Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 07, 2014
Concern at lack of teenage patients in cancer trials
Age limits on clinical trials need to be more flexible to allow more teenage cancer patients the chance to access new treatments, according to a report from the National Cancer Research Institute, published in the Lancet Oncology.

Discovery of Neandertal trait in ancient skull raises new questions about human evolution
Re-examination of a circa 100,000-year-old archaic early human skull found 35 years ago in Northern China has revealed the surprising presence of an inner-ear formation long thought to occur only in Neandertals.

Electrical stimulation of fastigial nucleus and cellular apoptosis in injured region
Previous studies have indicated that electrical stimulation of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus in rats may reduce brain infarct size, increase the expression of Ku70 in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion region, and decrease the number of apoptotic neurons.

Study reveals strong links between Antarctic climate, food web
A long-term study of the links between climate and marine life along the rapidly warming West Antarctic Peninsula reveals how changes in physical factors such as wind speed and sea-ice cover send ripples up the food chain, with impacts on everything from single-celled algae to penguins.

Denali duck-billed dino tracks
A trio of paleontologists has discovered a remarkable new tracksite in Alaska's Denali National Park filled with duck-billed dinosaur footprints -- technically referred to as hadrosaurs -- that demonstrates they not only lived in multi-generational herds but thrived in the ancient high-latitude, polar ecosystem.

Outcomes of cerebral motor cortex neurons after rTMS or tDCS
Spasticity is considered a common reaction after injury, death or apoptosis of central nervous system neurons occur.

Ultra-cold atom transport made simple
Techniques for controlling ultra-cold atoms traveling in ring traps currently represent an important research area in physics.

UGA researchers use nanoparticles to enhance chemotherapy
University of Georgia researchers have developed a new formulation of cisplatin, a common chemotherapy drug, that significantly increases the drug's ability to target and destroy cancerous cells.

Less exercise, not more calories, responsible for expanding waistlines
Sedentary lifestyle and not caloric intake may be to blame for increased obesity in the US, according to a new analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Sleep deprivation leads to symptoms of schizophrenia
Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation can lead to conditions in healthy persons similar to the symptoms of schizophrenia.

High earners in a stock market game have brain patterns that can predict market bubbles
If you're so smart, why aren't you rich? It may be that, when it comes to stock market success, your brain is heeding the wrong neural signals, according to a multi-institutional team of researchers.

Sitting too much, not just lack of exercise, is detrimental to cardiovascular health
Cardiologists at UT Southwestern Medical Center found that sedentary behaviors may lower cardiorespiratory fitness levels.

Premature newborn survival 30 percent higher in high volume neonatal centres
The survival of premature newborns in England is 30 percent higher in specialist units treating large numbers of neonates, reveals an analysis of national data published in the online journal BMJ Open.

Patient patience and pandemics
Allowing patients to choose which hospital they attend when suffering illness during a pandemic rather than assigning them to a specific healthcare facility could be inefficient, according to research published in the International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research.

3-N-butylphthalide improves neuronal morphology after chronic cerebral ischemia
The pathogenesis of vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral ischemia is complex, mainly consisting of energy metabolism disorder, oxidative stress injury, neuronal apoptotic cell death and cholinergic nerve dysfunction.

Bruce Museum scientist identifies world's largest-ever flying bird
Scientists have identified the fossilized remains of an extinct giant bird that is likely to have the largest wingspan of any bird ever to have lived.

Researchers receive $12.6 million NIH grant to study genetics of Alzheimer's
Researchers from Columbia University are part of a five-university collaboration receiving a $12.6 million, four-year grant from the National Institute on Aging, part of the National Institutes of Health, to identify rare genetic variants that may either protect against, or contribute to Alzheimer's disease risk.

Dental pulp stem cells promote the survival and regeneration of retinal cells after injury
Injury to the retina and optic nerve leads to irreversible loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and irreparable damage to their axons which ultimately leads to blindness.

Support team aiding caregivers of cancer patients shows success, CWRU researchers report
Many caregivers of terminal cancer patients suffer depression and report regret and guilt from feeling they could have done more to eliminate side effects and relieve the pain.

Satellites reveal possible catastrophic flooding months in advance, UCI finds
Data from NASA satellites can greatly improve predictions of how likely a river basin is to overflow months before it does, according to new findings by UC Irvine.

