Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

June 23, 2014
By any stretch
After the hectic delivery experience, newborns are almost immediately stretched out on an uncomfortable measuring board to assess their length because it serves as an indispensable marker of growth, health, and development.

Cancer genes hijack enhancers
Unlike most other forms of cancer, medulloblastomas exhibits very few mutations in growth-promoting genes.

Highlights from the June issue of GIE: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
The June issue of GIE: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, features a study reporting that the annual incidence rate of esophageal cancer among patients with Barrett's esophagus with low-grade dysplasia is 0.54 percent; a study showing that metabolic syndrome and smoking heighten concerns regarding colorectal cancer screening in men with these risk factors; and a new ASGE guideline on endoscopy in patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

Grinding away at history using 'forensic' paleontology and archeology
The Society for Sedimentary Geology announces an unusual paper in their journal PALAIOS that combines 'forensic' paleontology and archeology to identify origins of the millstones commonly used in the 1800's.

Growth hormone treatment for children may exacerbate feelings of depression
Short, otherwise healthy children who are treated with growth hormone (GH) may become taller, but they may also become more depressed and withdrawn over time, compared to children the same age and height who are not treated with GH, a new study finds.

Cal-BRAIN kickstarts California efforts to map the brain
The California budget signed by Gov. Jerry Brown on June 20 creates a statewide research grants program called Cal-BRAIN, an initiative led by UC San Diego.

Physical fitness level affects kidney function in type 2 diabetes
Adults with type 2 diabetes who improve their physical fitness lower their chances of getting chronic kidney disease, and if they already have kidney damage, they can improve their kidney function.

'Sensing skin' quickly detects cracks, damage in concrete structures
Researchers from North Carolina State University and the University of Eastern Finland have developed new 'sensing skin' technology designed to serve as an early warning system for concrete structures, allowing authorities to respond quickly to damage in everything from nuclear facilities to bridges.

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation improves metabolic profile of pregnant women with gestational diabetes
New research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes) shows that calcium and vitamin D supplementation improves the metabolic profile of pregnant women with gestational diabetes.

Sleeve gastrectomy surgery improves diabetes control better than medical care
Adults with Type 2 diabetes achieve better blood glucose control two years after undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy than do patients who receive standard medical diabetes care without this weight loss surgery, a new study finds.

Hydrogel capsule, Gelesis100, reduces weight in overweight and obese subjects
A new 'smart pill' called Gelesis100 safely leads to greater weight loss in overweight and obese individuals compared with those who receive an active comparator/placebo capsule, while all subjects have similar diet and exercise instructions, an international multicenter study finds.

People who are obese or former smokers more likely to follow recommended statin therapy
A new study suggests that lifestyle factors can help predict whether people will adhere to statin therapy for high cholesterol.

Ti-V alloys' superconductivity: Inherent, not accidental
Physicists from India have shed new light on a long-unanswered question related to superconductivity in so-called transition metal binary alloys.

Antiviral therapy can prevent liver cancer in chronic hepatitis B patients
One of the most severe complications of hepatitis B is the development of liver cancer, which is responsible for approximately 745,000 deaths worldwide each year.

Make life jackets compulsory for all recreational boaters to save lives, urge experts
Life jackets should be compulsory for all recreational boaters, say experts, reporting on the differences in the death toll from boating incidents in Victoria, Australia, before and after legislation was introduced, in the journal Injury Prevention.

A cure for HIV is a 'major scientific priority'
Huge advancements have taken place in HIV treatment and prevention over the past 10 years, but there is still no cure or vaccine.

Breakthrough drug-eluting patch stops scar growth and reduces scar tissues
This new invention provides a simple, affordable and -- most importantly -- highly effective way for patients to self-treat keloid scars.

Organic standards go global
In the past, international trade of organic products between the U.S. and other countries has been difficult because of the wide variations in international organic standards and certification requirements.

Among weight loss methods, surgery and drugs achieve highest patient satisfaction
Obese and overweight Americans who have tried losing weight report far greater overall satisfaction with weight loss surgery and prescription weight loss medications than with diet, exercise and other self-modification methods, an Internet survey finds.

