Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

June 24, 2014
The Lancet Psychiatry: Adults with Asperger Syndrome at significantly higher risk of suicidal thoughts than the general population
Adults with the autism spectrum condition known as Asperger Syndrome are nine times more likely to experience suicidal thoughts than people from the UK general population, according to the first large-scale clinical study of its kind, published in The Lancet Psychiatry.

Chronic migraine has a substantial impact on marriage and parenting
A web-based study of 994 men and women with chronic migraine found that the condition significantly impacts family relationships and activities, including cancelled vacation plans and reduced quality time with partners and children.

What millennials want
Millennials, the generation after Generation X, born in the 1980s and 1990s, form their own demographic group, with their own unique tastes.

RIKEN press release: Pushing cells towards a higher pluripotency state
In a study published in Scientific Reports, a group from the RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies in Japan has gained new insight into the role of CCL2, a chemokine known to be involved in the immune response, in the enhancement of stem cell pluripotency.

Master regulator of key cancer gene found, offers new drug target
A key cancer-causing gene, responsible for up to 20 percent of cancers, may have a weak spot in its armor, according to new research from the Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota.

Stem cell transplantation for severe sclerosis associated with improved long-term survival
Among patients with a severe, life-threatening type of sclerosis, treatment with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, compared to intravenous infusion of the chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide, was associated with an increased treatment-related risk of death in the first year, but better long-term survival, according to a study in the June 25 issue of JAMA.

Quick, easy, inexpensive cortisol testing should soon be available on all smartphones
Researchers have developed a device that uses any smartphone to measure the cortisol concentration in saliva.

Animal study unveils predictive marker for epilepsy development following febrile seizure
Within hours of a fever-induced seizure, magnetic resonance imaging may be able to detect brain changes that occur in those most likely to develop epilepsy later in life, according to an animal study published in the June 25 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience.

Engineered bacteria keep mice lean
A June 24th study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation demonstrates that modified bacteria can prevent weight gain in mice.

UMass Medical School investigator named 2014 Pew Scholar
Brian A. Kelch, Ph.D., assistant professor of biochemistry and molecular pharmacology at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, has been named a 2014 Pew Scholar by the Pew Charitable Trusts.

Expert outlines challenges of visual accessibility for people with low vision
New approaches and tools are needed to improve visual accessibility for people with low vision in the 'real world,' according to a special article in the July issue of Optometry and Vision Science, official journal of the American Academy of Optometry.

Next generation internet will arrive without fanfare, network architects say
UMass Amherst's Arun Venkataramani is the lead architect for one of the many research teams funded by the National Science Foundation who are now developing and testing next-generation hardware, software and applications to address difficult, systemic shortcomings of the old Internet.

Meeting Aichi biodiversity targets for protected areas
Habitat loss is a primary driver of biodiversity loss -- so it isn't surprising that optimizing the amount of protected land is high on policy-makers' priorities.

Pew awards research funding to 10 Latin American scientists
Ten researchers were named Pew Latin American Fellows in the Biomedical Sciences today by The Pew Charitable Trusts.

UMMS scientist named 2014 Pew Latin American Fellow in the biomedical sciences
Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Ph.D., a postdoctoral scholar at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, was named a 2014 Pew Latin American Fellow in the Biomedical Sciences today by The Pew Charitable Trusts.

Solar project to bring energy to three D.C. institutions
WASHINGTON--The George Washington University, American University and the George Washington University Hospital announced Tuesday that they will create a renewable energy project that brings solar power from North Carolina to the D.C. institutions, showing that large organizations in an urban setting can meet energy needs while significantly reducing their carbon footprints by directly tapping offsite solar energy.

Demonstrating a driverless future
In the coming decades, we will likely commute to work and explore the countryside in autonomous, or driverless, cars capable of communicating with the roads they are traveling on.

Adult hospital deaths in England related to patient safety suggest areas for intervention
In a study of all adult deaths occurring in hospitals in England from June 1, 2010, to Oct.

The great salmon run algorithm
Solving complex problems is rarely a straightforward process, there are often many variables and countless plausible solutions each one of which has its pros and cons.