NYU researchers find 18 percent of high school seniors smoke hookah
While cigarette use is declining precipitously among youth, evidence indicates that American adolescents are turning to ethnically-linked alternative tobacco products, such as hookahs, cigars, and various smokeless tobacco products, according to a recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Device eliminates 93 percent of lawnmower pollutant
A team of University of California, Riverside Bourns College of Engineering students have won an EPA student design contest for a device they created that curbs harmful pollutant emitted from lawnmowers by 93 percent.

Significant step towards blood test for Alzheimer's
Scientists at King's College London have identified a set of 10 proteins in the blood which can predict the onset of Alzheimer's, marking a significant step towards developing a blood test for the disease.

EARTH Magazine: Preserving Peru's petrified forest
Tucked high in the Andes Mountains of northern Peru is a remarkable fossil locality: a 39-million-year-old petrified forest preserved in nearly pristine condition: stumps, full trees, leaves and all.

Renowned orthopedic researcher, Steven P. Arnoczky, DVM, inducted into AOSSM Hall of Fame
Steven P. Arnoczky, DVM, prominent sports medicine researcher from Michigan State University was inducted into the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's Hall of Fame at its' Annual Meeting in Seattle, WA on Friday, July 11th.

A VLSM study on motor cortex neuron injury and lower limb dysfunction in chronic stroke
Many studies have examined motor impairments using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM), but few are reported regarding the corresponding relationship between cerebral cortex injury and lower limb motor impairment analyzed using this technique.

Rat versus mouse models of focal cerebral ischemia for neural regeneration studies
Rat models of focal cerebral ischemia are usually used in neural regeneration studies regarding stroke.

$12.6 million NIH grant to study genetics of Alzheimer's disease
Researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania are part of a five-university collaboration receiving a $12.6 million, four-year grant from the National Institute on Aging to identify rare genetic variants that may either protect against, or contribute to Alzheimer's disease risk.

Mathematical model illustrates our online 'copycat' behavior
The researchers examined how users are influenced in the choice of apps that they install on their Facebook pages by creating a mathematical model to capture the dynamics at play.

Slim down for the health of it and possibly reduce your hot flashes in the process
Now women have yet one more incentive to lose weight as a new study has shown evidence that behavioral weight loss can help manage menopausal hot flashes.

Penn's immunotherapy for leukemia receives FDA's Breakthrough Therapy designation
A University of Pennsylvania-developed personalized immunotherapy has been awarded the US Food and Drug Administration's Breakthrough Therapy designation for the treatment of relapsed and refractory adult and pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Study shows restored immunity for cancer-related fungal infections
A study at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center used the Sleeping Beauty gene transfer system to modify T cells in hopes of fighting major life-threatening infections caused by invasive Aspergillus fungus.

Home visits by nurse may help reduce mortality in moms, children
Women who had prenatal and infant/toddler nurse visits at home were less likely to die than women who did not and children whose mothers were visited by nurses were less likely to have died by age 20 from preventable causes.

Negar Sani solved the mystery of the printed diode
For 13 years the mystery has remained unsolved, but now Negar Sani, Ph.D. student at Linköping University's Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Campus Norrköping, has succeeded in explaining how a printed diode can function in the GHz band.

DNA origami nano-tool provides important clue to cancer
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have headed a study that provides new knowledge about the EphA2 receptor, which is significant in several forms of cancer.

Taking a short smartphone break improves employee well-being, research finds
A Kansas State University researcher has found that short smartphone breaks throughout the workday can improve workplace productivity, make employees happier and benefit businesses.

Mind the gap: Socioeconomic status may influence understanding of science
When it comes to science, socioeconomic status may widen confidence gaps among the least and most educated groups in society, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Science, Media and the Public research group.

Boston University researchers and collaborators receive $12.6 million NIH grant for AD
Researchers from the Biomedical Genetics division of the Boston University School of Medicine are part of a five-university collaboration receiving a $12.6 million, four-year grant from the National Institute on Aging, part of the National Institutes of Health, to identify rare genetic variants that may either protect against, or contribute to Alzheimer's disease risk.

Wolf mother deaths threaten pack survival but not population
When a breeding wolf dies, its sex and the size of its pack can determine whether that pack continues, according to research published July online by the Journal of Animal Ecology.

AOSSM presents prestigious research awards at annual meeting
In order to recognize and encourage cutting-edge research in key areas of orthopedic sports medicine, the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) will present 10 research awards and seven grants during its Annual Meeting, July 10-13 in Seattle, WA.

