Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 13, 2014
Achieving patient-centered care across the spectrum
Providing patient-centered care consistently in clinical practice requires practitioners who are able to recognize that different clinical situations require different approaches and are skilled enough to adapt.

Human learning altered by electrical stimulation of dopamine neurons
Stimulation of a certain population of neurons within the brain can alter the learning process, according to a team of neuroscientists and neurosurgeons at the University of Pennsylvania.

Distance influences accuracy of eyewitness IDs
Eyewitness accuracy declines steadily and quite measuredly as the distance increases.

Get it over with: People choose more difficult tasks to get jobs done more quickly
Putting off tasks until later, or procrastination, is a common phenomenon -- but new research suggests that -pre-crastination,- hurrying to complete a task as soon as possible, may also be common.

UT Dallas team creates flexible electronics that change shape inside body
A team of researchers from UT Dallas has helped create flexible transistors that can grip large tissues, nerves and blood vessels without losing their electronic properties.

Study examines effectiveness of medications to treat alcohol use disorders
An analysis of more than 120 studies that examined the effectiveness of medications to treat alcohol use disorders reports that acamprosate and oral naltrexone show the strongest evidence for decreasing alcohol consumption, according to a study in the May 14 issue of JAMA.

Tiny, tenacious and tentatively toxic
Sometimes we think we know everything about something only to find out we really don't, said a Texas A&M University scientist.

Register today for EULAR 2014!
Paris awaits! Register today for EULAR 2014!

Smithsonian scientists link unusual fish larva to new species of sea bass from Curacao
Identifying larval stages of marine fishes in the open ocean is difficult because the young fishes often bear little or no resemblance to the adults they will become.

Comet theory false; doesn't explain Ice Age cold snap, Clovis changes, animal extinction
New research has proven again that a comet didn't spark climate change at the end of the Ice Age, killing the Clovis peoples and causing mass animal extinction.

Study findings question benefit of additional imaging before cancer surgery
Among patients with a certain type of colorectal cancer with limited spread to the liver, imaging using positron emission tomography and computed tomography (CT) before surgery did not significantly change the surgical treatment of the cancer, compared with CT alone, according to a study in the May 14 issue of JAMA.

Chapman University affiliated physicist publishes on the Aharonov-Bohm effect in Nature
Chapman University affiliated quantum physicist Yutaka Shikano, Ph.D., and his co-authors used the Aharonov-Bohm effect to observe the tunneling of a single particle for the first time.

Quantum trimer -- from a distance
Some years ago, Rudolf Grimm's team of quantum physicists in Innsbruck provided experimental proof of Efimov states -- a phenomenon that until then had been known only in theory.

Simplifying an ultrafast laser offers better control
A team led by François Légaré, professor at the INRS Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications Research Centre, developed a new concept offering a simpler laser design, control over new parameters, and excellent performance potential.

Women's empowerment and Olympic success
New research shows that nations with greater women's empowerment win more medals and send more athletes to the Summer Olympics.

Study findings question benefit of additional imaging before cancer surgery
This study is the largest, based on high-quality imaging and reading of scans, to understand the role of PET-CT in selecting the best colorectal cancer candidates whose cancer has spread to the liver for surgery.

TB lung infection causes changes in the diversity of gut bacteria in mice
Johns Hopkins researchers have found evidence in mice that a tuberculosis infection in the lungs triggers immune system signaling to the gut that temporarily decreases the diversity of bacteria in that part of the digestive tract.

Smart drugs pose special risks to the developing brain of young people
Students who take 'smart drugs' risk long-term damage to the brain's working memory and ability to move efficiently from one task to another.

3-D 'map' of enzyme completed by MU scientists could lead to more effective drugs
University of Missouri researchers have completed a 3-D map of an enzyme called Proline utilization A (PutA).

Professional surfer back in the water after successful surgery to treat rare bone cancer
When professional surfer Richie Lovett began experiencing hip pain at 31, he attributed it to his athletic lifestyle.

Scientists reveal structural secrets of enzyme used to make popular anti-cholesterol drug
The cholesterol-lowering statin simvastatin, first marketed as Zocor, has generated billions of dollars in annual sales.

A tiny, toothy catfish with bulldog snout defies classification
Kryptoglanis shajii is a strange fish -- and the closer scientists look, the stranger it gets.

Odd planet, so far from its star...
A gas giant has been added to the short list of exoplanets discovered through direct imaging.