NIH awards $10.7 million to University of Maryland School of Medicine
The University of Maryland School of Medicine's Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, a research center in the School's Department of Psychiatry, was awarded a $10.7 million grant from the NIH to establish a Silvio O.

Computer-aided diagnosis of rare genetic disorders from family snaps
Computer analysis of photographs could help doctors diagnose which condition a child with a rare genetic disorder has, say Oxford University researchers.

Bizarre parasite from the Jurassic
Around 165 million years ago, a spectacular parasite was at home in the freshwater lakes of present-day Inner Mongolia, China: A fly larva with a thorax formed entirely like a sucking plate.

Mayo Clinic researchers say gene in brain linked to kidney cancer
A gene known to control brain growth and development is heavily involved in promoting clear cell renal cell carcinoma, the most common form of kidney cancer, researchers from Mayo Clinic in Florida are reporting.

Experts cite 'misconceptions' on brain metastases
'Key historical misconceptions' are hindering progress in research and treatment for patients with cancer metastases to the brain, suggests a special article in the July issue of Neurosurgery, official journal of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

New research finds that cell phones reflect our personal microbiome
Smartphones are everywhere, and they may be smarter than you think.

New transdermal SARM drug for muscle-wasting offers hope for older cancer patients
Muscle wasting that occurs as a result of cancer negatively impacts the well-being and recovery prospects of millions of patients, particularly the rapidly-growing elderly populations in Western societies.

Trained evaluators can successfully screen for premie eye disease from miles away
Trained non-physician evaluators who studied retinal images transmitted to computer screens at a remote central reading center successfully identified newborn infants likely to require a specialized medical evaluation for retinopathy of prematurity, a leading cause of treatable blindness.

Researchers publish one of the longest longitudinal studies of cognition in MS
Researchers at Kessler Foundation and the Cleveland Clinic have published one of the longest longitudinal studies of cognition in multiple sclerosis.

Metal particles in solids aren't as fixed as they seem, new memristor study shows
In work that unmasks some of the magic behind memristors and 'resistive random access memory,' or RRAM -- cutting-edge computer components that combine logic and memory functions -- researchers have shown that the metal particles in memristors don't stay put as previously thought.

New technology: The goose bump sensor
Imagine a world in which a consumer's real-time physical and emotional response helped to determine his/her experience of music, online ads or the temperature in the room.

All together now -- a lesson from Space Station 'ant-stronauts'
The activities of a crew of ants that lived aboard the space station as part of the Ants in Space investigation are inspiring students and scientists alike.

Mining mountains of data for medical insights
Danish scientists recently teamed up with University of New Mexico researchers to test a powerful new method for predicting the progress of common diseases through time by teasing out previously undetected patterns from a very large data set -- in this case, the health records of Denmark's entire population.

Researchers mapping your route from illness to illness
Researchers from the University of Copenhagen and the Technical University of Denmark have followed six million Danes for 15 years through patient and disease registers.

Those with episodic amnesia are not 'stuck in time,' says philosopher Carl Craver
It has generally been assumed that people with episodic amnesia experience time much differently than those with more typical memory function.

Team explains how mutated X-linked mental retardation protein impairs neuron function
There are new clues about malfunctions in brain cells that contribute to intellectual disability and possibly other developmental brain disorders.

UMMS scientists show that monarch butterflies employ a magnetic compass during migration
Scientists at UMass Medical School and Worcester Polytechnic Institute have identified a new component of the complex navigational system that allows monarch butterflies to transverse the 2,000 miles to their overwintering habitat each year.

Research needed on approaches to prevent attacks on health care during armed conflict
Deliberate attacks on patients, hospitals, and clinics during armed conflict are atrocious acts, state the PLOS Medicine editors writing in an editorial in this week's PLOS Medicine, and call for more research on the practical approaches to preventing such attacks, as well as studies that evaluate interventions to improve health care in conflict settings.

Morphable surfaces could cut air resistance
There is a story about how the modern golf ball, with its dimpled surface, came to be: In the mid-1800s, it is said, new golf balls were smooth, but became dimpled over time as impacts left permanent dents.

