Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 23, 2014
Obesity linked to low endurance, increased fatigue in the workplace
US workplaces may need to consider innovative methods to prevent fatigue from developing in employees who are obese.

Study provides new perspectives on the current Clostridium difficile epidemic
More than 80 percent of hospitalized patients who tested positive for Clostridium difficile were tested outside the hospital or within the first 72 hours of hospitalization, suggesting that settings outside of the hospital may play key roles in the identification, onset and possible transmission of the disease, according to a new Kaiser Permanente study published today in the journal Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

New regions of genetic material are involved in the development of colon cancer
Most research on human cancer genes have been focused on regions of the coding genome, but just before each gene, there is a regulatory region which controls the expression and activity of the adjacent gene.

Benefits of combo lipid emulsion no greater than soy-based emulsion for pediatric patients
A systematic review of previously published studies found 'inadequate evidence' that combination lipid emulsions as compared with standard soybean oil lipid emulsion offer any greater benefit in bilirubin levels, triglyceride levels, or infection incidence in pediatric patients receiving intravenous feeding.

Oklahoma University awarded Mellon Foundation grant for development of digital Latin library
The University of Oklahoma has been awarded a $572,000 grant from the Andrew W.

Targeting the brain to treat obesity
Unlocking the secrets to better treating the pernicious disorders of obesity and dementia reside in the brain, according to a paper from American University's Center for Behavioral Neuroscience.

K computer runs largest ever ensemble simulation of global weather
Using Japan's flagship 10-petaFLOPS K computer, researchers from the RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science have succeeded in running 10,240 parallel simulations of global weather, the largest number ever performed, using data assimilation to reduce the range of uncertainties.

Research led by Temple's chair of dermatology: Pain and itch may be signs of skin cancer
Asking patients if a suspicious skin lesion is painful or itchy may help doctors decide whether the spot is likely to be cancerous, according to a new study headed by Gil Yosipovitch, M.D., Chairman of the Department of Dermatology at Temple University School of Medicine.

Wide-faced men negotiate nearly $2,200 larger signing bonus
Having a wider face helps men when they negotiate for themselves but hurts them when they are negotiating in a situation that requires compromise.

Age of puberty in girls influenced by which parent their genes are inherited from
The age at which girls reach sexual maturity is influenced by 'imprinted' genes, a small sub-set of genes whose activity differs depending on which parent passes on that gene, according to new research published in the journal Nature.

Strengthening community forest rights is critical tool to fight climate change: New report
Strengthening community forest rights is an essential strategy to reduce billions of tonnes of carbon emissions, making it an effective way for governments to meet climate goals, safeguard forests and protect the livelihoods of their citizens, according to a major new report.

Climate change and the soil
The planet's soil releases about 60 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere each year, which is far more than that released by burning fossil fuels.

Fires in the Northern Territories July 2014
Environment Canada has issued a high health risk warning for Yellowknife and surrounding area because of heavy smoke in the region due to forest fires.

Australian researchers pioneer a 'Google Street View' of galaxies
A new home-grown instrument based on bundles of optical fibres is giving Australian astronomers the first 'Google Street View' of the cosmos -- incredibly detailed views of huge numbers of galaxies.

Melatonin reduces traumatic brain injury-induced oxidative stress
Traumatic brain injury can cause post-traumatic neurodegenerations with an increase in reactive oxygen species and reactive oxygen species-mediated lipid peroxidation.

New partnership brings more personalized cancer treatment to Philadelphia
Thomas Jefferson University joins an international genomic medicine collaborative to help offer the newest innovations in cancer care through clinical trials.

Study links autistic behaviors to enzyme
Biomedical scientists at the University of California, Riverside have published a study today that sheds light on the cause of autistic behaviors in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of autism.

A crime to be gay in majority of the Commonwealth
As the Commonwealth Games get under way in Glasgow, it highlights that the modern Commonwealth of Nations is home to not only some great athletes, but also some of the most homophobic countries in the world.

Laser therapy on the repair of a large-gap transected sciatic nerve in a reinforced nerve conduit
Despite considerable advances in microsurgical techniques, the functional results of peripheral nerve repair remain largely unsatisfactory.

Life expectancy gains threatened as more older Americans suffer from multiple conditions
With nearly four in five older Americans living with multiple chronic medical conditions, a new study by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health finds that the more ailments you have after retirement age, the shorter your life expectancy.

Rosemary and oregano contain diabetes-fighting compounds
The popular culinary herbs oregano and rosemary are packed with healthful compounds, and now lab tests show they could work in much the same way as prescription anti-diabetic medication, scientists report.