Outstanding Monash chemist to strengthen international research ties
A leading chemist from Monash University has been chosen as one of only eight scientists globally to receive a prestigious international fellowship.

Obesity, large waist size risk factors for COPD
Obesity, especially excessive belly fat, is a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, according to an article in CMAJ.

China's hidden water footprint
China's richest provinces have an outsized environmental impact on the country's water-scarce regions, according to new research from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and the University of Maryland.

College athletes with abusive coaches more willing to cheat
College athletes who have abusive coaches are more willing to cheat in order to win than players with more ethical coaches, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association and based on surveys from almost 20,000 student athletes at more than 600 colleges across the country.

Bruce Reider, M.D. inducted into AOSSM Hall of Fame
Bruce Reider, M.D., prominent sports medicine orthopedic surgeon and University of Chicago team physician was inducted into the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's Hall of Fame at its' Annual Meeting in Seattle, WA on Friday, July 11th.

SAR11, oceans' most abundant organism, has ability to create methane
The oxygen-rich surface waters of the world's major oceans are supersaturated with methane -- a powerful greenhouse gas that is roughly 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide -- yet little is known about the source of this methane.

The quantum dance of oxygen
Under extremely high pressure conditions oxygen molecules group into quartets and give rise to a 'dance of their magnetic moments.' This, as observed in a new study carried out by SISSA in collaboration with ICTP and published in PNAS, results in magnetic properties never previously observed in these conditions and in theory points to the existence of a new phase of the element, called epsilon 1.

Summer McJobs are good for kids, says UBC study
A new study shows that teenagers who work at summer or evening jobs gain a competitive advantage later in life.

Science and cookies: Researchers tap into citizen science to shed light on ant diversity
Scientists from North Carolina State University and the University of Florida have combined cookies, citizen science and robust research methods to track the diversity of ant species across the United States, and are now collaborating with international partners to get a global perspective on how ants are moving and surviving in the modern world.

Study reveals protective role for specialized cells in intestinal and respiratory systems
Ripping a page from the 'Star Trek' script, specialized cells of the barrier that lines the inside of the intestines and airways of humans have invoked a biological version of Captain Kirk's famous command 'shields up' as a first defense against invading microbes.

Supermassive black hole blows molecular gas out of galaxy at 1 million kilometers per hour
New research by academics at the University of Sheffield has solved a long-standing mystery surrounding the evolution of galaxies, deepening our understanding of the future of the Milky Way.

Blocking cells' movement to stop the spread of cancer
Insights into how cells move through the body could lead to innovative techniques to stop cancer cells from spreading and causing secondary tumours, finds according to new UCL research.

Houshiheisan maintains stabilization of the internal environment of neurovascular units
Cerebral ischemia not only injuries neurons, but also involves the glial cells that provide a supportive scaffold to which the neurons are attached and the microvessels that provide energy for nervous tissue.

GVSU researchers find moral beliefs barrier to HPV vaccine
A survey of first-year Grand Valley State University students showed the biggest barrier to receiving a Human Papillomavirus vaccine was moral or religious beliefs.

Scientist identifies world's biggest-ever flying bird
Scientists have identified the fossilized remains of an extinct giant bird that could be the biggest flying bird ever found.

Study finds widespread oral health problems among Navajo
A new study from Colorado School of Public Health shows that despite some modest improvements, poor oral health remains a major problem in the Navajo Nation and among American Indians overall.

Of non-marijuana drug users in the ER, nearly all are problem drug users
Of emergency patients who reported any drug other than marijuana as their primary drug of use, 90.7 percent met the criteria for problematic drug use.

Smart and socially adept
Data shows an increase over time in the labor market valuation of individuals who possess cognitive ability as well as social skills.

Small, but plentiful: How the faintest galaxies illuminated the early universe
Light from tiny galaxies over 13 billion years ago played a larger role than previously thought in creating the conditions in the universe as we know it today, a new study has found.

Disappearance of unaffected motor cortex activation by rTMS in a cerebral infarct patient
The ipsilateral motor pathway from the unaffected motor cortex to the affected extremity is one of the motor recovery mechanisms following stroke.

Efficient thermal cooling and heating
Thermal systems use heat to produce cold, and vice versa.

Infant toenails reveal in utero exposure to low-level arsenic, Dartmouth study finds
Infant toenails are a reliable way to estimate arsenic exposure before birth, a Dartmouth College study shows.