Research explains action of drug that may slow aging, related disease
Dietary restriction is one of the most-researched methods for slowing the aging process.

High doses of antibiotics may have the potential to promote increased cross-resistance
In the advanced online edition of Molecular Biology and Evolution, Oz, et. al., utilized an experimental evolution approach to evolve 88 different E. coli populations against 22 antibiotics, under 'strong' and 'mild' selection conditions.

Cancer risks increase with complex heart tests
Study appearing in the American Heart Association's publication Circulation is the first in which researchers quantified cumulative radiation doses in pediatric heart patients and predicted lifetime cancer risks based on the types of exposures.

Study finds world's protected areas not protecting biodiversity, but there is room for hope
Scientists from James Cook University, the Wildlife Conservation Society, the University of Queensland, Stanford University, BirdLife International, the International Union for Nature Conservation, and other organizations have warned that the world's protected areas are not safeguarding most of the world's imperilled biodiversity, and clear changes need to be made on how nations undertake future land protection if wildlife is going to be saved.

3D mammography detects more invasive cancers and reduces call-back rates
Reporting in the June 25 issue of JAMA, researchers from Penn Medicine and other institutions found that 3D mammography -- known as digital breast tomosynthesis -- found significantly more invasive, or potentially lethal, cancers than a traditional mammogram alone and reduced call-backs for additional imaging.

New anti-homosexuality laws threaten health as well as liberties
'The right of all persons to choose whom they love must remain a fundamental of international discourse and law' writes Chris Beyrer of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Health in an Essay in this week's PLOS Medicine.

Hidden origins of pulmonary hypertension revealed by network modeling
In a groundbreaking study, researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital have identified a related family of molecules believed to be a major root cause of pulmonary hypertension, a deadly vascular disease with undefined origins.

3-D printer for the world's largest delta?
Three main rivers -- the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna -- meet in the Bengal basin to form the world's largest delta system, which serves as a gateway between the Himalayan mountains and the vast, deep-ocean Bengal Fan.

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery may reduce heart disease risk
Obese patients with type 2 diabetes who don't have excessive surgical risk may find that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery can help them reduce their risk of heart disease, a new clinical trial shows.

BMI measurement may be missing 25 percent of children who could be considered obese
Physicians using body mass index (BMI) to diagnose children as obese may be missing 25 percent of kids who have excess body fat despite a normal BMI, which can be a serious concern for long-term health, according to a Mayo Clinic study published online today in Pediatric Obesity.

Energy drinks raise new questions about caffeine's safety
Caffeine, which was extensively researched for possible links to birth defects in animals and cardiovascular disease in humans over 30 years ago and then exonerated, has become the focus of renewed concerns as caffeine-containing energy drinks have surged in popularity.

American Chemical Society selects 10 semifinalists for Chemistry Champions contest
The American Chemical Society today named 10 semifinalists in its Chemistry Champions contest.

More magazine freelance writer receives Endocrine Society journalism award
Freelance journalist Cathryn Jakobson Ramin received the Endocrine Society's annual Award for Excellence in Science and Medical Journalism, the Society announced today.

Gastric bypass surgery improves diabetic patients' quality of life
An intensive weight loss program involving lifestyle modifications improves obese diabetic patients' physical and mental health as well as gastric bypass surgery does over two years, but the weight loss surgery leads to a greater reduction in adverse effects of obesity on quality of life.

Cell division discovery could optimise timing of chemotherapy and explain some cancers
Research led by the University of Warwick in collaboration with groups in Nice and Rotterdam has been able to demonstrate how the cycle of cell division in mammalian cells synchronizes with the body's own daily rhythm, its circadian clock.

University of Illinois to receive Energy Frontier Research Center awards
The 'Center for Geologic Storage of CO2,' at the University of Illinois's Prairie Research Institute, will work to reduce uncertainties surrounding carbon dioxide storage by objectively analyzing early results from current field demonstrations.

Sweet sweet straw
The calorie free sweetener erythritol is widely used in Asia; it is also gaining popularity in Europe and America.

