Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

September 02, 2014
Drug that improves blood flow may help find cause of exercise intolerance in cystic fibrosis
A little white pill may help scientists learn why patients with cystic fibrosis have less exercise capacity than their peers, even if their lungs are relatively healthy.

Sabotage as therapy: Aiming lupus antibodies at vulnerable cancer cells
Yale Cancer Center researchers may have discovered a new way of harnessing lupus antibodies to sabotage cancer cells made vulnerable by deficient DNA repair.

Taxes and subsidies could encourage healthier diet and lower healthcare costs
In a Viewpoint published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, a team of Tufts University and Harvard University researchers call for the implementation of taxes and subsidies to improve dietary quality in the United States.

Time to take notice and tackle heart failure
Experts have sounded a call to action for policy makers at local, national, and international levels to promote heart failure prevention, improve heart failure awareness among healthcare professionals, ensure equity of care for all patients with heart failure, support and empower patients and their caregivers, and promote heart failure research.

Modern population boom traced to pre-industrial roots
The foundation of the human population explosion, commonly attributed to a sudden surge in industrialization and public health during the 18th and 19th centuries, was actually laid as far back as 2,000 years ago, suggests an extended model of detailed demographic and archeological data.

Education program on classroom management strategies receives $3.5 million DOE grant
The University of Houston Consistency Management & Cooperative Discipline (CMCD) program, part of the College of Education, is the recipient of a $3.5 million grant from the Institute of Education Science to study how CMCD strategies affect the behavior and achievement of Houston-area elementary students.

An hour of moderate exercise a day may decrease heart failure risk
Being physically active every day may lower your risk of developing heart failure.

Any diet works, if you stick to it
Weight loss differences between popular diets are minimal and likely of little importance to those wanting to lose weight, the researchers say.

Changing microbial dynamics in the wake of the Macondo blowout
Following the oil spill caused by the blowout at the Macondo wellhead in 2010, Gulf of Mexico microbial population dynamics shifted rapidly as numbers of oil degraders quickly increased.

Future solar panels
Conventional photovoltaic technology uses large, heavy, opaque, dark silicon panels, but this could soon change.

Men who exercise less likely to wake up to urinate
Men who are physically active are at lower risk of nocturia (waking up at night to urinate), according to a study led by a Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine researcher.

Mechanical ventilation a key indicator for pre-term children's math problems
A new study, led by researchers at the University of Warwick in the UK and the Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany, and just published in the Journal Early Human Development, has found that both the length of time spent in hospital after birth and the use of mechanical ventilation are key indicators of reduced mathematical ability in preterm children.

New name for symptoms associated with menopause
Experts who reviewed the terminology associated with genitourinary tract symptoms related to menopause -- currently referred to as vulvovaginal atrophy -- have agreed that the term genitourinary syndrome of menopause is a medically more accurate, all-encompassing, and a more publicly acceptable term.

Study conducted on rats suggests that hyperproteic diets can be beneficial for bones
Researchers at the University of Granada have found, through an experiment conducted on rats, that hyperproteic diets could be beneficial for bones, which would be of great use for groups with bone disease problems, such as the elderly or post-menopausal women.

LA BioMed researcher to be honored
The American College of Chest Physicians will honor LA BioMed researcher Richard Casaburi, PhD, MD, at its international convention, CHEST 2014, in Austin.

Enzyme controlling metastasis of breast cancer identified
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified an enzyme that controls the spread of breast cancer.

Seatbelt laws encourage obese drivers to buckle up
University of Illinois researchers have found a possible way to mitigate one often-overlooked obesity risk: not buckling up in the car.

Comparison of named diet programs finds little difference in weight-loss outcomes
In an analysis of data from nearly 50 trials including about 7,300 individuals, significant weight loss was observed with any low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet, with weight loss differences between diet programs small, findings that support the practice of recommending any diet that a patient will adhere to in order to lose weight, according to a study in the Sept.