Computational technique provides new insight into oral microbiome
Scientists have applied a new technique to comprehensively analyze the human oral microbiome -- providing greater knowledge of the diversity of the bacteria in the mouth.

Video: Robot can be programmed by casually talking to it
In his Robot Learning Lab, Ashutosh Saxena, assistant professor of computer science at Cornell University, is teaching robots to understand instructions in natural language from various speakers, account for missing information, and adapt to the environment at hand.

Poor awareness of the proper injection techniques adversely affects glucose control
Diabetic patients who don't know proper injection techniques may administer insulin incorrectly, leading to poor glycemic control and adverse outcomes, a new study from Iraq finds.

SLU researchers see possible answer to chemo pain in a multiple sclerosis drug
Saint Louis University researchers describe two discoveries: a molecular pathway by which a painful chemotherapy side effect happens and a drug that may be able to stop it.

Intervention appears to help teen drivers get more, better practice
A web-based program for teen drivers appears to improve driving performance and quality supervised practice time before teens are licensed.

All-star pitchers will hate instant replay, according to new research from Columbia Business School
It's a historic year for Major League Baseball, as the organization introduces its expanded use of instant replay, allowing umpires to review home run calls, forced plays, foul balls and more.

LED phosphors: Better red makes brighter white
Chemists at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet in Munich have developed a novel type of red phosphor material, which significantly enhances the performance of white-emitting LEDs.

Family dysfunction a strong predictor of emotional problems in children of cancer patients
A cancer diagnosis affects the whole family, and a significant number of children of cancer patients may be at risk for emotional and behavioral problems.

Have you been unlucky -- or are you just lazy?
A new study published by Aarhus University gives the lie to the conventional wisdom that Americans are particularly critical of the welfare state, while Danes are particularly enthusiastic supporters of it.

Remarkable white dwarf star possibly coldest, dimmest ever detected
A team of astronomers has identified possibly the coldest, faintest white dwarf star ever detected.

Physicists find way to boot up quantum computers 72 times faster than previously possible
Physicists at Saarland University have developed a method that enables quantum computers to be powered up and running stably in just five minutes -- something that took six hours to achieve previously.

Hormone-disrupting activity of fracking chemicals worse than initially found
Many chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, can disrupt not only the human body's reproductive hormones but also the glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors, which are necessary to maintain good health, a new study finds.

Springer to collaborate with Japan Geoscience Union on new open access journal
Springer and the Japan Geoscience Union, the organization that represents most of the earth and planetary science societies in Japan, have launched the new open access journal Progress in Earth and Planetary Science.

Annals of Internal Medicine tip sheet for June 24, 2014
The June 24, 2014, Annals of Internal Medicine contains papers titled: 'Task Force recommends one-time screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms in older male smokers' and 'Caution advised before implementing widespread lung cancer screening among Medicare beneficiaries.'

Study sheds light on racial disparity in colon cancer
African-Americans with colon cancer are half as likely as Caucasian patients to have a type of colon cancer that is linked to better outcomes.

Diabetes drug, Liraglutide, improves risk factors for heart disease
Treatment with the diabetes drug liraglutide, in combination with diet and exercise, led to a significant reduction in weight and improved a number of cardiovascular risk factors, including high blood pressure and high cholesterol, according to a multicenter study.

Examining lifetime intellectual enrichment and cognitive decline in older patients
Higher scores that gauged education (years of school completed) and occupation (based on attributes, complexities of a job), as well as higher levels of mid/late-life cognitive activity (e.g., reading books, participating in social activities and doing computer activities at least three times per week) were linked to better cognition in older patients.

Do men who have sex with men underestimate their HIV risk and miss out on preventive PrEP?
Men who have sex with men have a disproportionately high risk of acquiring HIV, and unprotected sex between men accounts for most new HIV diagnoses in the U.S.

Wearable computing gloves can teach Braille, even if you're not paying attention
Georgia Tech researchers are using a wearable computing technology to help people learn how to read and write Braille.

Endocrine Press publishes guide to treating metabolic emergencies
The Endocrine Society's publishing imprint Endocrine Press released its first original title, Endocrine and Metabolic Medical Emergencies, today during the Society's annual meeting, ICE/ENDO 2014.

