Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

June 03, 2014
New device isolates most aggressive cancer cells
Not all cancer cells are created equal -- some stay put in the primary tumor, while others move and invade elsewhere.

'Liquid biopsy' offers new way to track lung cancer
Research carried out at Cancer Research UK's Manchester Institute, based at The University of Manchester -- part of the Manchester Cancer Research Centre -- has looked at the potential of using circulating tumor cells -- cells that have broken off from the tumor and are circulating in the blood -- to investigate a patient's disease in a minimally invasive manner.

Image release: A violent, complex scene of colliding galaxy clusters
Using the Very Large Array along with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers see a fascinating, complex scene where clusters of galaxies are violently colliding.

High risk of recurrence of 2 life-threatening adverse drug reactions
Individuals who are hospitalized for the skin conditions of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis appear to have a high risk of recurrence, according to a study in the June 4 issue of JAMA.

Researchers to expand child exploitation web-crawler
Researchers in Simon Fraser University's International Cybercrime Research Centre are expanding their Child Exploitation Network Extractor -- an online 'web crawler' that identifies and tracks child exploitation networks online -- to determine where networks are located.

International forum to focus on scientific aspects and social and economic impact of salinity
Salinity has far-reaching economic and social impacts. Questions salinity experts often grapple with are: How much salt can crop and pasture species tolerate?

Deep sea fish remove 1 million tonnes of CO2 every year from UK and Irish waters
Deep sea fishes remove and store more than one million tonnes of CO2 from UK and Irish surface waters every year, according to a new study led by the University of Southampton.

Hubble unveils a colorful view of the universe
Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope have captured the most comprehensive picture ever assembled of the evolving universe -- and one of the most colorful.

New definition of kidney disease for clinical trials could lead to new treatments
A new study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health suggests that new therapies for kidney disease could be developed more quickly by revising the definition of kidney disease progression used during clinical trials.

Molecular 'scaffold' could hold key to new dementia treatments
Researchers at King's College London have discovered how a molecular 'scaffold' which allows key parts of cells to interact, comes apart in dementia and motor neuron disease, revealing a potential new target for drug discovery.

Experts recommend blood, urine testing to diagnose rare adrenal tumors
The Endocrine Society today issued a Clinical Practice Guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of two types of rare adrenal tumors -- pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas -- that can raise the risk of cardiovascular disease and even death if left untreated.

Technology deal secures commercial RAFT agent supply
The global polymer industry will soon have access to commercial quantities of RAFT agents, thanks to a new licensing arrangement between Boron Molecular and Australia's national science agency, the CSIRO.

Toxic computer waste in the developing world
As the developing world continues to develop, standards of living and access to technology increases.

Notre Dame receives Gates grant for groundbreaking research in global heal
Marya Lieberman, associate professor of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of Notre Dame, has received a Grand Challenges Explorations grant, an initiative funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Wyss Institute founding director Don Ingber to deliver 2014 Graeme Clark Oration
Wyss Institute Founding Director Don Ingber, M.D., Ph.D., will deliver the 2014 Graeme Clark Oration in Melbourne at Australia's most prestigious public science event on June 5th.

Bacterium causing US catfish deaths has Asian roots
A bacterium causing an epidemic among catfish farms in the southeastern United States is closely related to organisms found in diseased grass carp in China, according to researchers at Auburn University in Alabama and three other institutions.

Screening has prevented half a million colorectal cancers
An estimated half a million cancers were prevented by colorectal cancer screening in the United States from 1976 to 2009, report researchers from the Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center at Yale Cancer Center.

Curtin researchers in search for acoustic evidence of MH370
Curtin University researchers have been examining a low-frequency underwater sound signal that could have resulted from Malaysian Airlines Flight MH370.

Two planets orbit nearby ancient star
An international team of astronomers, including five Carnegie scientists, reports the discovery of two new planets orbiting a very old star that is near to our own sun.

Solving sunspot mysteries
Multi-wavelength observations of sunspots with the 1.6-meter telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory in California and aboard NASA's IRIS spacecraft have produced new and intriguing images of high-speed plasma flows and eruptions extending from the sun's surface to the outermost layer of the solar atmosphere, the corona.

In utero exposure to antidepressants may influence autism risk
A new study from researchers at Drexel University adds evidence that using common antidepressant medications during pregnancy may contribute to a higher risk of autism spectrum disorders in children, although this risk is still very small.

UGA ecologists provide close-up of coral bleaching event
New research by University of Georgia ecologists sheds light on exactly what happens to coral during periods of excessively high water temperatures.

