Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 09, 2014
Nasal mucosal inhalation of AD vaccine attenuates Aβ1-42-induced cytotoxicity
Cholinergic inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists can alleviate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, but fail to affect irreversible cognitive dysfunction and effectively scavenge amyloid beta peptide in the brain.

Researchers led by Stanford engineer figure out how to make more efficient fuel cells
Solar panels need sun. Wind turbines need wind. Society needs ways to store and dispense alternative energy.

BU researchers relate arrests with HIV risk environment
Practices used in policing injection drug users in Russia might contribute to HIV transmission and overdose mortality, according to a study conducted by Boston University researchers.

Study predicts ranavirus as potential new culprit in amphibian extinctions
Amphibian declines and extinctions around the world have been linked to an emerging fungal disease called chytridiomycosis, but new research from the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis shows that another pathogen, ranavirus, may also contribute.

New medication shows promise in treating common skin disease
An investigational medication shows promise in treating eczema or atopic dermatitis, the most common skin disorder, according to a study published July 9 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Hunting gives deer-damaged forests in state parks a shot at recovery
Regulated deer hunts in Indiana state parks have helped restore the health of forests suffering from decades of damage caused by overabundant populations of white-tailed deer, a Purdue study shows.

First drug candidate from NIH program acquired by biopharmaceutical company
A drug candidate developed by researchers at the NIH's National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences and its collaborators to treat sickle cell disease has been acquired by Baxter International's BioScience business.

NASA MESSENGER and STEREO measurements open new window into high-energy processes on the sun
Understanding the sun from afar isn't easy. NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft -- which orbits Mercury, and so is as close as 28 million miles from the sun versus Earth's 93 million miles -- is near enough to the sun to detect solar neutrons that are created in solar flares.

Lung cancer study hints at new treatments
Studying the most common type of lung cancer, researchers have uncovered mutations in a cell-signaling pathway that plays a role in forming tumors.

Penn mesothelioma program receives $8 million NCI grant
Researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in collaboration with the Roswell Park Cancer Institute have received an $8 million grant from the National Cancer Institute to study the effects of photodynamic light therapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Wake-up call for more research into cell metabolism
More scientific research into the metabolism of stromal support cells and immune cells -- and the role of the metabolism of these cell types in the development of diseases -- could open new therapeutic avenues for diabetes, inflammatory conditions and cancer.

UC Riverside microbiologist receives national recognition
Jason Stajich, associate professor of plant pathology and microbiology at the University of California, Riverside, has been awarded the 2014 Alexopoulos Prize by the Mycological Society of America, a scientific society dedicated to advancing the science of mycology -- the study of fungi of all kinds including mushrooms, molds, truffles, yeasts, lichens, plant pathogens, and medically important fungi.

USF study: Amphibians can acquire resistance to deadly fungus
Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group, causing population declines of amphibians, bats, corals, bees and snakes.

AAN: Doctors have ethical obligation to educate, protect athletes from concussion
The American Academy of Neurology, the largest professional association of neurologists and a leading authority on sports concussion, is releasing a new position paper that states doctors have an ethical obligation to educate and protect athletes from sports concussion and clear them to play only when the athlete is medically ready, standing firm against objections from players, parents or coaches.

Young Hispanics often obese, at higher risk for heart diseases
Obesity is common among US Hispanics and is severe among young Hispanics.

Thyroid hormone protects hippocampal cholinergic neurons in normal aged animals
Can thyroid hormone protect neuronal function and increase the survival rate of naturally aged animals?

Inhibition of NgR expression reduces apoptotic retinal ganglion cells in diabetes
The activation of Nogo receptor is an essential factor of nerve regeneration inhibition, neuronal atrophy and even apoptosis.

Bacteria hijack plentiful iron supply source to flourish
In an era of increasing concern about antibiotic-resistant illness, Case Western Reserve researchers have identified a new pathway to disabling disease: blocking bacteria's access to iron.

ASU-led study yields first snapshots of water splitting in photosynthesis
An international team, led by Arizona State University scientists, has published today in Nature a groundbreaking study that shows the first snapshots of photosynthesis in action as it splits water into protons, electrons and oxygen, the process that maintains Earth's oxygen atmosphere.