UT Dallas researchers win nearly $1 million in defense grants for equipment
Two grants totaling nearly $1 million won by researchers in the Texas Analog Center of Excellence (TxACE) will lower the hurdle for research and development in high frequency integrated circuit design.

The Lancet Respiratory Medicine: Household air pollution puts more than 1 in 3 people worldwide at risk of ill health and early death
Household air pollution, caused by the use of plant-based or coal fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting, is putting nearly three billion people worldwide at risk of ill health and early death, according to a new Commission, published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine journal.

Childhood trauma could lead to adult obesity
Being subjected to abuse during childhood entails a markedly increased risk of developing obesity as an adult.

How well does bariatric surgery work?
The number of bariatric surgeries done each year in the United States has ballooned.

Scripps Florida scientists make diseased cells synthesize their own drug
In a new study that could ultimately lead to many new medicines, scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have adapted a chemical approach to turn diseased cells into unique manufacturing sites for molecules that can treat a form of muscular dystrophy.

Researchers awarded $1.5 million to develop software to process solar astronomy data on larger scale
Researchers in Georgia State University's new Astroinformatics program have been awarded $1.5 million from the National Science Foundation to develop software tools that can process large sets of solar astronomy data and allow scientists to perform analyses on scales and detail levels that have not been possible.

Humiliation tops list of mistreatment toward med students
Each year thousands of students enroll in medical schools across the country.

NYC teens and young adults who abuse prescription at high risk for overdose
A study in the International Journal of Drug Policy explores for the first time overdose-related knowledge and experiences of young adult nonmedical prescription opioid users to better understand how prescription opioid use relates to the likelihood and experience of overdose.

Residency training predicts physicians' ability to practice conservatively
Doctors trained in locations with less intensive (and expensive) practice patterns appear to consistently be better at making clinical decisions that spare patients unnecessary and excessive medical care, says a new study in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Study indicates that the hippocampus mediates cognitive decline in Huntington's disease
A new study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation suggests that alterations in the hippocampus contribute to memory dysfunction in Huntington's disease.

NSF renews grant for biological physics research at Rice
Rice University has received a five-year, $11.75 million grant from the National Science Foundation to support the Center for Theoretical Biological Physics.

Underwater grass comeback bodes well for Chesapeake Bay
The Susquehanna Flats, a large bed of underwater grasses in the upper Chesapeake Bay, virtually disappeared after Tropical Storm Agnes more than 40 years ago.

The Disappearing Spoon author Sam Kean takes on the megalodon myth
Best-selling author Sam Kean stops by Reactions this week to debunk the myth of the megalodon, the 50-foot super shark that, despite what 'Shark Week' may lead you to believe, is long-extinct.

Financial survey reveals public concern over income inequality, broken education system
Though the collective measure of financial trust is up, driven mainly by more positive attitudes toward banks and the stock market, Americans are concerned about growing income inequality and would like to see improvements in the country's educational system as a starting point to address that inequality, according to the latest Chicago Booth/Kellogg School Financial Trust Index.

Field Museum presents conservation award to founder of popular environmental website
The Field Museum has named the creator of Mongabay.org the Parker/Gentry Award winner for 2014.

Case Western Reserve University wins grant to improve lifetime performance of ceramic fuel cells
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University received an $800,000 Department of Energy grant to study how to make one type of fuel cell -- solid oxide fuel cells -- last longer.

South Beach Diet Developer Keynotes Cardiovascular Symposium
Dr. Arthur Agatston, pioneer of the revolutionary South Beach Diet and the best predictor of future heart attack, the Agatston Score, will be the keynote speaker Sept.

How genes link a mother's diet to the risk of obesity in her offspring
According to new research published in the September 2014 issue of The FASEB Journal, scientists using an animal model found an epigenetic link between a mother's diet and an offspring's risk of future obesity.

Biochemists find new treatment options for staph infections, inflammatory diseases
Kansas State University biochemists have discovered a family of proteins that could lead to better treatments for Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogenic bacterium that can cause more than 60,000 potentially life-threatening infections each year.