Many schools are neglecting students' health and wellbeing, warn experts
Many schools in England are neglecting -- and may be actively harming -- students' health and wellbeing, warn experts in an editorial published on bmj.com today.

New agent may enhance effectiveness of radiotherapy
Scientists from The University of Manchester -- part of the Manchester Cancer Research Centre -- have demonstrated the potential of a drug to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy in stopping tumor growth.

Exploring submerged prehistoric landscapes
Buoyed by the success of the DeepWater expedition carried out along the Gulf Stream in the spring of 2013, the University of Geneva and PlanetSolar are launching TerraSubmersa this summer.

The Rotman School of Management and the Global Risk Institute bring SoFiE to Canada
The Global Risk Institute in Financial Services and the University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management announced today that they will be co-sponsoring the 7th Annual Conference of the Society for Financial Econometrics.

New stem cell research points to early indicators of schizophrenia
Using new stem cell technology, scientists at the Salk Institute have shown that neurons generated from the skin cells of people with schizophrenia behave strangely in early developmental stages, providing a hint as to ways to detect and potentially treat the disease early.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder questionnaire may give clues to other mental health problems
A short version of a questionnaire used by psychologists to assess risk factors for obsessive-compulsive disorder also may help determine the risk of depression and anxiety, according to a Baylor University study.

CRF will Provide updates on several key cardiovascular trials at EuroPCR
The Cardiovascular Research Foundation (CRF) will hold a special session providing updates on several key cardiovascular trials on Tuesday, May 20, at this year's EuroPCR meeting.

Researchers identify genetic marker linked to OCD
A group of researchers led by Johns Hopkins scientists say they have identified a genetic marker that may be associated with the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder, whose causes and mechanisms are among the least understood among mental illnesses.

Novel protein fragments may protect against Alzheimer's
Alzheimer's research has centered on trying to understand the protective or regenerative properties of brain cells as an avenue for treating the widespread disease.

Humans and companion animals harbor the same types of MRSA infections
A shared population of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria circulates both in humans and companion animals, according to a study published this week in mBio, the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology.

Algorithm enables computers to identify actions much more efficiently
Techniques from natural-language processing enable computers to efficiently search video for actions.

Identified 2 new genes involved in the more aggressive prostate cancer
A study by the Columbia University Nova York, in collaboration with the Catalan Institute of Oncology , Belvitge Biomedical Research Institute has identified two new genes that lead to more aggressive forms of prostate cancer.

E-cigarettes and mental health
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that people living with depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions are twice as likely to have tried e-cigarettes and three times as likely to be current users of the controversial battery-powered nicotine-delivery devices, as people without mental health disorders.

Dangerous nitrogen pollution could be halved
The most important fertilizer for producing food is, at the same time, one of the most important risks for human health: nitrogen.

Surprising global species shake-up discovered
Scientists re-examined 100 world-wide monitoring studies and were surprised to discover that, over decades, the number of species in many places has not changed much -- or has increased.

Novel ORNL technique enables air-stable water droplet networks
A simple new technique to form interlocking beads of water in ambient conditions could prove valuable for applications in biological sensing, membrane research and harvesting water from fog.

Arthroscopy of the knee joint for arthrosis: No benefit detectable
Overall, the benefit of arthroscopy of the knee joint for the treatment of gonarthrosis is not proven.

Mayo Clinic study identifies strategies that reduce early hospital readmissions
A Mayo Clinic review of 47 studies found that 30-day readmissions can be reduced by almost 20 percent when specific efforts are taken to prevent them.

Protein Data Bank: 100,000 structures
Four wwPDB data centers in the US, UK and Japan support online access to three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules that help researchers understand many facets of biomedicine, agriculture, and ecology, from protein synthesis to health.

Male infertility: It's all about the package
Infertility is generally thought of as a woman's problem. In fact, more than 3 million men across America also experience it.

First trial restored under new initiative casts doubt on repeat bowel cancer surgery
A trial that remained unpublished for 20 years casts doubt on the survival benefit of repeat -- 'second look' -- surgery for bowel cancer.

Autophagic activation with Nimotuzumab enhances chemo-radiosensitivity
Nimotuzumab, a humanized IgG1 isotype monoclonal antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), enhanced the sensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells with high expression of EGFR to chemo-radiotherapy, due to autophagic activation mediated by this agent.