Smokers with mental health issues cost UK nearly £2.5 billion a year
People with mental health issues who smoke cost the UK economy nearly £2.5 billion a year, reveals research published online in Tobacco Control.

Most prescription labels fail to meet guidelines, risking dosage errors
Small print and poor printing on prescription labels handed out by pharmacists may be misread and may lead to errors in taking medication, according to new research by the University of Waterloo and Canadian National Institute for the Blind.

Scientists watch photosynthesis in action
An international team of scientists, including researchers from DESY, has caught a central step of photosynthesis in action for the first time.

New recreational travel model to help states stop firewood assisted insect travel
The spread of damaging invasive forest pests is only partially powered by the insects' own wings.

Miriam Hospital study examines effect of depressed mood on pulmonary rehab completion
Researchers from The Miriam Hospital have found that people with Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who are also depressed have difficulty sticking to a pulmonary rehabilitation program.

Bee foraging chronically impaired by pesticide exposure: Study
A study co-authored by a University of Guelph scientist that involved fitting bumblebees with tiny radio frequency tags shows long-term exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide hampers bees' ability to forage for pollen.

Penn study finds living kidney donation does not increase risk of death or heart disease for older
Previous studies linking older age with kidney and heart disease have raised concerns about the safety of living kidney donation among older adults.

Urban heat -- not a myth, and worst where it's wet
A new Yale-led study quantifies for the first time the primary causes of the 'urban heat island' (UHI) effect, a common phenomenon that makes the world's urban areas significantly warmer than surrounding countryside and may increase health risks for city residents.

Sunshine vitamin ups bowel cancer survival odds, study finds
Bowel cancer patients with high levels of vitamin D in their blood are more likely to survive the disease, a University of Edinburgh study shows.

Children on dairy farms less likely to develop allergies
Children who live on farms that produce milk run one-tenth the risk of developing allergies as other rural children.

Night-time brilliance lights up political patronage
In some countries, a region that can lay claim to being the birthplace of a country's political leader is likely to get preferential treatment -- bias that shines out when the intensity of night lights is compared with that in other regions.

CNIO scientists discover that pluripotency factor NANOG is also active in adult organisms
Scientists from the Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO) have discovered that NANOG, an essential gene for embryonic stem cells, also regulates cell division in stratified epithelia in adult organisms.

The 'yin and yang' of malaria parasite development
'Herculean study' into malaria parasite development is completed -- bringing scientists closer to disrupting the life-cycle of this highly efficient parasite.

Review of ADHD drug approvals highlights gaps between approval process, long-term safety assessment
Over the last 60 years, the US Food and Drug Administration approved 20 medications for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder based on clinical trials that were not designed to study their long-term efficacy and safety or to detect rare adverse events, researchers at Boston Children's Hospital report today in PLOS ONE.

Scientist finds link between antibiotics, bacterial biofilms and chronic infections
Researchers from the University of Southern California and the Oak Crest Institute of Science have discovered the link between antibiotics and bacterial biofilm formation leading to chronic lung, sinus and ear infections.

Nearly 50 percent of grade 12 students in Ontario report texting while driving
An ongoing survey of Ontario students in grades seven to 12 conducted for the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health reveals a number of significant behavioral trends, including an alarming number of young people who are texting while driving.

Signal may send cancer's cellular factories into overdrive
A network of signals active in almost all types of cancer sends the protein factories in our cells into overdrive, and may help fuel a tumor's uncontrolled growth, new research suggests.

My brother's keeper
While researchers have long known that brothers and sisters teach each other about the world, most of their observations about this have been made in a lab setting.

Adults with special needs see gains, challenges with long term oral care
A study from researchers at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine reports that among adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities, the likelihood of having cavities decreased as the number of years receiving dental care increased.

Cosmic grains of dust formed in supernova explosion
There are billions of stars and planets in the universe.

Researchers declassify dinosaurs as being the great-great-grandparents of birds
The re-examination of a sparrow-sized fossil from China challenges the commonly held belief that birds evolved from ground-dwelling theropod dinosaurs that gained the ability to fly.