Simple awareness campaign in general practice identifies new cases of AF
A simple awareness campaign in general practice identifies new cases of atrial fibrillation (AF), according to research presented at ESC Congress today by professor Jean-Marc Davy from France.

NASA satellites calling here you come again, Tropical Storm Dolly
Tropical Storm Dolly visited Mexico six years ago, and NASA satellite data is calling 'Here you come again,' reminiscent of the famous country singer's hit song, as another storm named Dolly heads for a second landfall in Mexico.

Muslim headscarf may buffer against negative body image among women
Researchers have found that British Muslim women who wear a hijab generally have more positive body image, are less reliant on media messages about beauty ideals, and place less importance on appearance than those who do not wear a hijab.

Increase seen in use of double mastectomy
Among women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer in California, the percentage undergoing a double mastectomy increased substantially between 1998 and 2011, although this procedure was not associated with a lower risk of death than breast-conserving surgery plus radiation, according to a study in the Sept.

Researchers uncover hidden infection route of major bacterial pathogen
Researchers at the University of Liverpool's Institute of Infection and Global Health have discovered the pattern of infection of the bacterium responsible for causing severe lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis.

More than half of biology majors are women, yet gender gaps remain in science classrooms
STEM fields are heavily dominated by males, which is of concern to universities as they try to improve student retention and achievement.

Researchers examine effectiveness of blocking nerve to help with weight loss
Among patients with morbid obesity, blocking the vagus nerve, which plays a role with appetite and metabolism, did not meet pre-specified efficacy objectives compared to a control group, although the intervention did result in greater weight loss, according to a study in the Sept.

UO-Berkeley Lab unveil new nano-sized synthetic scaffolding technique
Scientists, including University of Oregon chemist Geraldine Richmond, have tapped oil and water to create scaffolds of self-assembling, synthetic proteins called peptoid nanosheets that mimic complex biological mechanisms and processes.

Risk of diabetes in children and adolescents exposed to antipsychotics
A study published in the September 2014 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry found that children and adolescents diagnosed with a psychiatric diagnosis had an increased risk of developing diabetes if they were exposed to antipsychotics.

Could poor stomach absorption of drugs reduce autism medications' effectiveness?
Recent research has revealed that many children and adults with autism experience gastrointestinal symptoms and that such symptoms can impact the absorption and availability of medications.

Plant life forms in the fossil record: When did the first canopy flowers appear?
Most plant fossils are isolated organs, making it difficult to reconstruct the type of plant life or its ecosystem structure.

Microphysiological systems will revolutionize experimental biology and medicine
The September 2014 Annual Thematic Issue of Experimental Biology and Medicine is devoted to 'The biology and medicine of microphysiological systems.' Papers by participants in the NIH Microphysiological Systems Program describe MPS as in vitro models for bone/cartilage, brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, liver, microvasculature, reproductive tract, skeletal muscle, and skin; the interconnection of MPS to support physiologically based pharmacokinetics and drug discovery and screening; and the microscale technologies that regulate stem cell differentiation.

War between bacteria and phages benefits humans
In our battle with cholera bacteria, we may have an unknown ally in bacteria-killing viruses known as phages.

SNMMI 2014-2016 Wagner-Torizuka Fellowship recipients announced
The Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) is pleased to announce the recipients of the 2014-2016 SNMMI Wagner-Torizuka Fellowship.

Mechanical heart valves increase pregnancy risk
The fact that mechanical heart valves increase risks during and after pregnancy, has been confirmed by data from the ROPAC registry presented for the first time today in an ESC Congress Hot Line session by professor Jolien W.

Coffee increases prediabetes risk in susceptible young adults
Coffee increases the risk of prediabetes in young adults with hypertension who are slow caffeine metabolizers, according to results from the HARVEST study presented at ESC Congress today by Dr.

Scientists obtain new data on the weather 10,000 years ago from sediments of a lake in Sierra Nevada
Scientists have found evidence of atmospheric dust from the Sahara in the depths of the Rio Seco lake, 3,020 meters above sea level, accumulated over the last 11,000 years.