Study finds coordinated approach improves quality of primary care
Primary care doctors practicing in a model of coordinated, team-based care that leverages health information technology are more likely to give patients recommended preventive screening and appropriate tests than physicians working in other settings, according to research published today in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

A new, greener cement to meet future demand
Cement production is responsible for almost 10 percent of human CO2 emissions.

Deeper than ancestry.com, 'EvoCor' identifies gene relationships
A team led by Gregorio Valdez of the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute has designed a search engine that identifies genes that are functionally linked.

How NASA builds a space laser
To build a satellite that will measure all the bumps and dips of our dynamic Earth, engineers started with a black box, built of a composite honeycomb material to make it as light as possible.

Novel dark matter searches, identifying muzzle flashes, and more at 2014 APS DAMOP annual meeting
The American Physical Society's 2014 Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (DAMOP) meeting focuses on the latest research into the control and manipulation of atoms, molecules, charged particles and light, through precision measurements and calculations of their properties, and through the invention of new ways to generate light with specific properties.

Notifying speeding mariners lowers ship speeds in areas with North Atlantic right whales
There are only around 500 North Atlantic right whales alive today.

Elsevier unveils updated 8th edition of Rutherford's Vascular Surgery
Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, will unveil Rutherford's Vascular Surgery, 8th Edition, a comprehensive two-volume reference, at the 2014 Vascular Annual Meeting in Boston, June 5 - 7.

Investigating unusual three-ribbon solar flares with extreme high resolution
The 1.6 meter telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) in California has given researchers unparalleled capability for investigating phenomena such as solar flares.

Many breast cancer patients don't get treatment for heart problems
About 12 percent of older breast cancer patients developed heart failure within three years, often as a result of the cancer drugs and treatments.

Proteins 'ring like bells'
As far back as 1948, Erwin Schrödinger -- the inventor of modern quantum mechanics -- published the book 'What is life?' In it, he suggested that quantum mechanics and coherent ringing might be at the basis of all biochemical reactions.

Astronomers discover ancient worlds from another galaxy next door
An international team of scientists, led by astronomers at Queen Mary University of London, report of two new planets orbiting Kapteyn's star, one of the oldest stars found near the Sun.

Global Research Council in Beijing: Working towards common standards in research and research funding
Discussions at the third annual meeting of the Global Research Council in Beijing, which ended on 28 May 2014, focused on issues of global interest in research and research funding.

Reporters using more 'hedging' words in climate change articles, CU-Boulder study finds
The amount of 'hedging' language -- words that suggest room for doubt -- used by prominent newspapers in articles about climate change has increased over time, according to a new study by the University of Colorado Boulder.

West coast log exports increased slightly, lumber exports dropped in first quarter of 2014
Log exports from Washington, Oregon, northern California, and Alaska increased by just under 2 percent in volume to 466 million board feet in the first quarter of 2014 compared to the fourth quarter of 2013, the US Forest Service's Pacific Northwest Research Station reported today.

Global health grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation awarded to the University of Surrey
The University of Surrey announced today that it has been awarded a Grand Challenges Explorations grant, an initiative funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

MARC Travel Awards announced for the ICE/ENDO 2014 Meeting
FASEB MARC -- Maximizing Access to Research Careers -- Program has announced the travel award recipients for the ICE/ENDO 2014 meeting in Chicago, IL from June 21-24, 2014.

Speeding food safety tests to deliver fresher products
New techniques designed by Nugen and fellow food scientists Amanda Kinchla and doctoral student Juhong Chen, with nanochemist Vincent Rotello, should help food manufacturers avoid costly waiting for safety tests before products can be sold.

Farmers markets inspire WIC moms, but grocery-store produce costs less!
When participants in a local Women, Infants, and Children program received vouchers for fruits and vegetables at area farmers markets, they ate a greater variety of vegetables and more often chose fruits or vegetables as snacks.

'Clever' DNA may help bacteria survive
Scientists have discovered that bacteria can reshape their DNA to survive dehydration.

New health services needed for rise in 100-year-olds
Over 35,000 people lived to 100 years or more in England over the last ten years, with a large proportion subsequently dying from frailty exacerbated by pneumonia, according to a new study by King's College London.

Progress on detecting glucose levels in saliva
Researchers from Brown University have developed a new biochip sensor that uses dye chemistry and plasmonic interferometry to selectively measure concentrations of glucose in a complex solution similar to human saliva.

MDMA can be fatal in warm environments
A moderate dose of MDMA, commonly known as Ecstasy or Molly, that is typically nonfatal in cool, quiet environments can be lethal in rats exposed to conditions that mimic the hot, crowded, social settings where the drug is often used by people, a study finds.