An increase in temperature by 2050 may be advantageous to the growth of forage plants
A 2°C increase in temperature around the world by 2050, according to one of the scenarios predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, may be advantageous to the physiology and the biochemical and biophysical processes involved in the growth of forage plants such as Stylosanthes capitata Vogel, a legume utilized for livestock grazing in tropical countries such as Brazil.

Dogs exhibit jealous behavior
Dogs exhibit more jealous behaviors, like snapping or pushing their owner, when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog compared to random objects.

NASA's HS3 mission spotlight: The HIRAD instrument
The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer, known as HIRAD, will fly aboard one of two unmanned Global Hawk aircraft during NASA's Hurricane Severe Storm Sentinel or HS3 mission from Wallops beginning Aug.

How honey bees stay cool
Recently published research led by Philip T. Starks, a biologist at Tufts University's School of Arts and Sciences, is the first to show that worker bees dissipate excess heat within a hive in process similar to how humans and other mammals cool themselves through their blood vessels and skin.

3-D image of Paleolithic child's skull reveals trauma, brain damage
3-D imaging of a Paleolithic child's skull reveals potentially violent head trauma that likely lead to brain damage.

The physics of lead guitar playing
String bends, tapping, vibrato and whammy bars are all techniques that add to the distinctiveness of a lead guitarist's sound, whether it's Clapton, Hendrix, or BB King.

MIPT-based researcher models Titan's atmosphere
Professor Vladimir Krasnopolsky from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, who heads the Laboratory of High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Planetary Atmospheres, offered a reliable mathematical model of Titan's atmosphere.

Global food safety research agreement signed by China and UC Davis
An agreement establishing a collaborative global food safety research center in China was signed today by officials from China's Northwest Agricultural and Forestry University and the University of California, Davis.

Research charts the ecological impact of microbial respiration in the oxygen-starved ocean
A sulfur-oxidizing bacterial group called SUP05 will play an increasingly important role in carbon and nutrient cycling in the world's oceans as oxygen minimum zones expand, according to research published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Combination antiretroviral therapy helps treat HCV in patients co-infected with HIV
Treatment of HIV patients co-infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) with an anti-retroviral drug therapy not only tackles HIV, but also reduces HCV replication, according to a new study lead by a University of Cincinnati researcher.

Springer partners with Taiwan Fuzzy Systems Association
As of 2015, Springer will publish the International Journal of Fuzzy Systems, the official journal of the Taiwan Fuzzy Systems Association.

Toward an oral therapy for treating Alzheimer's disease: Using a cancer drug
Currently, no cure exists for Alzheimer's disease, the devastating neurological disease affecting more than 5 million Americans.

Gene inhibitor, salmon fibrin restore function lost in spinal cord injury
A therapy combining salmon fibrin injections into the spinal cord and injections of a gene inhibitor into the brain restored voluntary motor function impaired by spinal cord injury, scientists at UC Irvine's Reeve-Irvine Research Center have found.

A crystal wedding in the nanocosmos
Researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, the Vienna University of Technology and the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Lublin have succeeded in embedding nearly perfect semiconductor crystals into a silicon nanowire.

AGU: Voyager spacecraft might not have reached interstellar space
In 2012, the Voyager mission team announced that the Voyager 1 spacecraft had passed into interstellar space, traveling further from Earth than any other manmade object.

Calcification in changing oceans explored in special issue of the Biological Bulletin
The July issue of the Biological Bulletin, published by the Marine Biological Laboratory, addresses the challenges faced by calcifiers -- organisms that use calcium from their environment to create hard carbonate skeletons and shells for stability and protection -- as ocean composition changes worldwide.

Lives and deaths of sibling stars
In this new image from ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile young stars huddle together against clouds of glowing gas and lanes of dust.

Studying impacts of indoor air pollution on tribal communities
The study, which starts in September, aims to provide information on the effectiveness of various emissions mitigation methods and to improve understanding of multipollutant emissions from burning various types of biomass indoors.

Smarter than a first-grader?
In Aesop's fable about the crow and the pitcher, a thirsty bird happens upon a vessel of water, but when he tries to drink from it, he finds the water level out of his reach.

The geography of the global electronic waste ('e-waste') burden
As local and national governments struggle to deal with ever-growing piles of electronic waste, scientists are now refining the picture of just how much there is and where it really ends up.

Statin use decreases the risk of Barrett's esophagus
Statins, a class of drugs commonly used to lower cholesterol levels, significantly reduce a patient's risk of developing Barrett's esophagus, according to a new study in Gastroenterology, the official journal of the American Gastroenterological Association.