Cancer: The roots of evil go deep in time
Every year around 450,000 people in Germany are diagnosed with cancer.

Restricting competitors could help threatened species cope with climate change
Threatened animal species could cope better with the effects of climate change if competition from other animals for the same habitats is restricted, according to new research by Durham University.

Hormones affect voting behavior, Nebraska researchers find
Joint research by University of Nebraska at Omaha, University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Rice University psychology and political science professors finds people with high levels of a stress hormone are less likely to vote.

Virus kills triple negative breast cancer cells, tumor cells in mice
A virus not known to cause disease kills triple-negative breast cancer cells and killed tumors grown from these cells in mice, according to Penn State College of Medicine researchers.

Brewing yeasts reveal secrets of chromosomal warfare and dysfunction
Using two yeasts that have been used to brew tea and beer for centuries, researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have revealed how reproductive barriers might rapidly arise to create species boundaries.

A collaboration of minds and metal
Princeton University researchers merged two powerful areas of research to enable an unprecedented chemical reaction that neither could broadly achieve on its own.

Study finds world's protected areas not protecting biodiversity
Scientists from James Cook University, the Wildlife Conservation Society, the University of Queensland, Stanford University, BirdLife International, the International Union for Nature Conservation, and other organizations have warned that the world's protected areas are not safeguarding most of the world's imperilled biodiversity, and clear changes need to be made on how nations undertake future land protection if wildlife is going to be saved.

Frederic Bushman, Ph.D. receives Pioneer Award for advancing therapeutic gene delivery methods
Frederic D. Bushman, Ph.D.'s early pioneering work in understanding how HIV reproduces by inserting its genetic material into the DNA of a host cell led to key advances in the ability to move pieces of DNA and whole genes between cells.

UT Arlington nanoparticles could provide easier route for cell therapy
UT Arlington physics researchers may have developed a way to use laser technology to deliver drug and gene therapy at the cellular level without damaging surrounding tissue.

Helpful bouncing babies show that moving together to music builds bonds
Researchers have shown that moving to music in time with others boosts the altruistic behavior of babies who have barely learned to walk.

Elsevier chosen to publish American Dental Association's flagship journal
The American Dental Association announced today that it has entered into an agreement with Elsevier to publish The Journal of the American Dental Association, the ADA's flagship publication and the nation's premier dental journal.

Man moves paralyzed hand with his own thoughts
An Ohio man has become the first patient ever to move his paralyzed hand by using his thoughts.

Study suggests prayer can build unity in diverse organizations
As the United States grows more diverse than ever, organizations from Fortune 500 companies to political parties are scrambling to keep pace.

A fifth of children visiting their doctor with a persistent cough could have whooping cough
Whooping cough has been found in a fifth of UK school age children visiting their doctor with a persistent cough, even though most have been fully vaccinated, finds a study published on today.

International Tree Nut Council study results may help people with type 2 diabetes
New findings published in Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases shows fatty acids in tree nuts may help reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in people with type 2 diabetes.

Regional anesthesia cuts length of stay vs. general anesthesia in hip fracture surgery
Among more than 56,000 adults undergoing hip repair between 2004 and 2011, the use of regional anesthesia compared with general anesthesia was not associated with a lower risk of death at 30 days, but was associated with a modestly shorter length of hospital stay, according to a study in the June 25 issue of JAMA.

Food scientists working to diminish, mask bitter tastes in foods
Food scientists are working to block, mask and/or distract from bitter tastes in foods to make them more palatable to consumers, many of whom are genetically sensitive to bitter tastes, according to a new presentation at the 2014 Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting & Food Expo® in New Orleans.

Gender differences could mean more risk for cardiovascular death
Queen's University assistant professor Pendar Farahani, Department of Medicine and Department of Public Health Sciences, is advocating the use of gender-based treatment for mitigating the cardiovascular risk factors related to diabetes.

Sleep, mood improves after substantial weight loss
Obese adults who lose at least 5 percent of their body weight report that they sleep better and longer after six months of weight loss, according to a new study.

UF part of research team that finds equine influenza virus in camels
University of Florida researchers have found evidence that an influenza A virus can jump from horses to camels -- and humans could be next.