Picture books for visually impaired kids go 3-D thanks to CU-Boulder research team
A children's classic that already is a candidate for the all-time best feel-good book, 'Goodnight Moon,' has gotten a boost: A University of Colorado Boulder team printed the first 3D version of it, allowing visually impaired children and their families to touch objects in the story -- like the cow jumping over the moon -- as it is read aloud.

Long-term care must be improved to aid rising numbers with dementia, study finds
A new study looks at ways the nation can respond to the urgent need for affordable long-term care as more Americans and their families cope with the challenges of dementia.

Treading into a gray area along the spectrum of wood decay fungi
A fungus that can break down all the components of plant cell walls is considered a white rot fungus.

Survey reveals consumers' pecan preferences
A survey explored demographics of pecan consumers, determined their knowledge of tree nut nutrition knowledge and examined preferences in pecan purchases.

Conference explores complex world of the dynamic cell
From mitosis to motors and microtubules -- the latest in science's understanding of the dynamic cell will be on show at a four-day conference in Cambridge, UK, this September.

Battle of the bulge occurs in the liver
An international team of scientists led by Monash University researchers has shown how free radicals contribute to type 2 diabetes, obesity and fatty liver disease.

Pygmy shrew population in Ireland threatened by invasion of greater white-toothed shrew
An invading species of shrew first discovered in Ireland in 2007 is spreading across the landscape at over five kilometers a year, according to new research.

The first demonstration of a self-powered cardiac pacemaker
A research team from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, headed by Professor Keon Jae Lee of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at KAIST and Professor Boyoung Joung, M.D. of the Division of Cardiology at Severance Hospital of Yonsei University, has developed a self-powered artificial cardiac pacemaker that is operated semi-permanently by a flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator.

New study offers potential avenues for treatment of deadly nasopharyngeal cancer
A team of scientists from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore at the National University of Singapore, National University Cancer Institute Singapore and National University Hospital Singapore, discovered a distinct mutational signature and nine significantly mutated genes associated with nasopharyngeal cancer, paving the way to developing novel therapies for this deadly disease.

Bisexual men face unique challenges to their sexual health
Bisexual men have many unmet public health needs, which leave them vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections and other health problems.

BPA stimulates growth of breast cancer cells, diminishes effect of treatment
Bisphenol A, a chemical commonly used in plastics, appears to increase the proliferation of breast cancer cells, according to Duke Medicine researchers presenting at an annual meeting of endocrine scientists.

Sharpening a test for tracing food-borne illness to source
Research from the University of Melbourne, Australia, could make it easier for public health investigators to determine if a case of food poisoning is an isolated incident or part of a larger outbreak.

Is focal treatment for prostate cancer as effective in the long-term as radical therapies?
Focal therapy for prostate cancer, in which only the tumor tissue is treated with cryoablation (freezing), can prolong life, result in less complications such as incontinence, and improve post-treatment quality of life.

Electrostatics do the trick
Organic semiconductors allow for flexible displays, solar cells, and other applications.

Back away, please
According to University of Chicago Booth School of Business Professor Christopher K.

Damon Runyon Cancer Research foundation awards $4M to 10 top young clinical investigators
The Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation named seven new Damon Runyon Clinical Investigators at its spring 2014 Clinical Investigator Award Committee review.

Cell stress inflames the gut
Inflammatory bowel disease is a common condition in western industrialized countries.

New research proves gender bias extraordinarily prevalent in STEM careers
With everyone from the federal government to corporate America working to encourage more women to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and math fields, you would think the doors would be wide open to women of all backgrounds.

African American women more resistant anti-inflammatory effect aspirin than white women
African American women respond differently to the anti-inflammatory effect of aspirin than do white American women, new research finds.

A new spider species from Mexico uses soil particles for camouflage
Scientists discover and describe a new species of spider from Mexico.

Habitat loss, not poison, better explains grassland bird decline
Contrary to recent well-publicized research, habitat loss, not insecticide use, continues to be the best explanation for the declines in grassland bird populations in the U.S. since the 1980s, according to a new study by ecologists.

Antibiotic developed 50 years ago may be the key to fighting 'superbugs'
The aim of the project is to evaluate novel dosing regimens for polymyxin combinations to maximize antibacterial activity and to minimize the emergence of resistance and toxicity, says Tsuji, principal investigator on the grant.

