according to a new Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center study.

Study shows steroids ineffective, possibly harmful in pediatric liver disease
A multi-center study concludes that treating infants with high doses of steroids fails to improve medical outcomes in the end-stage pediatric liver disease biliary atresia and leads to earlier onset of serious adverse events.

Penn study shows stimulant drug may help women cope with post-menopausal memory lapses
A new study from researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania shows preliminary evidence that the psychostimulant drug lisdexamfetamine can aid post-menopausal women by improving attention and concentration, organization, working memory and recall.

Genetic, environmental factors may have similar influence on risk of autism
The risk of autism may be influenced equally by genetic and environmental factors; in addition, a sibling of a family member with autism has a much higher risk for the disorder, according to a study in the May 7 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on child health.

Smoking during pregnancy may raise risk for heart defects in babies
Women who smoke during pregnancy may be putting their newborns at risk for congenital heart defects, and the more they smoke, the higher the risk, according to a study to be presented Saturday, May 3, at the Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Inbred wolves struggle, moose proliferate at Isle Royale National Park
Inbreeding has caused the wolf population at Isle Royale National Park to drop to nine.

DHA during pregnancy does not appear to improve cognitive outcomes for children
Although there are recommendations for pregnant women to increase their intake of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to improve fetal brain development, a randomized trial finds that prenatal DHA supplementation did not result in improved cognitive, problem-solving or language abilities for children at four years of age, according to the study in the May 7 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on child health.

Low rate of cholesterol testing for children and adolescents
Although some guidelines recommend lipid screening for children and adolescents of certain ages, data indicate that only about 3 percent are having their cholesterol tested during health visits, according to a study in the May 7 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on child health.

Study examines effect of receiving Tdap vaccine during pregnancy
A preliminary study finds that receipt of the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine in the third trimester of pregnancy did not increase the risk of adverse events for the mother or infant, according to a study in the May 7 issue of JAMA.

Many parents don't follow safe infant sleep practices
Each year, 4,000 babies die unexpectedly during sleep time from sudden infant death syndrome, accidental suffocation or unknown causes.

Despite recommendations for safer sleeping, infant deaths persist
About 4,000 babies die each year from sleep-related deaths involving suffocation and strangulation in beds, despite recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics that infants always be placed on their backs to sleep, and that they share a room with parents but not a bed.

Steroids after surgery do not help infants with rare liver disease
Infants who received corticosteroids following bile duct surgery to treat a rare liver disease known as biliary atresia experienced no clinical benefit of the medicine and could suffer harm, according to results of a National Institutes of Health-funded clinical trial published May 3 by the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Many infants still not placed on their backs to sleep
Since 1994, parents have been urged to put their babies to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome.

Study explores why gay, lesbian teens binge drink
Higher rates of binge drinking by lesbian and gay adolescents compared to their heterosexual peers may be due to chronic stress caused by difficult social situations, according to a study to be presented Saturday, May 3, at the Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Using substances at school may be cry for help
When teens are caught drinking or using marijuana at school, a trip to the dean's office may not suffice.

Study finds large increase in type 1 and 2 diabetes among US youth
In a study that included data from more than three million children and adolescents from diverse geographic regions of the United States, researchers found that the prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes increased significantly between 2001 and 2009, according to the study in the May 7 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on child health.

Environmental factors as important as genes in understanding autism
Environmental factors are more important than previously thought in understanding the causes of autism, and equally as important as genes, according to the largest study to date to look at how autism runs in families.

Nightmares may signal a child is being bullied
Many children who are bullied suffer in silence. The trauma can lead to anxiety, depression, psychotic episodes and even suicide.

Medication does not lower risk of fungal infection, death among ELBW infants
Use of the antifungal medication fluconazole for six weeks for extremely low birth-weight infants did not significantly reduce the risk of death or invasive candidiasis, a serious infection that occurs when candida -- a type of fungus -- enters the bloodstream and spreads through the body, according to a study in the May 7 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on child health.
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