Mode of delivery following a perineal tear and recurrence rate in subsequent pregnancies
There is an increased risk of severe perineal tearing during childbirth in women who had such a tear in a previous delivery, suggests a new study published July 9 in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

RUB chemists develop novel catalyst with 2 functions
Chemists at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum have made a decisive step towards more cost-efficient regenerative fuel cells and rechargeable metal-air batteries.

Bacteria found in bladders of healthy women differ from those in women with incontinence
Bacteria found in the bladders of healthy women differ from bacteria in women with a common form of incontinence, according to researchers from Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine.

New type of stent could help some brain aneurysm patients
The device could offer hope for patients with large, wide-neck brain aneurysms previously considered untreatable.

VLT clears up dusty mystery
A group of astronomers has been able to follow stardust being made in real time -- during the aftermath of a supernova explosion.

Tiny DNA pyramids enter bacteria easily -- and deliver a deadly payload
Bacterial infections usually announce themselves with pain and fever but often can be defeated with antibiotics -- and then there are those that are sneaky and hard to beat.

Not at home on the range
Do parasites accompany their hosts into neighboring territory? Not necessarily.

Immune function predicts infection risk among child trauma patients
Researchers studying critically ill children with traumatic injuries have identified an immune marker that predicts which patients are likely to develop a hospital-acquired infection.

Study finds kidney donation safe for healthy older adults
Older kidney donors enjoy similar longevity and cardiovascular health as other healthy mature individuals, according to a new study published in the American Journal of Transplantation.

NASA finds friction from tides could help distant earths survive, and thrive
As anybody who has started a campfire by rubbing sticks knows, friction generates heat.

NASA, NOAA satellites help confirm Tropical Storm Fausto as a remnant low
NOAA's GOES-West and NASA-JAXA's Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission satellite helped forecasters at the National Hurricane Center determine that what was once Tropical Storm Fausto is now a remnant area of low pressure in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

Short circuit in the food web
Chemists of Jena University shed light upon mechanisms of viral diseases of marine algae: Together with scientists of the Weizman Institute in Israel the team around Professor Pohnert has analyzed the complex interaction between the algae Emiliania huxleyi and viruses.

Depression in AMD patients with low vision can be halved by integrated therapies
The first clinical trial to examine integrated low vision and mental health treatment has shown that the approach can reduce the incidence of depression by half among people with low vision due to age-related macular degeneration.

Making a more healthful, low-fat hot dog without giving up texture
With grilling season upon us, many backyard cooks are turning to more healthful alternatives to their savored but fatty hot dogs.

Climate change provides good growing conditions for charcoal rot in soybeans
With over 100 diseases that can attack soybean crops, why would charcoal rot rise to the top of the most wanted list?

Food imagery ideal for teaching doctors... who must have strong stomachs
From 'beer belly' to 'port wine stain,' food imagery has a long history of being used in medicine to identify the diagnostic features of a wide range of conditions and ailments, says a pathologist in Medical Humanities.

NIH launches Phase I clinical trial of novel drug to treat Clostridium difficile infection
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, has launched an early-stage clinical trial of CRS3123, an investigational oral antibiotic intended to treat Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection.

How antioxidants can accelerate cancers, and why they don't protect against them
Two distinguished cancer researchers have proposed why antioxidant supplements might not be working to reduce cancer development, and why they may actually do more harm than good.

DARPA selects Lawrence Livermore to develop world's first neural device to restore memory
The Department of Defense's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) awarded Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory up to $2.5 million to develop an implantable neural device with the ability to record and stimulate neurons within the brain to help restore memory, DARPA officials announced this week.

For corals adapting to climate change, it's survival of the fattest -- and most flexible
The future health of the world's coral reefs and the animals that depend on them relies in part on the ability of one tiny symbiotic sea creature to get fat -- and to be flexible about the type of algae it cooperates with.

Postcards from the photosynthetic edge
Using the world's most powerful x-ray laser, an international collaboration led by Berkeley Lab researchers took femtosecond 'snapshots' of water oxidation in photosystem II, the only known biological system able to harness sunlight for splitting the water molecule.

DARPA awards UCLA $15 million to restore lost memory
The UCLA Program in Memory Restoration has been awarded up to $15 million by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency for a four-year project aiming to help brain-injured people restore lost memory functions.

Study of dermatology on YouTube shows new ways science reaches public
A University of Colorado Cancer Center study published in the Dermatology Online Journal shows that YouTube also allows researchers, journals, and health advocates to connect directly with the public on topics of skin cancer and prevention.