Society in carnival China: The beautiful, the damned and the Olympics
China won the bid for the 2008 Olympics in 2001.

Emergence of bacterial vortex explained
When a bunch of B. subtilis bacteria are confined within a droplet of water, a very strange thing happens.

Exposure to BPA substitute causes hyperactivity and brain changes in fish
A chemical found in many 'BPA free' consumer products, known as bisphenol S (BPS), is just as potent as bisphenol A (BPA) in altering brain development and causing hyperactive behavior, an animal study finds.

'Religions subordinate woman with respect to man'
Historian Barbara Stollberg-Rilinger publishes book about controversial gender issues -- burka bans, women in the Church, sexual norms, feminism in Judaism.

#Sexychem: 4 ways chemistry makes sex safe -- and spicy (video)
In this week's episode, Reactions is getting sexy. Our latest video highlights the ways chemistry has made sex safer and (in one surprising case) spicier.

Prisoners unfairly excluded from general clinical research
Prisoners are being unfairly excluded from taking part in potentially beneficial clinical research, on the grounds that it would be too difficult and expensive to do so, indicates a study published online in the Journal of Medical Ethics.

Measuring the mass of 'massless' electrons
Graphene, a one-atom-thick carbon sheet, has taken the world of physics by storm -- in part, because its electrons behave as massless particles.

Can magnetic fields accurately measure positions of ferromagnetic objects?
Many creatures in nature, including butterflies, newts and mole rats, use the Earth's inherent magnetic field lines and field intensity variations to determine their geographical position.

Women sometimes benefit more from cardiac resynchronization therapy than men
Cardiac resynchronization therapy plus defibrillator implantation (CRT-D) sometimes helps women with heart failure more than men, although women are less likely to receive CRT-D than men.

Understanding the ocean's role in Greenland glacier melt
The Greenland Ice Sheet is a 1.7 million-square-kilometer, 2-mile thick layer of ice that covers Greenland.

BUSM researchers investigating ways to improve type 2 diabetes treatments
A better understanding of how the transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARgamma) works is critical to find new ways to improve medications to treat type 2 diabetes.

Date labeling confusion contributes to food waste
Date labeling variations on food products contribute to confusion and misunderstanding in the marketplace regarding how the dates on labels relate to food quality and safety, according to a scientific review paper in the July issue of Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety.

Young indoor tanning increases early risk of skin cancer
Dartmouth researchers have found that early exposure to the ultraviolet radiation lamps used for indoor tanning is related to an increased risk of developing basal cell carcinomas at a young age.

Fungal infection control methods for lucky bamboo
Researchers studied methods for controlling Colletotrichum dracaenophilum on lucky bamboo (Dracaena sanderiana).

Blood sugar improves with first gastrointestinal microbiome modulator, NM504
In adults with prediabetes, a new drug that alters microbial populations and their environment in the gastrointestinal tract improves glucose tolerance -- the body's response to consuming carbohydrates -- after four weeks of treatment and without a change in diet.

Vaccine made from complex of two malaria proteins protects mice from lethal infection
An experimental vaccine designed to spur production of antibodies against a key malaria parasite protein, AMA1, was developed more than decade ago by scientists from NIAID, part of NIH.

Nonsurgical treatment for enlarged prostate on the horizon
A study published in The Prostate offers hope to men suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Sharper imaging using X-rays
Physicists at HZB have developed a process to generate improved lenses for X-ray microscopy that provide both better resolution and higher throughput.

Next-generation artificial pancreas system gears up for test drive
A new long-term study will be the first U.S.-based one to test unsupervised daily and overnight use of an artificial pancreas system that -- when coupled with mealtime bolusing-- automatically controls insulin delivery and keeps blood glucose within a specific range.

Cancer chain in the membrane
Supercomputer simulations reveal clusters of a protein linked to cancer warp cell membranes -- findings could help design new anticancer drugs.

UK supermarkets minimise price rises for the cheapest alcohol when taxes are increased
UK supermarkets minimise price rises for the cheapest alcohol when taxes are increased.

New analysis reveals previously 'hidden diversity' of mouth bacteria
A new computational method for analyzing bacterial communities has uncovered closely related, previously indistinguishable bacteria living in different parts of the human mouth.