Penn researchers: Consider the 'anticrystal'
Physicists at the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Chicago have evidence that a new concept should undergird our understanding of most materials: the anticrystal, a theoretical solid that is completely disordered.

Annals of Internal Medicine tip sheet for July 8, 2014
The July 8, 2014, Annals of Internal Medicine contains articles on the topics of 'Task Force recommends against screening for carotid artery stenosis in general adult population' and 'Young adults offer suggestions to improve Healthcare.gov.'

Does cycling increase risk for erectile dysfunction, infertility, or prostate cancer?
Cycling is a popular activity that offers clear health benefits, but there is an ongoing controversy about whether men who ride have a higher risk of urogenital disorders such as erectile dysfunction, infertility, or prostate cancer.

US scientists don't publish articles about potential role of innate variation in athletic performance
Compared to scientists working in other countries, US-based scientists are underrepresented as authors of articles on the potential role of innate variation in athletic performance that are published in peer-reviewed science journals, according to Grand Valley State University researchers.

Larger newborn care units provide better protection for very preterm babies
Preterm babies admitted to high volume neonatal units are less likely to die compared to those admitted to low volume units, according to researchers.

Dodging dots helps explain brain circuitry
In a new study, Brown University neuroscientists looked cell-by-cell at the brain circuitry that tadpoles, and possibly other animals, use to avoid collisions.

Partial knee replacement safer than total knee replacement
Partial knee replacement surgery is safer than total knee replacement according to a new study published in The Lancet today.

$12.6 million NIH grant to study genetics of Alzheimer's disease
Researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania are part of a five-university collaboration receiving a $12.6 million, four-year grant from the National Institute on Aging, part of the National Institutes of Health, to identify rare genetic variants that may either protect against, or contribute to Alzheimer's disease risk.

Neuroeconomists confirm Warren Buffett's wisdom
Investment magnate Warren Buffett has famously suggested that investors should try to 'be fearful when others are greedy and be greedy only when others are fearful.' That turns out to be excellent advice, according to the results of a new study by researchers at Caltech and Virginia Tech that looked at the brain activity and behavior of people trading in experimental markets where price bubbles formed.

IPCC must consider alternate policy views, researchers say
The Summary for Policymakers recently produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has triggered a public debate about excessive governmental intrusion in the IPCC process.

Timothy N. Taft, M.D. inducted into AOSSM Hall of Fame
Timothy N. Taft, M.D. will be inducted into the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's (AOSSM) Hall of Fame at its' Annual Meeting in Seattle, WA on Friday, July 11th.

Rats purposefully use their whiskers in different ways to help navigate in the dark
The way rats use their whiskers is more similar to how humans use their hands and fingers than previously thought, new research from the University of Sheffield has found.

Study suggests consuming whey protein before meals could help improve blood glucose control in people with diabetes
New research published in Diabetologia, the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, suggests that consuming whey protein before a regular breakfast reduces the blood sugar spikes seen after meals and also improves the body's insulin response.

Mechanism that prevents lethal bacteria from causing invasive disease is revealed
An important development in understanding how the bacterium that causes pneumonia, meningitis and septicemia remains harmlessly in the nose and throat has been discovered at the University of Liverpool's Institute of Infection and Global Health.

Non-diet approach to weight management more effective in worksite wellness programs
Researchers at the University of Missouri have found that 'Eat for Life,' a new wellness approach that focuses on mindfulness and intuitive eating as a lifestyle, is more effective than traditional weight-loss programs in improving individuals' views of their bodies and decreasing problematic eating behaviors.

NIH funds next step of cutting-edge research into Alzheimer's disease genome
Teams of scientists will use support from the NIH to conduct research into the genetic underpinnings of Alzheimer's disease, analyzing how genome sequences may contribute to increased risk or protect against the disease.

The tortoise and the hare: A sex difference in marathon pacing
Men are more likely than women to slow their pace in the marathon, according to a new study led by a Grand Valley State University researcher.

Why 'whispers' among bees sometimes evolve into 'shouts'
Let's say you're a bee and you've spotted a new and particularly lucrative source of nectar and pollen.

Pseudogenes may provide clearer understanding of biomarkers
The results indicated that the science of pseudogene expression analysis may very well play a key role in explaining how cancer occurs by helping medical experts in the discovery of new biomarkers.