Nano-forests to reveal secrets of cells
Vertical nanowires could be used for detailed studies of what happens on the surface of cells.

SMFM releases paper on activity restriction in pregnancy
Physicians recommend against the routine use of activity restriction or bed rest.

Surprising new role for calcium in sensing pain
When you accidentally touch a hot oven, you rapidly pull your hand away.

Health structures explain nearly 20 percent of non-adherence to heart failure guidelines
Health structures explain nearly 20 percent of the non-adherence to heart failure guidelines, according to the results of a joint ESC-OECD study presented today at ESC Congress by professor Aldo Maggioni.

Can data motivate hospital leaders to improve care transitions?
New study in the Aug. 26 issue of the Journal of Hospital Administration shows that implementing guidelines can improve hospitals' communication during patient care transitions.

New discovery could help turn antibiotic into antimalarial drug
Melbourne researchers are making progress towards new antimalarial drugs, after revealing how an antibiotic called emetine blocks the molecular machinery that produces the proteins required for malaria parasite survival.

International Council for Science endorses open access to scientific record; cautions against misuse of metrics
The General Assembly of the International Council for Science today endorsed open access principles and provided key recommendations guarding against the misuse of metrics in the evaluation of research performance.

Study finds change in type of procedure most commonly used for bariatric surgery
In an analysis of the type of bariatric surgery procedures used in Michigan in recent years, sleeve gastrectomy (SG) surpassed Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in 2012 as the most common procedure performed for patients seeking this type of surgery, and SG became the predominant bariatric surgery procedure for patients with type 2 diabetes, according to a study in the Sept.

This week From AGU: California earthquake, future Mars rovers, models underestimate ozone
This week From AGU: California earthquake, future Mars rovers, models underestimate ozone.

Melatonin does not reduce delirium in elderly patients having acute hip surgery
Melatonin supplements do not appear to lessen delirium in elderly people undergoing surgery for hip fractures, indicates a new trial published in CMAJ.

What you eat and not just the number of calories, is a significant factor in diabetes risk
If you think losing weight is enough to prevent Type 2 diabetes, don't get your hopes up.

Study links sex hormone levels in the blood to risk of sudden cardiac arrest
Measuring the levels of sex hormones in patients' blood may identify patients likely to suffer a sudden cardiac arrest, a heart rhythm disorder that is fatal in 95 percent of patients.

Throwing a loop to silence gene expression
Cells attach so-called 'epigenetic' signals to their genome to select which part of their genetic information is used.

The key to drilling wells with staying power in the developing world
A UNC study found that if local water communities collect fees for repairs and train community members to fix the wells, they can remain in use for decades.

Media coverage of a celebrity suicide can cause a large-scale copycat effect
Researchers who analyzed media coverage of the suicide of a national actress in South Korea and its impact on subsequent suicides found that the number of suicide-related articles surged around 80 times in the week after a suicide compared with the week prior.

Salamander skin peptide promotes quick and effective wound healing in mice
Move over antibiotic ointment, there might be a new salve to dominate medicine cabinets of the future, and it comes from an unlikely place -- the lowly salamander.

Global snapshot of infectious canine cancer shows how to control the disease
While countries with dog control policies have curbed an infectious and gruesome canine cancer, the disease is continuing to lurk in the majority of dog populations around the world, particularly in areas with many free-roaming dogs.

Sensory reinnervation of muscle spindles after TN defect repaired by autologous vein graft
A study shows that the repair of short nerve defects with autologous vein grafts may provide comparable results to immediate end-to-end anastomosis in terms of sensory reinnervation of muscle spindles.

Food supplements plus cash to poor families reduces rates of child malnutrition in Niger
In Niger, interventions that combined the distribution of supplementary food with a cash transfer to poor families prevented acute malnutrition in young children more effectively than strategies that relied on either cash transfer or supplementary food distribution alone, according to a study by international researchers published in this week's PLOS Medicine.