Environmental 'one-two punch' imperils Amazonian forests
One of the world's longest-running ecological studies has revealed that Amazonian forests are being altered by multiple environmental threats -- creating even greater perils for the world's largest rainforest.But the biggest surprise is that nearby undisturbed forests, which were also being carefully studied, changed as well.

Survey finds 'significant gap' in detection of malnutrition in Canadian hospital patients
A new survey of Canadian physicians shows a 'significant gap' between optimal practices to detect nutrition problems in hospitalized patients and what action is actually taking place.

Columbia Nursing study exposes infection risks in home health
Millions of Americans depend on home health care services to recover from surgeries and hospital stays, as well as to manage daily life with chronic conditions.

Climate engineering can't erase climate change
Tinkering with climate change through climate engineering isn't going to help us get around what we have to do says a new report authored by researchers at six universities, including Simon Fraser University.

Lasers and night-vision technology help improve imaging of hidden lymphatic system
Detecting lymphedema early, before swelling occurs, would lead to better outcomes for patients, but the major barrier preventing early diagnosis is the lack of high-resolution imaging techniques that can resolve these tiny vessels.

Fatty liver disease prevented in mice
Studying mice, researchers have found a way to prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide.

Study: New test predicts if breast cancer will spread
A test that counts the number of locations in tumor specimens where tumor cells may invade blood vessels predicted the risk of distant spread, or metastasis, for the most common type of breast cancer.

New insight into drug resistance in metastatic melanoma
Now researchers from the Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute at The University of Manchester -- part of the Manchester Cancer Research Centre -- have explored what happens in melanoma cells following inhibition of BRAF.

Liver cancer vaccine effective in mice
Tweaking a protein expressed by most liver cancer cells has enabled scientists to make a vaccine that is exceedingly effective at preventing the disease in mice.

New amyloid-reducing compound could be a preventive measure against Alzheimer's
Scientists at NYU Langone Medical Center have identified a compound, called 2-PMAP, in animal studies that reduced by more than half levels of amyloid proteins in the brain associated with Alzheimer's disease.

More than 10 percent of heart attack patients may have undiagnosed diabetes
At least ten percent of people who have a heart attack may also have undiagnosed diabetes.

Prototype electrolyte sensor to provide immediate read-outs
A prototype handheld sensor expected to detect and replenish elecrolytes may aid athletes (runners), soldiers on long missions, and ordinary citizens trying to minimize doctor visits and resultant lab charges.

Opioid overdose prevention programs may reduce deaths, reports Journal of Addiction Medicine
Community opioid overdose prevention programs -- including the use of naloxone for rapid drug reversal -- can improve bystander responses to overdose of heroin and related drugs, according to a review in the June Journal of Addiction Medicine, the official journal of the American Society of Addiction Medicine.

Balancing strategy to lateral impact in a rat Rattus norregicus
The rat bends flexible body to absorb the impact energy when encountering the lateral thorax strike, while encountering the lateral abdomen strike through its side-sway and left leg supporting.

Night owls may be more sedentary, less motivated to exercise
A new study suggests that night owls are more sedentary and feel that they have a harder time maintaining an exercise schedule.

Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, June 2014
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's June 2014 story tips include stories on biofuels, materials, big data, and biometrics.

Chapman University partners with the Center for Autism and Related Disorders
Chapman has signed a formal agreement to collaborate with the Center for Autism and Related Disorders, one of the world's largest organizations treating autism spectrum disorder and the third largest non-governmental organization contributing to autism research in the United States.

Black hole 'batteries' keep blazars going and going
Astronomers studying two classes of black-hole-powered galaxies monitored by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have found evidence that they represent different sides of the same cosmic coin.

New nanomedicine by NTU and SERI scientists to bring relief to glaucoma patients
Scientists from Nanyang Technological University and the Singapore Eye Research Institute have jointly developed a new nanomedicine that will allow glaucoma patients to do away with daily eye drops.

2-D transistors promise a faster electronics future
Berkeley Lab researchers have unveiled the world's first fully two-dimensional field-effect transistor, using new device architecture that provides high electron mobility even under high voltages and scaled to a monolayer in thickness.

Honorary degree awarded to professor emeritus Richard Stren
During its 2013-2014 convocation ceremony, INRS awarded an honorary degree to professor emeritus Richard Stren of the Political Science Department at the University of Toronto, considered one of the foremost experts on matters affecting cities in developing countries.