Difference found in brain area linked to memory among college football players
Preliminary research finds that within a group of collegiate football players, those who experienced a concussion or had been playing for more years had smaller hippocampal volume (an area of the brain important for memory) than those with fewer years of football experience, according to a study in the May 14 issue of JAMA.

Rounding up the BCATs on the Space Station
The Binary Colloidal Alloy Tests (BCAT) series of investigations aims to understand fluids and the physics behind their movement.

Antibody combined with statin results in further reduction of cholesterol levels
Among patients with high cholesterol receiving moderate- or high-intensity statin therapy, the addition of the human monoclonal antibody evolocumab resulted in additional lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, according to a study in the May 14 issue of JAMA.

The physics of ocean undertow
Large storms produce strong undertows that can strip beaches of sand.

Radiation from early universe found key to answer major questions in physics
Astrophysicists at UC San Diego have measured the minute gravitational distortions in polarized radiation from the early universe and discovered that these ancient microwaves can provide an important cosmological test of Einstein's theory of general relativity.

Preschool teacher depression linked to behavioral problems in children
Depression in preschool teachers is associated with behavioral problems ranging from aggression to sadness in children under the teachers' care, new research suggests.

Why athletes are more likely to need pacemakers in old age
The Manchester research in rodents, funded by the British Heart Foundation, shows molecular changes in the heart's pacemaker occur in response to exercise training.

Role of calcium in familial Alzheimer's disease clarified, pointing to new therapeutics
Mutations in two presenilin proteins associated with familial Alzheimer's disease disrupt the flow of calcium ions within neurons.

Study: state VAMS don't reflect content, quality of teachers' instruction
New research published online today in Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Educational Research Association, finds weak to nonexistent relationships between state-administered value-added model measures of teacher performance and the content or quality of teachers' instruction.

UTMB study discovers cause of many preterm births
A new study by researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston is the first to show that premature aging of the placenta due to oxidative stress is the cause of many preterm births.

Follow that fish!
Research is helping unravel the complex interplay between alcohol and social behavior.

Novel target found for chemotherapy-resistant leukemia cells
Researchers at Children's Hospital Los Angeles have discovered that by targeting a particular receptor, chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells can be killed in an acute form of childhood leukemia, offering the potential for a future treatment for patients who would otherwise experience relapse of their disease.

Ultrafast laser technique developed to observe electron action
UCF physicist Zheng Chang and his team have developed a new ultrafast light source for observing electron motion in molecules -- made up of nuclei and electrons -- at the point before the nuclei start to move.

Coral reefs are critical for risk reduction & adaptation
Stronger storms, rising seas, and flooding are placing hundreds of millions people at risk around the world, and big part of the solution to decrease those risks is just off shore.

Signal Fire in New Mexico
Firefighters are currently battling the Signal Fire in the Gila National Forest in New Mexico.

German-Polish physicist duo win 2014 Copernicus Award
Physicists professor Harald Weinfurter from the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich and professor Marek Żukowski from the University of Gdansk have been chosen to receive the 2014 Copernicus Award from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Foundation for Polish Science for their services to German-Polish research cooperation.

Bird invaders 'moving in' to UK's nature reserves
A new study by scientists at the University of York and the RSPB Centre for Conservation Science has demonstrated that nature reserves and other areas specially protected for wildlife, as well as being vital for native species, are very important for helping European birds to expand their ranges into Britain naturally.

Companies commercialize VTT technology that miniaturises measuring devices
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed smart optical measuring devices with companies for uses that include optimization of vehicle engines, reduction and monitoring of environmental emissions, and quality control of pharmaceuticals.

Evolutionary biologists glimpse early stages of Y-chromosome degeneration
In many species, X and Y chromosomes determine whether an individual develops into a male or female.

Carnegie Mellon will test Internet architecture in vehicular network and for online video
Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and three other institutions will test a next-generation Internet architecture they've developed in a vehicular network in Pittsburgh and in delivering online video on a national scale.

Ancient giant sperm discovered at Riversleigh World Heritage Fossil Site
Preserved giant sperm from tiny shrimps that lived about 17 million years ago have been discovered at the Riversleigh World Heritage Fossil Site in Queensland by a team including UNSW Australia researchers.

First year student publishes monsoon study
A first year Environmental Science student at The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus has had a literature review of the Southeast Asian monsoon published in the academic journal Geoscience Frontiers.