Ghost writing the whip
'Ghost imaging' sounds like the spooky stuff of frivolous fiction, but it's an established technique for reconstructing hi-res images of objects partly obscured by clouds or smoke.

CNIO researcher Ana Losada revises the role of cohesin in cancer
Ana Losada, the head of the Chromosome Dynamics Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre, an international expert in cohesin, summaries in Nature Reviews Cancer the latest research on the role of cohesin, its regulation, as well as its recently identified function as a potential driver or facilitator for tumors.

Researchers at Intermountain Medical Center develop new smartphone technology and app to diagnose and monitor adrenal gland diseases
Diseases of the adrenal gland have long been difficult to diagnose.

The National Health Service -- committed to failure?
A project has failed. So why continue to invest in it?

Synthetic triterpenoids show promise in preventing colitis-associated colon cancer
Researchers from Case Western Reserve and Dartmouth universities have shown that a class of small antioxidant molecules carries enormous promise for suppressing colon cancer associated with colitis.

To advance care for patients with brain metastases: Reject five myths
Professional pessimism and out-of-date 'myths,' rather than current science, are guiding and compromising the care of patients with cancer that has spread to the brain, says a blue-ribbon panel of experts from leading academic centers in an article published online June 24 in Neurosurgery.

Young women with PCOS are 5 times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes
A leading expert on reproductive health says young women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) have a startlingly higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, even if young and not overweight.

Novel biomarker predicts febrile seizure-related epilepsy, UCI study finds
A newly discovered biomarker -- visible in brain scans for hours after febrile seizures -- predicts which individuals will subsequently develop epilepsy, according to UC Irvine researchers.

Group recommends removing sexual orientation-related disorders from the ICD
A working group evaluating sexual orientation-related disorders listed in the International Classification of Diseases, a publication of the World Health Organization, has recommended the disorders be deleted, a move that will make getting health care easier for gays and others who may have gender atypicality.

New possibilities for leukemia therapy with a novel mode of leukemia cell recognition
Scientists at A*STAR's Singapore Immunology Network have discovered a new class of lipids in the leukemia cells that are detected by a unique group of immune cells.

Study finds high CD4 cell counts associated with reduced risk of ischemic stroke for those with HIV
A 15-year study found that HIV-positive individuals had a 40 percent increased risk of ischemic stroke, however stroke rates were nearly the same for HIV-positive individuals with high CD4 cell counts as for HIV-negative subjects.

Can coral save our oceans?
New research from Tel Aviv University has uncovered the protective properties of soft coral tissue, which proved resilient when exposed to declining oceanic pH levels.

Not everyone wants cheering up, new study suggests
You may want to rethink cheering up your friends who have low self-esteem because chances are they don't want to hear it.

New study uses blizzard to measure wind turbine airflow
A first-of-its-kind study by researchers at the University of Minnesota using snow during a Minnesota blizzard is giving researchers new insight into the airflow around large wind turbines.

Estrogen receptor β limits breast cancer growth and indicates outcome
In a June 24th study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Rong Li and colleagues at the University of Texas determined that activation of the estrogen receptor β (ERβ) limits tumor cell growth.

OpenAnesthesia® announces Android and iOS versions of self-study app
OpenAnesthesia (OA), one of the most popular websites for education in anesthesia, announces the release of V 3.0 of the hugely popular self-study app for anesthesiology residents, CRNAs, SRNAs, and physicians.

Schizophrenia and cannabis use may share common genes
Genes that increase the risk of developing schizophrenia may also increase the likelihood of using cannabis, according to a new study led by King's College London, published today in Molecular Psychiatry.

3-D computer model may help refine target for deep brain stimulation therapy for dystonia
Researchers led by investigators at Cedars-Sinai, using a complex set of data from records and imaging scans of patients who have undergone successful DBS implantation, have created 3-D, computerized models that map the brain region involved in dystonia.

Addition of 3-D imaging technique to mammography increases breast cancer detection rate
The addition of tomosynthesis, a 3-dimensional breast imaging technique, to digital mammography in more than 170,000 examinations was associated with a decrease in the proportion of patients called back for additional imaging and an increase in the cancer detection rate, according to a study in the June 25 issue of JAMA.