For a holistic approach to POW trauma
Tel Aviv University's professor Zahava Solomon examines the compounding effects of war captivity and war trauma on prisoners of war.

New study of largely unstudied mesophotic coral reef geology
A new study on biological erosion of mesophotic tropical coral reefs, which are low energy reef environments between 30-150 meters deep, provides new insights into processes that affect the overall structure of these important ecosystems.

5G innovation at the University of Surrey helps secure £5m investment to boost region-wide growth
The announcement today of Enterprise M3 Local Enterprise Partnership's successful bid for £5m of Government funding to support innovation in 5G technology, as a key component of its regional growth plan, is warmly welcomed by the University of Surrey.

Expectant moms turn to 'Dr. Google' for pregnancy advice
Pregnant women are using the Internet to seek answers to their medical questions more often than they would like, say Penn State researchers.

Sutures or staples? The best choice for closing a C-section
Nearly half of doctors use staples over sutures to close C-sections.

NASA satellites see Neoguri grow into a super typhoon
From July 4-7 Tropical Cyclone Neoguri strengthened from a tropical storm into a super typhoon.

Time of day crucial to accurately test for diseases, new research finds
A new study published today in the journal PNAS, has found that time of day and sleep deprivation have a significant effect on our metabolism.

The new atomic age: Building smaller, greener electronics
A University of Alberta research team is developing atom-scale, ultra-low-power computing devices to replace transistor circuits.

NYU researchers tackle racial/ethnic disparities in HIV medical studies
Study finds social/behavioral intervention vastly increased the number of African American and Latino individuals living with HIV/AIDS who enrolled in HIV/AIDS medical studies.

World Cup chemistry: The science behind the 'brazuca' (video)
The World Cup final is almost here, and no matter which two teams meet for the title match, there's one thing they'll both need to win: the ball.

Visualization of peripheral nerve regeneration
A variety of treatments for repairing the peripheral nerve injuries have been developed.

CWRU and collaborators receive $12.6 million NIH grant to study genetics of Alzheimer's
Researchers from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine are part of a five-university collaboration receiving a $12.6 million, four-year grant from the National Institute on Aging, part of the National Institutes of Health, to identify rare genetic variants that may either protect against, or contribute to Alzheimer's disease risk.

NASA's Aquarius returns global maps of soil moisture
Scientists working with data from NASA's Aquarius instrument have released worldwide maps of soil moisture, showing how the wetness of the land fluctuates with the seasons and weather phenomena.

Alzheimer's disease: Simplified diagnosis, with more reliable criteria
How many patients receive an incorrect diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease?

DNA of 'Evolution Canyon' fruit flies reveals drivers of evolutionary change
An international team of researchers led by scientists with the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech has peered into the DNA of fruit flies that live hardly a puddle jump apart in a natural environment known as 'Evolution Canyon' in Mount Carmel, Israel, discovering how these animals have been able to adapt and survive in such close, but extremely different, environments.

R.I. lead law effective, often ignored
Only one in five properties in Central Falls, Pawtucket, Providence, and Woonsocket that are covered by Rhode Island's lead hazard mitigation law were in compliance with the statute more than four years after it took effect, according to a study by a local team of academic, government, and nonprofit researchers.

Changing Antarctic winds create new sea level threat
New research shows projected changes in the winds circling the Antarctic may accelerate global sea level rise significantly more than previously estimated.

2014 medals and awards of the Geological Society of America
The Geological Society of America will recognize outstanding scientific achievements and distinguished service to the profession at its 2014 Annual Meeting & Exposition in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Teen dating violence cuts both ways: 1 in 6 girls and guys are aggressors, victims or both
Dating during the teen years takes a violent turn for nearly one in six young people, a new study finds, with both genders reporting acts like punching and throwing things.

ASN Foundation for Kidney Research funds $2.8 million in research grants
The American Society of Nephrology (ASN) and the ASN Foundation for Kidney Research will fund $2.8 million in original, meritorious research in 2014 to improve care for the more than 20 million Americans with kidney disease, and for kidney patients worldwide.

Gene therapy and the regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons
The retina and optic nerve are part of the CNS and this system is much used in experiments designed to test new ways of promoting regeneration after injury.

Smart paint signals when equipment is too hot to handle
NJIT researchers have developed a paint for use in coatings and packaging that changes color when exposed to high temperatures, delivering a visual warning to people handling material or equipment with the potential to malfunction, explode, or cause burns when overheated.
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