'Tom Sawyer' regulatory protein initiates gene transcription in a hit-and-run mechanism
A team of genome scientists has identified a 'hit-and-run' mechanism that allows regulatory proteins in the nucleus to adopt a 'Tom Sawyer' behavior when it comes to the work of initiating gene activation.

Working parents resort to emergency or urgent care visits to get kids back into child care
Child care rules about illness create socioeconomic emergency for many working parents, especially African Americans, single/divorced parents.

Fantastic voyage into the human lung
A team of investigators at The Saban Research Institute of Children's Hospital Los Angeles has been awarded $4 million over five years by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute for LungMAP, an atlas of the developing human lung.

NSF grant funds UTA electrical engineer's bladder cancer detection device
A multi-institutional research team has received a $480,000 National Science Foundation grant to build an inexpensive device that uses nanotechnology and a simple urine test to detect the most miniscule amount of bladder cancer cells in a patient.

Sharp rise in professional queries about harmful effects of 'fat burning' agent
The number of professional inquiries made to the National Poisons Information Service about the harmful effects of a 'fat burning' agent used by body builders and dieters has risen sharply in the past three years, reveals research published online in Emergency Medicine Journal.

£4 million of diet and health research to benefit UK consumers
£4M of research funding was awarded to six projects investigating diet and health to enable the food and drink industry to meet the needs of UK consumers.

Long non-coding RNAs can encode proteins after all
Case Western Reserve School of Medicine scientists have made an extraordinary double discovery.

Montana State University professor and brain scientist continues exploring the brain
A research team including Montana State professor Behrad Noudoost has linked how our eyes actually see the world to neurons in the prefrontal cortex of the brain.

Straw albedo mitigates extreme heat
Fields that are not tilled after crop harvesting reflect a greater amount of solar radiation than tilled fields.

Africa's poison 'apple' provides common ground for saving elephants, raising livestock
A five-year study led by Princeton University researchers suggests that certain wild African animals, particularly elephants, could be a boon to human-raised livestock because of their voracious appetite for the toxic and invasive plant Solanum campylacanthum, or the Sodom apple.

Cocoa extract may counter specific mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease
Insights into mechanisms behind cocoa's benefit may lead to new treatments or dietary regimens.

Spectral 'ruler' is first standardized way to measure stars
A team of astronomers have created the first standardized set of measurement guidelines for analyzing and cataloging stars.

UCI study finds that learning by repetition impairs recall of details
UC Irvine neurobiologists Zachariah Reagh and Michael Yassa have found that while repetition enhances the factual content of memories, it can reduce the amount of detail stored with those memories.

The JBEI GT Collection: A new resource for advanced biofuels research
The JBEI GT Collection, the first glycosyltransferase clone collection specifically targeted for the study of plant cell wall biosynthesis, is expected to drive basic scientific understanding of GTs and better enable the manipulation of cell walls for the production of biofuels and other chemical products.

Ferroelectric switching seen in biological tissues
University of Washington researchers have shown that a favorable electrical property is present in a type of protein found in organs that repeatedly stretch and retract.

Many ER patients test positive for HIV while in most infectious stage
Human Immunodeficiency Virus screening for emergency patients at an institution with a large number of ethnic minority, underinsured and uninsured people reveals few are HIV positive, but of those who are, nearly one-quarter are in the acute phase and more than one-quarter have infections that have already advanced to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

New type of dust in Martian atmosphere discovered
A group of French and Russian scientists, including three specialists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, has discovered a new peculiarity of the Martian atmosphere, publishing the article in Icarus journal.

Air pollution controls linked to lower death rates in North Carolina
National and state air pollution controls that went into effect in the early 1990s coincide with decreasing death rates from emphysema, asthma and pneumonia among people in North Carolina, according to a study led by Duke University researchers.

For gastric bypass patients, percent of weight loss differs by race/ethnicity, study finds
Non-Hispanic white patients who underwent a gastric bypass procedure lost slightly more weight over a three-year period than Hispanic or black patients, according to a Kaiser Permanente study published in the journal Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases.