3D Mammography finds more invasive cancers and reduces unnecessary recalls
3D Mammography finds significantly more invasive cancers and reduces unnecessary recalls, according to a large, retrospective study published in June 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Three NYU faculty receive awards from Pew Charitable Trusts
Three NYU faculty have been selected to receive awards from the Pew Charitable Trusts, the Philadelphia-based non-profit announced today.

NTU study shows puzzle games can improve mental flexibility
A recent study by Nanyang Technological University scientists showed that adults who played the physics-based puzzle video game Cut the Rope regularly, for as little as an hour a day, had improved executive functions.

Regional anesthesia cuts length of stay, mortality vs. general anesthesia in hip fracture surgery
Patients who received regional anesthesia during hip fracture surgery had moderately lower mortality and a significantly lower length of stay than those who received general anesthesia, according to new research from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Combo tumor imaging can distinguish malignant & benign breast tumors, help avoid biopsies
Imaging breast tumors using four approaches together can better distinguish malignant breast tumors from those that are benign, compared with imaging using fewer approaches, and this may help avoid repeat breast biopsies, according to a study published in Clinical Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

Crab and other crustacean shells may help prevent and treat inflammatory disease
Microparticles in crab, shrimp and lobster shells have anti-inflammatory mechanisims that could lead to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for those who suffer from IBD.

Youth with autism spectrum disorder need better health care transition services
As of 2014, approximately one out of every 68 children born has an autism spectrum disorder, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Prior drug use is the greatest predictor of ecstasy use US high school seniors
The study examined a national sample of high school seniors to determine who is currently at high risk for ecstasy use.

Consumers looking for reduced sugar and salt in food products more than low- and no-fat
More than 50 percent of consumers are interested in products with reduced levels of salt and sugar, and yet new products in the United States are more likely to tout low- or no-fat attributes, according to a June 23 panel discussion at the 2014 Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting & Food Expo® in New Orleans.

Pew and the Stewart Trust launch scholars program targeting cancer
The Pew Charitable Trusts and the Alexander and Margaret Stewart Trust announced the inaugural class of Pew-Stewart Scholars for Cancer Research.

Young researcher discovers source of disco clams' light show
The disco clam was named for the rhythmic, pulsing light that ripples along the lips of its mantle.

Dental hygiene profession sees moment of opportunity to improve access to oral health care
With opportunities to take increased responsibility for oral health care and to deliver care in a more comprehensive way, it's an exciting time in the profession of dental hygiene.

Facelock: A new password alternative which plays to the strengths of human memory
Forgotten passwords are a serious problem for both IT managers and users.

From deep sea to deep space
Food scientists are working on this and other challenges related to creating and optimizing food for astronauts, soldiers, pilots and other individuals working and living in extreme environments, according to a June 23 panel discussion at the 2014 Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting & Food Expo® in New Orleans.

How aging can intensify damage of spinal cord injury
In the complex environment of a spinal cord injury, researchers have found that immune cells in the central nervous system of elderly mice fail to activate an important signaling pathway, dramatically lowering chances for repair after injury.

CU-Boulder, NCAR researchers seek to reduce deadly air pollution from cooking emissions
A $1.5 million grant from the Environmental Protection Agency will help researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder and the National Center for Atmospheric Research measure pollution from residential cooking and better understand a problem that kills millions of women and children each year in the developing world.

How to protect an American wildlife legacy
A new paper shows that while science plays a critical role in informing conservation action, scientists must move beyond the realm of their expertise into less familiar areas like public relations, education, and even politics, to ultimately meet America's conservation goals.

Pew grants 22 young scientists support for biomedical research
Twenty-two outstanding early-career researchers were named Pew Scholars in the Biomedical Sciences today by The Pew Charitable Trusts.

NOAA GOES-R satellite black wing ready for flight
The solar array that will provide power to NOAA's GOES-R satellite has been tested, approved and shipped to a facility where it will be incorporated on the spacecraft. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to