Fit for the frontline? New study identifies the hearing requirements of British soldiers
University of Southampton researchers, with assistance from the Ministry of Defence, have conducted the first study to identify the hearing requirements of British soldiers fighting on the frontline.

Letrozole may help women with PCOS become pregnant
The drug letrozole results in higher birth rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, PCOS, than the current preferred infertility treatment drug, according to a nationwide study led by Penn State College of Medicine researchers.

Study cracks how the brain processes emotions
Although feelings are personal and subjective, the human brain turns them into a standard code that objectively represents emotions across different senses, situations and even people, reports a new study by Cornell University neuroscientist Adam Anderson.

Even geckos can lose their grip
Not even geckos and spiders can sit upside down forever.

New paths into the world of quasiparticles
Quasiparticles can be used to explain physical phenomena in solid bodies even though they are not actual physical particles.

Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft publishes new popular science book on time
In this new book 'Time In Powers of Ten: Natural Phenomena and Their Timescales' published by World Scientific, both Hooft and his co-author, theoretical physicist Professor Stefan Vandoren, begin with the familiar unit of one second and tracks unique observations that fall within this unit before increasing its scale by differing factors of 10.

Odor communication in wild gorillas
Silverback gorillas appear to use odor as a form of communication to other gorillas.

Controlling contamination in open algae ponds for biofuels
Biofuels derived from the oils produced by algae may offer a low-cost sustainable alternative to fossil fuels.

USC scientists discover immune system component that resists sepsis in mice
Molecular microbiologists from the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California have discovered that mice lacking a specific component of the immune system are completely resistant to sepsis, a potentially fatal complication of infection.

New system would give individuals more control over shared digital data
A new system would allow individuals to pick and choose what data to share with websites and mobile apps.

Adolescents from southern Europe are less fit and more obese than central-northern European peers
Adolescents in southern Europe are less fit in terms of cardiorespiratory capacity, strength and speed-agility than their central-northern European peers.

Protein pushes breast cancer cells to metastasize
Using an innovative tool that captures heretofore hidden ways that cells are regulated, scientists at Rockefeller University have identified a protein that makes breast cancer cells more likely to metastasize.

Polar bears from space
Polar bear population estimates based on satellite images are similar to aerial estimates.

Rotten egg gas holds key to healthcare therapies
It may smell of flatulence and have a reputation for being highly toxic, but when used in the right tiny dosage, hydrogen sulfide is now being being found to offer potential health benefits in a range of issues, from diabetes to stroke, heart attacks and dementia.

Projecting a 3-dimensional future
A team of Tel Aviv University researchers has developed highly efficient holography based on nanoantennas, using the parameters of light itself to create dynamic and complex holographic images.

Fun or exercise?
Researchers found that if you think of your next workout as a 'fun run' or as a well-deserved break, you'll eat less afterward.

New study finds that Adélie penguin population is on the rise
A first-ever global census of Adélie penguins shows that the population is 3.79 million breeding pairs or 53 percent larger than previously estimated.

Women's Medicine Collaborative examines safety of fecal transplant to treat C. difficile
Researchers have found that fecal transplantation is effective and safe for treating C. difficile in immunocompromised patients.

Study identifies novel genomic changes in the most common type of lung cancer
Researchers from The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network have identified novel mutations in a well-known cancer-causing pathway in lung adenocarcinoma, the most common subtype of lung cancer.

New technology illuminates colder objects in deep space
Northwestern University professor Manijeh Razeghi and her group engineered a new technology that can detect very long wavelength infrared light.

Figuring out methane's role in the climate puzzle
The US may be on the verge of an economy driven by methane, the primary component of natural gas, which burns cleaner than coal and is undergoing a production boom.

Telemedicine for patients with chronic liver diseases
Although telemedicine could improve the quality of life of patients with chronic liver diseases, viable home care systems are still lacking.

Vasectomy may increase risk of aggressive prostate cancer
Vasectomy was associated with a small increased risk of prostate cancer, and a stronger risk for advanced or lethal prostate cancer according to a new study from Harvard School of Public Health.