The next food revolution
Food waste that is unused, yet nutritionally viable, may help to feed a growing and nutritionally 'insecure' world population and minimize the impact of food production on the environment, according to Doug Rauch, former president of Trader Joe's, Inc. and current CEO of the nonprofit Conscious Capitalism, Inc.

Researchers synthesize previously unknown form of magnesium carbide
An international team of researchers from the United States, France and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Russia, has synthesized a previously unknown form of magnesium carbide.

When couples disagree on stroke recovery, one partner can suffer
In the first mixed-method study on the topic, a University of Cincinnati researcher is reporting that when a stroke survivor and his/her caregiving spouse disagree on the survivor's rate of recovery, the caregiver is more likely to experience depression and emotional distress.

Delivering drugs on cue
Current drug-delivery systems used to administer chemotherapy to cancer patients typically release a constant dose of the drug over time -- but a new study challenges this 'slow and steady' approach and offers a novel way to locally deliver the drugs 'on demand,' as reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

How repeatable is evolutionary history?
Some clover species have two forms, one of which releases cyanide to discourage nibbling by snails and insects and the other of which does not.

Common BPA-like chemical, BPS, disrupts heart rhythms in females
Bisphenol S (BPS), a common substitute for bisphenol A (BPA) in consumer products, may have similar toxic effects on the heart as previously reported for BPA, a new study finds.

Anti-androgen therapy for triple-negative breast cancer may benefit lower-androgen tumors
A new University of Colorado Cancer Center study being presented today at the Endocrine Society Annual Meeting shows that even triple negative breast cancers expressing very low levels of androgen receptor may benefit from this therapy.

Rett syndrome drug shows promise in clinical trial
MIT neuroscientists report more detail on how the disease arises.

Aging accelerates genomic changes, signaling challenges for personalized medicine
Virginia Bioinformatics Institute researchers at Virginia Tech have discovered aging can occur at different rates within an individual's genome, with some portions aging 100 times faster than others.

Huge new influx of Graphene Flagship partners
To coincide with Graphene Week 2014, the Graphene Flagship is proud to announce that today one of the largest-ever European research initiatives is doubling in size.

Gut microbe levels are linked to type 2 diabetes and obesity
People with type 2 diabetes or obesity have changes in the composition of their intestinal micro-organisms -- called the gut microbiota -- that healthy people do not have, researchers from Turkey have found.

Gestures that speak
When you gesticulate you don't just add a 'note of color' that makes your speech more pleasant: you convey information on sentence structure and make your meanings clearer.

Growing unknown microbes 1 by 1
Trillions of bacteria live in the human body, and although there's plenty of evidence that these microbes play a collective role in human health, we know very little about the individual bacterial species.

Nineteen Tomato varieties evaluated under organic guidelines
A study compared conventionally produced commercial F1 tomato varieties available in the southeastern United States with open-pollinated varieties popular among organic growers.

Not even cell death can stop the alarm
Even after a cell dies, components of the immune system remain active and continue to fuel inflammatory reactions.

Study finds association between maternal exposure to agricultural pesticides
Pregnant women who lived in close proximity to fields and farms where chemical pesticides were applied experienced a two-thirds increased risk of having a child with autism spectrum disorder or other developmental delay, a study by researchers with the UC Davis MIND Institute has found.

The Lancet: Rate of hospitalization for severe heart attacks in China quadruples in 10 years
The rate of hospitalization for the most serious type of heart attack, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, more than quadrupled in China between 2001 and 2011, according to new research published in The Lancet.

Protecting and connecting the Flathead National Forest
A new report from the Wildlife Conservation Society calls for completing the legacy of Wilderness lands on the Flathead National Forest in Montana.

Mammals defend against viruses differently than invertebrates
Differences may end worry that new drug classes based on invertebrate mechanisms could disrupt human immune defenses.

Scientists use X-rays to look at how DNA protects itself from UV light
The molecular building blocks that make up DNA absorb ultraviolet light so strongly that sunlight should deactivate them -- yet it does not.

CU Denver study shows more bicyclists on road means fewer collisions
A University of Colorado Denver study examining collisions between bicycles and motorists, shows bicyclist safety significantly increases when there are more bikes on the road, a finding that could be attributed to a 'safety in numbers effect.'