Concerns raised over EU ban on ditching unwanted fish
New rules banning fishermen from throwing away unwanted fish they have caught could harm wildlife -- and fail to improve fish stocks, a University of Strathclyde report has found.

MEMS nanoinjector for genetic modification of cells
The ability to transfer a gene or DNA sequence from one animal into the genome of another plays a critical role in a wide range of medical research -- including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and diabetes, and now there's a way to avoid cell death when introducing DNA into egg cells.

Understanding the 1918 flu pandemic can aid in better infectious disease response
The 1918 Flu Pandemic infected over 500 million people, killing at least 50 million.

Women's empowerment and Olympic success
New research shows that nations with greater women's empowerment win more medals and send more athletes to the Summer Olympics.

Hospital rankings for heart failure readmissions unaffected by patient's socioeconomic status
A new Mount Sinai study shows the socioeconomic status of congestive heart failure patients does not influence hospital rankings for heart failure readmissions.

Primates and patience -- the evolutionary roots of self control
Some primate species will wait more than two minutes if they know they will get a larger serving of food -- while others are unable to wait more than a few seconds.

Patients most in need of the vaccine against shingles don't get it 
People at the highest risk of shingles are those with immunosuppressive conditions -- such as HIV -- but they are not entitled to vaccination due to safety concerns, suggests a paper published on bmj.com today.

Older, sicker men with early-stage prostate cancer do not benefit from aggressive treatment
Treating older men with early-stage prostate cancer who also have other serious underlying health problems with aggressive therapies such as surgery or radiation therapy does not help them live longer.

Forgiving a wrong may actually make it easier to forget
We're often told to 'forgive and forget' the wrongs that we suffer -- it turns out that there may be some scientific truth behind the common saying.

Letting it go: Take responsibility, make amends and forgive yourself
Forgiving ourselves for hurting another is easier if we first make amends, giving our inner selves a 'moral OK,' according to Baylor research.

Clean air in Iowa
A new study from the University of Iowa reports Iowa's air quality falls within government guidelines for cleanliness, based on data gathered at five locations statewide.

Pretreatment snack improves uptake of schistosomiasis treatment in schoolchildren
Provision of a snack before mass treatment of schistosomiasis with praziquantel leads to increased uptake of treatment in school-aged children in Uganda, according to a study published in this week's PLOS Medicine.

Released prisoners are more likely to suffer early death
Men who have been incarcerated and released are more than twice as likely to die prematurely as those who have not been imprisoned, according to a new study published by Georgia State University criminologist William Alex Pridemore.

Scientists reveal new picture in the evolution of flightless birds
Because of their far-flung geography and colorful examples including the African ostrich, Australian emu, New Zealand kiwi and long lost giants such as the New Zealand moa, researchers Allan Baker, et. al. have examined a fascinating part in the story of the avian tree of life: flightless birds, or ratites.

Medications can help adults with alcohol use disorders reduce drinking
Several medications can help people with alcohol use disorders maintain abstinence or reduce drinking, according to research from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Researchers identify link between colon cancer and metabolism
Rather than the typical series of oxidative steps that take place in the citric acid cycle, cancer cells metabolize sugar via the glycolytic pathway irrespective of whether oxygen is present or not.

Glycomics Institute to assist Australian sugar industry
Using tools developed for discovering new drugs based on sugars for cancer and infectious diseases, and applying them to further develop technologies for the Australian sugar industry.

A tale of survival
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a potent inhibitor of aerobic respiration.

Fossil palm beetles 'hind-cast' 50-million-year-old winters
Fifty-million-year-old fossil beetles that fed only on palm seeds are giving Simon Fraser University biologists Bruce Archibald and Rolf Mathewes new information about ancient climates.

Large increase seen in emergency departments visits for traumatic brain injury
Between 2006 and 2010, there was a nearly 30 percent increase in the rate of visits to an emergency department for traumatic brain injury, which may be attributable to a number of factors, including increased awareness and diagnoses, according to a study in the May 14 issue of JAMA.

Chemists design molecules for controlling bacterial behavior
Chemists in the College of Arts and Sciences at Syracuse University have figured out how to control multiple bacterial behaviors -- potentially good news for the treatment of infectious diseases and other bacteria-associated issues, without causing drug resistance.

Cancer stem cells under the microscope at Albert Einstein College of Medicine symposium
Healthy stem cells work to restore or repair the body's tissues, but cancer stem cells have a more nefarious mission: to spawn malignant tumors.
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