How does miR-21 promote the differentiation of hair follicle-derived NCSCs into SCs?
Hair follicle-derived neural crest stem cells can be induced to differentiate into Schwann cells.

'Nano-pixels' promise thin, flexible, high resolution displays
A new discovery will make it possible to create pixels just a few hundred nanometers across that could pave the way for extremely high-resolution and low-energy thin, flexible displays for applications such as 'smart' glasses, synthetic retinas, and foldable screens.

Shark teeth analysis provides detailed new look at Arctic climate change
A new study shows that some shark species may be able to cope with the rising salinity of Arctic waters that may come with rising temperatures.

BMSCs with Nogo-66 receptor gene silencing for repair of spinal cord injury
After central nervous system injury, the increase in Nogo protein is mediated by Nogo-66 receptor gene, leading to the collapse of growth cones and inhibiting the extension of neuronal neurites.

MyChart use skyrocketing among cancer patients, UT Southwestern study finds
There has been a sharp increase in the number of cancer patients at UTSW using MyChart, the online, interactive service that allows patients to view laboratory and radiology results, communicate with their healthcare providers, and more.

Discovery of a new means to erase pain
A study published in the scientific journal Nature Neuroscience by Yves De Koninck and Robert Bonin, two researchers at Université Laval, reveals that it is possible to relieve pain hypersensitivity using a new method that involves rekindling pain so that it can subsequently be erased.

Biologists link sexual selection and placenta formation
Sexual selection enhances opportunities to mate, the tail of male peacocks being an iconic example.

No extra mutations in modified stem cells, study finds
New results ease previous concerns that gene-editing techniques used to develop therapies for genetic diseases could add unwanted mutations to stem cells.

Frogs have developed rapid defences against the red swamp crayfish
The common frog is one of the amphibians with the highest distribution in the Iberian Peninsula.

One secret of ancient amber revealed
The warm beauty of amber was captivating and mysterious enough to inspire myths in ancient times, and even today, some of its secrets remain locked inside the fossilized tree resin.

Managing the data jungle
Many biology labs fight with a glut of measurement data.

Fox Chase researchers recommend updating the staging criteria for breast cancer diagnoses
New findings from Fox Chase Cancer Center paint a relatively optimistic picture of women's chances of surviving a subset of breast cancers that have spread to the chest wall or skin, but not beyond.

Depressed men with prostate cancer are diagnosed later stage, get less effective therapies
Depressed men with localized prostate cancer were more likely to be diagnosed with more aggressive prostate cancer, received less effective treatments and survived for shorter times than prostate cancer patients who were not depressed, a UCLA study has found.

Human cells' protein factory has an alternate operating manual
Working with a gene involved in HIV infection, University of Maryland researchers discovered some human genes have an alternate set of operating instructions written into their protein-making machinery, which can quickly alter the proteins' contents, functions and ability to survive.

What drives a child to abuse alcohol?
By looking at 40 different factors in a 14 year old teens, including brain structure and function, personality, life experiences and genetics, researchers can predict with 70 percent accuracy who will go on to develop binge drinking within the next two years.

Fusion protein of single-chain variable domain fragments and myasthenia gravis
Dr. Fanping Meng and his team, College of Medicine, Yanbian University in China conjugated scFv and human serum albumin genes and detected the fusion protein in Pichia pastoris.

Rehabilitation helps prevent depression from age-related vision loss
Depression is a common risk for people who have lost their vision from age-related macular degeneration, but a new study shows that a type of rehabilitation therapy can cut this risk in half.

Investigators from Montefiore and Einstein to present data at 2014 Alzheimer's Association International Conference
Researchers from Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine will present new findings at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference.

The optimal mitomycin C concentration for intact peripheral nerve structure and function
Recently, local scar adhesion after laminectomy always challenges the worldwide scholars engaged in spine surgery.

Minimally invasive heart stents prove safer
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have documented the safety benefits of aortic stent grafts inserted during minimally invasive surgery to repair abdominal aortic aneurysms -- weaknesses in the body's largest artery that can rupture, causing potentially lethal internal bleeding.

The University of Gothenburg recruiting 2 more international top researchers
The Swedish Research Council has decided to support the recruitment of computational linguist Shalom Lappin and philosopher Paul Russell with SEK 189 million (EUR 20 million).
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