Tumor chromosomal translocations reproduced for the first time in human cells
Scientists from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre and the Spanish National Cardiovascular Research Centre have been able to reproduce, for the first time in human cells, chromosomal translocations associated with two types of cancer: acute myeloid leukemia and Ewing's sarcoma.

Controlling thermal conductivities can improve energy storage
For the first time, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have experimentally shown that the thermal conductivity of lithium cobalt oxide, an important material for electrochemical energy storage, can be reversibly electrochemically modulated over a considerable range.

Discovering a hidden source of solar surges
Cutting-edge observations with the 1.6-meter telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory in California have taken research into the structure and activity of the Sun to new levels of understanding.

Unlocking the potential of stem cells to repair brain damage
A QUT scientist is hoping to unlock the potential of stem cells as a way of repairing neural damage to the brain.

Security guard industry lacks standards, training
Despite playing a more important role in the wake of 9/11, the security guard industry remains plagued by inadequate training and standards in many states, indicates new research by Michigan State University criminologists.

NASA infrared imagery sees heavy rain potential in Tropical Depression 2E
NASA's Aqua satellite captured an infrared image of Tropical Depression 2E that revealed high, very cold cloud top temperatures.

Preventive placement of ICDs for less severe heart failure may improve survival
An examination of the benefit of preventive placement of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in patients with a less severe level of heart failure, a group not well represented in clinical trials, finds significantly better survival at three years than that of similar patients with no ICD, according to a study in the June 4 issue of JAMA.

Early Earth
The range of conditions and compositions that have been proposed for Earth's early surface and atmosphere is considerable, from highly reducing and rich in organic compounds to essentially as oxidizing as today.

Palmer amaranth threatens Midwest farm economy, researchers report
An invasive weed that has put some southern cotton farmers out of business is now finding its way across the Midwest -- and many corn and soybean growers don't yet appreciate the threat, University of Illinois researchers report.

Emotion drives customers to use smartphones with bigger screens
Bigger smartphone screen size may be better for more than just practical reasons, according to researchers.

How long is too long to wait for groundbreaking aortic valve replacement surgery?
Investigators have found that even modest increases in wait times for transcatheter aortic valve replacement sugery (TAVR) have a substantial impact on the effectiveness of TAVR in individuals who need it the most: otherwise inoperable patients and high-risk surgical candidates.

Reduced neurosurgical resident hours: No significant positive effect on patient outcomes
In 2003 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) imposed a mandatory maximum 80-hour work-week restriction on medical residents.

PARTNERS works to promote tropical forest regrowth
University of Connecticut researchers lead multi-disciplinary lineup representing 14 countries at launch of international reforestation project.

Complex neural circuitry keeps you from biting your tongue
Chewing requires a complex interplay in which the tongue pushes food into the teeth and then darts back to avoid being bitten.

Moffitt researchers develop process to help personalize treatment for lung cancer patients
Moffitt Cancer Center researchers, in collaboration with the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium, have developed a process to analyze mutated genes in lung adenocarcinoma to help better select personalized treatment options for patients.

UIC conducts phase I drug study for advanced pancreatic cancer
UIC researchers are conducting a clinical trial to evaluate a new, three-drug combination therapy for advanced pancreatic cancer.

Place and cause of death in centenarians: A population-based observational study in England
Centenarians are more likely to die of pneumonia and frailty or 'old age' and less likely to die of the chronic conditions often associated with old age, such as cancer or ischemic heart disease, compared with older adults younger than 100 years, according to a study by Catherine Evans and colleagues from King's College London, London, UK.

Chinese stroke patients fare better when hospitals follow guidelines
Patients who suffered a stroke in China were more likely to survive and avoid catching pneumonia when hospitals followed recommended researched-based guidelines.

Unexpected diversity of egg yolk proteins play a key role in ant sociality and castes
In the advanced online edition of Molecular Biology and Evolution, Claire Morandin et al. performed molecular evolutionary analyses on the egg yolk forming protein, Vitellogenin, and its many forms, amongst seven Formica ant species.

Rice University produces carbon-capture breakthrough
Rice University scientists invent a porous material to capture carbon dioxide at natural gas wellheads.

Modeling and simulation in the big data era
A paper introduces the main viewpoints and achievements of the 81st new ideas and new theories academic salon of China Association for Science and Technology was published in 2014(5)issue of SCIENTIA SINICA Informationis.

Outcomes for older adults with pneumonia who receive treatment including azithromycin
In a study that included nearly 65,000 older patients hospitalized with pneumonia, treatment that included azithromycin compared with other antibiotics was associated with a significantly lower risk of death and a slightly increased risk of heart attack, according to a study in the June 4 issue of JAMA.