Physical work environment in hospitals affects nurses' job satisfaction
A New York University College of Nursing study finds architecture, interior design, and other physical aspects of their work environments can enhance early-career nurses' job satisfaction.

Psoriatic arthritis patients need better screening, warns panel of experts
Leading experts have joined together for the first time to call for better screening of psoriatic arthritis to help millions of people worldwide suffering from the condition.

Spinach could lead to alternative energy more powerful than Popeye
Spinach gave Popeye super strength, but it also holds the promise of a different power for a group of scientists: the ability to convert sunlight into a clean, efficient alternative fuel.

Linking television and the Internet
In the 'LinkedTV' project, researchers are seamlessly connecting TV offerings with the Internet.

New method for reducing tumorigenicity in induced pluripotent stem-cell based therapies
The potential for clinical use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology for transplant-based therapeutic strategies has previously been hindered by the risk of dysregulated cell growth, specifically the development of tumors.

Tempting people to move for work takes more than dollars
Sufficient financial inducements are one way of encouraging people to move to regional Australia for jobs, but other factors also play a part, according to a new report.

Knowledgeable consumers more likely to buy when given fewer options
The degree to which consumers perceive themselves to be knowledgeable about a product influences the likelihood that they will buy a particular product, researchers find in a series of studies published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

Cost-effective, solvothermal synthesis of heteroatom (S or N)-doped graphene developed
A research team led by group leader Yung-Eun Sung has announced that they have developed cost-effective technology to synthesize sulfur-doped and nitrogen-doped graphenes which can be applied as high performance electrodes for secondary batteries and fuel cells.

The birth of topological spintronics
The discovery of a new material combination that could lead to a more efficient approach to computer memory and logic is the first promising indication that it may be possible to build a practical technology with a novel material known as a 'topological insulator.' The research team's results show that such a scheme can be 10 times more efficient for controlling magnetic memory or logic than any other combination of materials measured to date.

Enhanced recovery program following colorectal surgery at community hospitals
An enhanced recovery program for patients after colorectal surgery appears to be feasible in a community hospital setting after having been shown to be successful in international and academic medical centers.

Vanderbilt-led study identifies genes linked to breast cancer in East Asian women
A new study in East Asian women has identified three genetic changes linked to an increased risk of breast cancer.

Genetics of cancer: Non-coding DNA can finally be decoded
Cancer is a disease of the genome resulting from a combination of genetic modifications, or mutations.

Age of puberty in girls influenced by which parent their genes are inherited from
The age at which girls reach sexual maturity is influenced by 'imprinted' genes, a small sub-set of genes whose activity differs depending on which parent passes on that gene, according to new research published today in the journal Nature.

Dead-body-feeding larvae useful in forensic investigations
Non-biting blow fly Chrysomya megacephala is commonly found in dead bodies and is used in forensic investigations to determine the time of death, referred to as the post mortem interval.

Investigation raises new concerns over top-selling blood-thinning drug
An investigation by the BMJ raises new concerns about a top-selling blood-thinning drug and the regulatory decisions that led to its approval.

Discovery is key to metal wear in sliding parts
Researchers have discovered a previously unknown mechanism for wear in metals: a swirling, fluid-like microscopic behavior in a solid piece of metal sliding over another.

Ketamine can be a wonder drug for ER patients and their physicians
For critically ill patients arriving at the emergency department, the drug ketamine can safely provide analgesia, sedation and amnesia for rapid, life-saving intubation, despite decades-old studies that suggested it raised intracranial pressure.

Nearly 50 years of lemur data now available online
A 48-year archive of life history data for the world's largest and most diverse collection of endangered primates is now digital and available online.

NIBIB to host second Edward C. Nagy New Investigator Symposium
The National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering will host its second Edward C.

Scientists find way to maintain quantum entanglement in amplified signals
Physicists Sergei Filippov and Mario Ziman have found a way to preserve quantum entanglement of particles passing through an amplifier and, conversely, when transmitting a signal over long distances.

Researchers find mechanism that clears excess of protein linked with Type 2 diabetes
Researchers suggest that, in people who do not have Type 2 diabetes, autophagy prevents the accumulation of toxic forms of IAPP.

No increased risk of cancer near Sellafield or Dounreay in recent years
Children, teenagers and young adults living near Sellafield or Dounreay since the 1990s are not at an increased risk of developing cancer according to research published in the British Journal of Cancer today.

Department of Defense awards $2.6 million grant to SMU STEM program for minority students
The US Department of Defense recently awarded the STEMPREP Project at Southern Methodist University a $2.6 million grant to support its goal of increasing the number of minorities in STEM fields.