Rediscovering our mundane moments brings us unexpected pleasure
We like to document the exciting and momentous occasions in our lives, but new research suggests there is value in capturing our more mundane, everyday experiences, which can bring us unexpected joy in the future.

ASHG and NHGRI award first genetics and education fellowship
The American Society of Human Genetics and the National Human Genome Research Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health, have named Elizabeth P.

Clean air halves health costs in Chinese city
Air pollution regulations over the last decade in Taiyuan, China, have substantially improved the health of people living there, accounting for a greater than 50 percent reduction in costs associated with loss of life and disability between 2001 and 2010, according to researchers at the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health at the Mailman School of Public Health and colleagues in China.

University of Houston researcher looks at the future of higher education
Most forecasts about the future of higher education have focused on how the institutions themselves will be affected -- including the possibility of less demand for classes on campus and fewer tenured faculty members as people take courses online.

Family conflicts, other non-physical worries before cancer surgery raise patients' complication risk
How well patients recover from cancer surgery may be influenced by more than their medical conditions and the operations themselves.

Daily breakfast is associated with a lower type 2 diabetes risk profile in children
Regular consumption of a healthy breakfast may help children lower their risk of developing type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in this week's PLOS Medicine.

Giant garbage patches help redefine ocean boundaries
Researchers have created a new model that could help determine what area of the world is to blame for each ocean garbage patch of floating debris -- a difficult task for a system as complex and massive as the ocean.

Brain circuit differences reflect divisions in social status
Life at opposite ends of primate social hierarchies is linked to specific brain networks, Oxford University research has shown.

Scientists create renewable fossil fuel alternative using bacteria
Researchers have engineered the harmless gut bacteria E. coli to generate renewable propane.

ROCKET AF trial suggests that digoxin increases risk of death in AF patients
Digoxin may increase the risk of death in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) by approximately 20 percent, according to results from the ROCKET AF trial presented at ESC Congress today by Dr.

Chinese scientists' team efforts in dissecting rice complex agronomic traits in recent years
Rice, which provides the main food source for more than half of the global population, is an excellent model for study due to its small genome size and completed genome sequence.

Aging gracefully: Diving seabirds shed light on declines with age
Scientists who studied long-lived diving birds, which represent valuable models to examine aging in the wild, found that blood oxygen stores, resting metabolism and thyroid hormone levels all declined with age, although diving performance did not.

'Prepped' by tumor cells, lymphatic cells encourage breast cancer cells to spread
Breast cancer cells can lay the groundwork for their own spread throughout the body by coaxing cells within lymphatic vessels to send out tumor-welcoming signals, according to a new report by Johns Hopkins scientists.

An uphill climb for mountain species?
A recently published paper provides a history of scientific research on mountain ecosystems, looks at the issues threatening wildlife in these systems, and sets an agenda for biodiversity conservation throughout the world's mountain regions.

Researchers find Asian camel crickets now common in US homes
With their long, spiky legs and their propensity for eating anything, including each other, camel crickets are the stuff of nightmares.

Early cerebellum injury hinders neural development, possible root of autism
Princeton University researchers offer a new theory that an early-life injury to the cerebellum disrupts the brain's processing of external and internal information and leads to 'developmental diaschisis,' wherein a loss of function in one brain region leads to problems in another.

The Lancet: European Society of Cardiology Congress 2014 media alert
The Lancet is pleased to announce that two papers will be published to coincide with presentation at the ESC Congress 2014, taking place in Barcelona, Spain, Aug.

Community music programs enhance brain function in at-risk children
A new Northwestern University study provides the first direct evidence that a community music program for at-risk youth has a biological effect on children's developing nervous systems.

Molecular probes permit doctors to detect diabetic retinopathy before vision fails
A new study published in the September issue of The FASEB Journal identifies a novel strategy to diagnose the leading cause of blindness in adults, diabetic retinopathy, before irreversible structural damage has occurred.