Vanishing da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait, drawn in the 16th century, is vanishing as the work of art 'yellows' with age.

Findings show benefit of changing measure of kidney disease progression
Developing therapies for kidney disease can be made faster by adopting a new, more sensitive definition of kidney disease progression, according to a study published by JAMA.

ASU embarks on $9 million next phase of an effort to assess an absorbed radiation dose
Arizona State University's Biodesign Institute announced today it is entering a new, $9 million phase of a multi-million, multi-institutional development project to produce a diagnostic test to measure rapidly an individual's level of absorption of ionizing radiation in the event of an unplanned radiological or nuclear event.

'Cool' factor separates e-cigarettes from nicotine inhalers
Why are e-cigarettes so popular among Americans who want to quit smoking, even though so little is known about their safety or effectiveness?

Researchers shut down a SARS cloaking system; findings could lead to SARS, MERS vaccines
A research team has figured out how to disable a part of the SARS virus responsible for hiding it from the immune system; a critical step in developing a vaccine against the deadly disease.

Implanted heart device linked to increased survival
Implantable cardioverter defibrillators are associated with improved survival among heart failure patients whose left ventricles only pump 30 to 35 percent of blood out of the heart with each contraction, according to a study from the Duke Clinical Research Institute.

Climate change at the movies
Research published in the International Journal of Sustainable Development suggests that purportedly entertaining films that feature global warming and climate change can affect public understanding.

Spiders know the meaning of web music
Spider silk transmits vibrations across a wide range of frequencies so that, when plucked like a guitar string, its sound carries information about prey, mates, and even the structural integrity of a web.

Stress hormone receptors localized in sweet taste cells
A new study from the Monell Center reports that oral taste cells contain receptors for glucocorticoid 'stress hormones.' The findings suggest glucocorticoids may act directly on taste cells to affect how they respond to sugars and other taste stimuli under conditions of stress.

With developing world's policy support, global renewable energy generation capacity jumps to record
The latest annual report from REN21 documents the impact of government policies worldwide on the uptake of renewable energy technologies.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is effective for preventing community-acquired pneumonia
A 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV, is effective in reducing the number of new cases of likely-bacterial community-acquired pneumonia in infants in Latin America, according to a study published in this week's PLOS Medicine.

Iron, steel in hatcheries may distort magnetic 'map sense' of steelhead
Exposure to iron pipes and steel rebar, such as the materials found in most hatcheries, affects the navigation ability of young steelhead trout by altering the important magnetic 'map sense' they need for migration.

Children with autism have elevated levels of steroid hormones in the womb
Scientists from the University of Cambridge and the Statens Serum Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark have discovered that children who later develop autism are exposed to elevated levels of steroid hormones (for example testosterone, progesterone and cortisol) in the womb.

NIH task force proposes standards for research on chronic low back pain
Standardized research methods are needed to make greater progress toward reducing the high burden and costs of chronic low back pain, according to a Task Force report in the June 15 issue of Spine.

Breaking down barriers
The Gobi-Steppe Ecosystem is renowned for its populations of migratory ungulates.

Neurobiologist Thomas Jessell to receive $500,000 Gruber Neuroscience Prize
Thomas Jessell, Ph.D., the Claire Tow Professor of Motor Neuron Disorders in the Departments of Neuroscience and of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics at Columbia University, is the recipient of the 2014 Neuroscience Prize of The Gruber Foundation.

Just add water: 3-D silicon shapes fold themselves when wetted by microscopic droplets
Researchers from the University of Twente in the Netherlands have taken the precise art of origami down to the microscopic scale.

The Lancet Psychiatry: Study shows increasing rates of premature death and violent crime in people with schizophrenia since 1970s
New research, published in The Lancet Psychiatry journal, shows that rates of adverse outcomes, including premature death and violent crime, in people with schizophrenia are increasing, compared to the general population.

Community program helps lower blood pressure among minorities
A community-based program helped minorities significantly lower their blood pressure.

Brain signals link physical fitness to better language skills in kids
Children who are physically fit have faster and more robust neuro-electrical brain responses during reading than their less-fit peers, researchers report.

Count of new CFCs in the atmosphere rises from 4 to 7
Scientists at the University of East Anglia have found two new CFCs and one new HCFC in the atmosphere.

Adibi earns American Academy of Oral Medicine Fellowship
Shawn S. Adibi, D.D.S., M.Ed., of the UTHealth School of Dentistry has been elected to Fellowship in the American Academy of Oral Medicine.
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