Greater odds of adverse childhood experiences in those with military service
Men and women who have served in the military have a higher prevalence of adverse childhood events, suggesting that enlistment may be a way to escape adversity for some.

Minimizing drag to maximize results
In trying to better understand the aerodynamic interactions between cyclists, researchers from Monash University and the Australian Institute of Sport have studied how riders' drag was affected by the relative position of multiple cyclists.

Strategy proposed for preventing diseases of aging
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and elsewhere argue that medicine focuses too much on fighting diseases individually instead of concentrating on interventions that prevent multiple chronic diseases and extend healthy lifespan.

'Big picture' thinking doesn't always lead people to indulge less, study says
Self-focus plays an important role in how consumers make decisions, says new research from business professor Ravi Mehta.

Researchers unlock the protein puzzle
By using brightly hued dyes, George Mason University researchers discovered an innovative way to reveal where proteins touch each other, possibly leading to new treatments for cancer, arthritis, heart disease and even lung disease.

Protein evolution follows a modular principle
Similarities between proteins reveal that their great diversity has arisen from smaller building blocks.

Carnegie Mellon will partner with Duolingo to evaluate English language certification test
Carnegie Mellon University will partner with Duolingo, a Carnegie Mellon University spinoff company that provides free online language education, to evaluate the company's new low-cost test for certifying the English skills of college and job applicants.

Extramural R&D funding by US-located businesses nears $30 billion in 2011
In 2011, US-located companies spent $29.6 billion for extramural (purchased and collaborative) research and development performed by domestic and overseas organizations, according to statistics from the Business R&D and Innovation Survey.

Who can control the potential targets against cell apoptosis after TIA in the elderly?
Mitochondria play an important role in neuronal apoptosis caused by cerebral ischemia.

Nano-sized chip 'sniffs out' explosives far better than trained dogs
A groundbreaking nanotechnology-inspired sensor devised by Tel Aviv University's Professor Fernando Patolsky picks up the scent of explosives molecules better than a detection dog's nose.

The electric slide dance of DNA knots
DNA is an electrically charged molecule, and for this reason the knots that form spontaneously along the strand can be manipulated by applying electric fields, as done by Cristian Micheletti, professor at SISSA, and his team.

Controlling childbirth pain tied to lower depression risk
Controlling pain during childbirth and post delivery is linked to reduced risk of postpartum depression, says a Northwestern perinatal psychiatrist, based on a new study.

NASA sees Typhoon Matmo making second landfall in China
NASA's Terra satellite passed over Typhoon Matmo when it was moving through the Taiwan Strait for its final landfall in mainland China.

Intestinal parasites are 'old friends,' researchers argue
Intestinal parasites such as tapeworms, hookworms and a protist called Blastocystis can be beneficial to human health, according to a new paper that argues we should rethink our views of organisms that live off the human body.

NYSCF partners with Beyond Batten Disease Foundation to fight juvenile Batten disease
The New York Stem Cell Foundation and Beyond Batten Disease Foundation have partnered to develop stem cell resources to investigate and explore new treatments and ultimately find a cure for juvenile Batten disease, a fatal illness affecting children.

Study reveals medical students believe health policy education is improving
Students graduating from US medical schools in 2012 feel they've received a better education in health policy issues than graduates surveyed in 2008, according to a multi-center study led by the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and published online this month in Academic Medicine.

Study examines postoperative pneumonia prevention program in surgical ward
A postoperative pneumonia prevention program for patients in the surgical ward at a California Veterans Affairs hospital lowered the case rate for the condition, which can cause significant complications and increase the cost of care.

Strategy for community development partnerships earns award for UT Arlington professor
A University of Texas at Arlington professor who co-authored a book about the challenges faced by private foundations engaged in community revitalization has been awarded the Community Development Society's Current Research Award for 2014.

Detecting concussion-related brain disease in its earliest stages
Autopsies have shown that some high-profile athletes who suffered repeated blows to the head during their careers have unusual protein clumps in their brains.

A new approach in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence: targeting alien polluters
Humanity is on the threshold of being able to detect signs of alien life on other worlds.

Hormones after breast cancer: Not fuel for the fire after all?
Study highlights beneficial effects of non-oral hormone therapy on cardiac and bone outcomes, tumor reduction, and overall health in postmenopausal breast cancer mouse model.

Monitoring pulse after stroke may prevent a second stroke
New research suggests that regularly monitoring your pulse after a stroke or the pulse of a loved one who has experienced a stroke may be a simple and effective first step in detecting irregular heartbeat, a major cause of having a second stroke.

When it comes to depressed men in the military, does size matter?
Both short and tall men in the military are more at risk for depression than their uniformed colleagues of average height, a new study finds.