A disease of mistaken identity
The symptoms of Cushing disease are unmistakable to those who suffer from it -- excessive weight gain, acne, distinct colored stretch marks on the abdomen, thighs and armpits, and a lump, or fat deposit, on the back of the neck.

Bone loss persists 2 years after weight loss surgery
A new study shows that for at least two years after bariatric surgery, patients continue to lose bone, even after their weight stabilizes.

Could genetics help explain intellectual disability in children?
Teams of leading UK scientists have joined forces to unlock an untapped source of genetic information in a bid to better understand and treat children with Intellectual Disability.

Nearly 1 in 25 US babies are born too soon
An analysis of millions of US births over 15 years finds that many babies, nearly one in 25, are born earlier than medically justified, through elective cesarean sections and elective induced labor.

Study finds minimum payment warnings nudge credit card payments up AND down
Telling credit card customers about the high cost of repaying the monthly minimum has little impact on repayment decisions, but when consumers were shown a three-year payoff time frame with accompanying lower interest costs, this information 'nudge' had both a positive and negative effect.

Farm to table oversight, new technologies improving spice safety
New and improved manufacturing technologies, as well as a greater focus on the individual steps of the production process, are helping to enhance spice safety in the US and throughout the world, according to a June 22 panel discussion at the 2014 Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting & Food Expo® in New Orleans.

The colon has a safety mechanism that restricts tumor formation
Colon cancer development starts with the formation of benign tumors called adenomas.

We can eliminate the major tornado threat in Tornado Alley
Can we eliminate major tornadoes in Tornado Alley? Devastating tornados over there start from violent clashes between northbound warm wind and southbound cold wind.

Light-emitting diode treatments outperform traditional lighting methods
Hydroponically grown tomato plants were subjected to three light intensities at three red-to-blue ratio levels and compared to high-pressure sodium, red LED light, a 50:50 LED:HPS mixture, and no supplemental lighting treatments.

MIT researchers unveil experimental 36-core chip
Design lets chip manage local memory stores efficiently using an Internet-style communication network.

New data bolsters Higgs boson discovery
Evidence gleaned from the Large Hadron Collider is further proof of the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, according to a new Nature Physics paper.

Cautionary tales: Mustaches, home oxygen therapy, sparks do not mix
Facial hair and home oxygen therapy can prove a dangerously combustible combination, a Mayo Clinic report published in the peer-reviewed medical journal Mayo Clinic Proceedings finds.

Quitting smokeless tobacco after heart attack may extend life expectancy
Quitting smokeless tobacco after a heart attack extends life expectancy similar to quitting smoking.

Video games, social networks, chat rooms, may help prevent HIV
While many HIV prevention interventions have traditionally been delivered face-to-face, a study from Columbia University School of Nursing suggests that digital outreach efforts delivered via text messages, interactive games, chat rooms, and social networks may be an effective way to reach at-risk younger men.

Fatal cellular malfunction identified in Huntington's disease
Researchers believe they have learned how mutations in the gene that causes Huntington's disease kill brain cells, a finding that could open new opportunities for treating the fatal disorder.

Illinois study may improve rice productivity
University of Illinois researchers established the university's first rice paddy to test rice performance in Illinois and at Kyoto University in Japan.

Various genes could be used as early biomarkers of stress due to heavy metals
Various genes of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana and of the bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens could be used as early biomarkers of stress due to heavy metals, according to the Ph.D. thesis of María Teresa Gómez-Sagasti, researcher at Neiker-Tecnalia and the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country.

Endocrine Society honors Sen. Dick Durbin with Biomedical Research Champion Award
The Endocrine Society presented U.S. Senate Assistant Majority Leader Dick Durbin (D-IL) with the Biomedical Research Champion Award during a ceremony today at its annual meeting.

D-Wave and predecessors: From simulated to quantum annealing
Starting with a review of well-known classical algorithms such as Metropolis, genetic algorithm, hill climbing and simulated annealing, we investigate adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing.

Biologists find 'missing link' in the production of protein factories in cells
Biologists at UC San Diego have found the 'missing link' in the chemical system that enables animal cells to produce ribosomes -- the thousands of protein 'factories' contained within each cell that manufacture all of the proteins needed to build tissue and sustain life.
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