New method for non-invasive prostate cancer screening
A team of researchers led by Shaoxin Li at Guangdong Medical College in China has demonstrated the potential of a new, non-invasive method to screen for prostate cancer, a common type of cancer in men worldwide.

Maternal low protein diet promotes diabetic phenotypes in offspring
A new study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation suggests that a maternal diet low in protein predisposes offspring to type 2 diabetes.

Single laser stops molecular tumbling motion instantly
In the quantum world, making the simple atom behave is one thing, but making the more complex molecule behave is another story.

New synthesis method may shape future of nanostructures, clean energy
A team of University of Maryland physicists has published new nanoscience advances that they and other scientists say make possible new nanostructures and nanotechnologies with huge potential applications ranging from clean energy and quantum computing advances to new sensor development.

Economic success drives language extinction
Thriving economies are the biggest factor in the disappearance of minority languages and conservation should focus on the most developed countries where languages are vanishing the fastest, finds a new study.

Over-the-counter pain reliever may restore immune function in old age
New research involving mice suggests that the key to more youthful immune function might already be in your medicine cabinet.

ASHG and NHGRI award genetics and public policy fellowship
The American Society of Human Genetics and the National Human Genome Research Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health, have named Katherine D.

Research in rodents suggests potential for 'in body' muscle regeneration
What if repairing large segments of damaged muscle tissue was as simple as mobilizing the body's stem cells to the site of the injury?

Puerarin accelerates neural regeneration after sciatic nerve injury
Can puerarin be involved in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries?

Cool calculations for cold atoms
The first full theory that accounts for interactions at nano-kelivin temperatures -- in those situations where 3-atom states can form even while all 2-atom states are unstable.

INFORMS study on Iron Dome asks: What was its impact?
A new study published by The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences, INFORMS, examines the strengths and weaknesses of the Iron Dome system, which Israeli authorities have credited with saving lives during the recent conflict with Hamas.

Many nurses unprepared to meet dying patients
Most nurses in their work care for patients who are dying.

Experiences make you happier than possessions -- Before and after
To get the most enjoyment out of our dollar, science tells us to focus our discretionary spending on experiences such as travel over material goods.

Extinctions during human era worse than thought
The gravity of the world's current extinction rate becomes clearer upon knowing what it was before people came along.

More than one-third of booked operations are re-booked
More than one-third of all planned orthopedic surgery procedures are re-booked, postponed or cancelled completely.

In pro baseball pitchers, weak core linked to more missed days
New research suggests that professional baseball pitchers with poor core stability are more likely to miss 30 or more days in a single season because of injury than are pitchers who have good control of muscles in their lower back and pelvis.

Cannabis withdrawal symptoms common among adolescents treated for substance use disorder
Although cannabis -- commonly known as marijuana -- is broadly believed to be nonaddictive, a study by Massachusetts General Hospital investigators found that 40 percent of cannabis-using adolescents receiving outpatient treatment for substance use disorder reported experiencing symptoms of withdrawal, which are considered a hallmark of drug dependence.

Discovery hints at why stress is more devastating for some
Some take stress in stride; others struggle with it, even developing psychiatric disorders.

Protein in plasma may one day change transfusions
In injured mice, the naturally occurring protein fibronectin is instrumental in stopping bleeding but interestingly also at preventing life-threatening blood clots -- according to new research published today in Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Family history of cardiovascular disease is not enough to motivate people to follow healthy lifestyle
New research presented at the European Society of Cardiology Congress in Barcelona shows that having a family history of cardiovascular disease is not enough to motivate people to follow healthy lifestyles.

Researchers reveal carbon emissions of PlayStation 3 game distribution
It's not always true that digital distribution of media will have lower carbon emissions than distribution by physical means, at least when file sizes are large.

Exceptionally well preserved insect fossils from the Rhône Valley
In Bavaria, the Tithonian Konservat-Lagerstätte of lithographic limestone is well known as a result of numerous discoveries of emblematic fossils from that area (for example, Archaeopteryx).