Rising temperatures hinder Indian wheat production
Geographers at the University of Southampton have found a link between increasing average temperatures in India and a reduction in wheat production.

Bats use the evening sky's polarization pattern for orientation
Max Planck scientists have discovered new sensory capabilities in a mammal.

New view of stomach cancer could hasten better therapies
In a massive effort to catalog the molecular causes of stomach cancer, scientists, including researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, have identified four subtypes of tumors based on shared mutations and other molecular abnormalities.

UNC researchers find unsuspected characteristics of new CF drugs, offering potential paths to more effective therapies
Last month, the pharmaceutical company Vertex released results from a large phase 3 clinical trial for cystic fibrosis patients, showing that a combination of two new cystic fibrosis drugs modestly improved lung function and offered better health outcomes for some patients.

Ancient genetic material from caries bacterium obtained for the first time
A UAB research concludes that the Streptococcus mutans, one of the principal bacteria causing dental caries, has increased the changes in its genetic material over time, possibly coinciding with dietary changes linked to the expansion of humanity.

Diseases of another kind
Sapronoses are an infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that inhabit aquatic ecosystems and/or soil rather than a living host.

Dog jealousy: Study suggests primordial origins for the 'green-eyed monster'
Dogs exhibit jealous behaviors. The first experimental test of jealousy in dogs supports the view that there may be a more basic form of jealousy, which evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers.

Satellite shows Atlantic tropical depression degenerate
NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured imagery of the Atlantic Ocean's Tropical Depression 2 is it degenerated into a tropical wave on July 23.

This week from AGU: New Oso report, rockfall in Yosemite, and earthquake models
This week from AGU: Oso landslide report, reducing rockfall in Yosemite National Park, and a new earthquake model.

Genetic study shows major impact of climate change on Antarctic fur seals
Genetic analysis of Antarctic fur seals, alongside decades of in-depth monitoring, has provided unique insights into the effect of climate change on a population of top-predators.

UNH NHAES researchers work to save endangered New England cottontail
Scientists with the New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station are working to restore New Hampshire and Maine's only native rabbit after new research based on genetic monitoring has found that in the last decade, cottontail populations in northern New England have become more isolated and seen a 50 percent contraction of their range.

York University researchers use bird 'backpacks' to put wood thrushes migration on the map
Researchers from York University have created the first migratory connectivity map produced for a songbird, using tracking from both breeding and winter sites.

The Lancet: Paracetamol no better than placebo for lower back pain
Paracetamol is no better than placebo at speeding recovery from acute episodes of lower back pain or improving pain levels, function, sleep, or quality of life, according to the first large randomised trial to compare the effectiveness of paracetamol with placebo for low-back pain.

How much magma is hiding beneath our feet?
Molten rock, or magma, has a strong influence on our planet and its inhabitants, causing destructive volcanic eruptions and generating some of the giant mineral deposits.

Urban heat boosts some pest populations 200-fold, killing red maples
New research shows that urban 'heat islands' are slowly killing red maples in the southeastern United States.

New device detects deadly lung disease
A scientist from the University of Exeter has developed a simple, cheap and highly accurate device for diagnosing a frequently fatal lung disease which attacks immune deficient individuals such as cancer patients and bone marrow transplant recipients.

ETH student develops filter for clean water around the world
An innovative filter makes it possible to purify water more quickly, simply and economically than ever before.

Sleep deprivation may increase susceptibility to false memories
Not getting enough sleep may increase the likelihood of forming false memories, according to research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

New York law offers nurses more recognition, responsibility
If past experience is anything to go by, nurse practitioners in New York State are about to get a lot more recognition for their contributions to primary care.

15-year analysis of blue whale range off California finds conflict with shipping lanes
A comprehensive analysis of the movements of blue whales off the West Coast found that their favored feeding areas are bisected by heavily used shipping lanes, increasing the threat of injury and mortality.

UTMB researchers discover that brown fat protects against diabetes and obesity in humans
Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have shown for the first time that people with higher levels of brown fat, or brown adipose tissue, in their bodies have better blood sugar control, higher insulin sensitivity and a better metabolism for burning fat stores.

Blue whales' dangerous feeding grounds
Tracking of blue whales by satellite over a 15-year period off the US West Coast suggests that the whales consistently return to feed in specific locations each year.

Unbreak my heart
Researchers of the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden report how they managed to capture detailed three-dimensional images of cardiac dynamics in zebrafish.

NASA team lays plans to observe new worlds
It can take decades to mature an astrophysics flagship mission from concept to launch pad.
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