Life Sciences Discovery Fund makes grants to commercialize promising technologies
The Life Sciences Discovery Fund today announced nearly $750,000 in Proof of Concept grants to Washington state for-profit and non-profit organizations to promote translation of health-related technologies from the laboratory to the commercial marketplace.

Breast cancer patients with bilateral mastectomy don't have better survival rates
Breast cancer patients treated with lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy survived as long as patients who had bilateral mastectomy, according to a large study conducted by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and the Cancer Prevention Institute of California.

Observing the onset of a magnetic substorm
Magnetic substorms, the disruptions in geomagnetic activity that cause brightening of aurora, may sometimes be driven by a different process than generally thought, a new study in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics shows.

Burnt out birds suggest hard work could be bad for your health
Unequal sharing of workloads in societies could leave the most industrious individuals at higher risk of poor health and prone to accelerated aging, according to a new study of a cooperative bird in the Kalahari Desert.

Oceans apart: Study reveals insights into the evolution of languages
A new Journal of Evolutionary Biology study provides evidence that physical barriers formed by oceans can influence language diversification.

Grooving crystal surfaces repel water
Researchers in Japan developed a porous polymer that stores and sorts organic molecules in the presence of water, which could have big implications for various industrial processes such as energy storage.

Scientists find possible neurobiological basis for tradeoff between honesty, self-interest
A team of scientists from the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute and the University of California at Berkeley used advanced imaging techniques to study how the brain makes choices about honesty.

Protein may provide the key to arresting development of diabetes
The STK25 protein contributes to cell growth. Researchers at Sahlgrenska Academy have discovered that the protein also affects metabolism, demonstrating that elevated levels accelerate the progress of diabetes in mice.

Cockatoos go to carpentry school
Goffin's cockatoos can learn how to make and use wooden tools from each other, a new study has found.

A handsome face could mean lower semen quality
Contrary to what one might expect, facial masculinity was negatively associated with semen quality in a recent Journal of Evolutionary Biology study.

Migrating birds sprint in spring, but take things easy in autumn
Passerine birds, also known as perching birds, that migrate by night tend to fly faster in spring than they do in autumn to reach their destinations.

Discharged patients return to the ER because 'better safe than sorry'
Patients who return to the emergency department within a few days of discharge do so principally because they are anxious about their symptoms and have lost trust in other parts of the health care system, according to the results of a study published online today in Annals of Emergency Medicine.

Are human breast milk microbiomes 'neutral'?
Human breast milk provides the best source of nutrients for infants and should have played a critical role for human evolution and civilization.

NYU study compares consequences of teen alcohol and marijuana use
Alcohol use was more commonly reported to compromise relationships with friends and significant others (e.g., boyfriends); it was also reported to lead to more regret, particularly among females.

WSU 'deadly force' lab finds racial disparities in shootings
Participants in an innovative Washington State University study of deadly force were more likely to feel threatened in scenarios involving black people.

Isn't it time that UK family doctors embraced email services for their patients?
E-mail services are either more convenient for patients and make better use of clinicians' time, or make more work for already hard pressed health-care professionals and threaten patient safety, argue two doctors in a Head to Head published on thebmj.com today.

Coming or going? How Scottish independence could affect migration
In light of the upcoming referendum on whether Scotland should be an independent country, researchers present a set of predictions of the possible effects on internal and international migration.

Diabetes mellitus and mild cognitive impairment: Higher risk in middle age?
In a large population-based study of randomly selected participants in Germany, researchers found that mild cognitive impairment occurred twice more often in individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2.

Ben-Gurion University researchers develop new program to evaluate prominent individuals' personalities
Researchers at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev have developed a new program that automates classification of personality traits of prominent individuals -- both friend and foe -- according to a paper soon to be published in the American Intelligence Journal.

Mirabegron for overactive bladder: Added benefit not proven
Mirabegron has been approved since December 2012 for the treatment of adults with overactive bladder.

Latest ear, nose, throat, head and neck research to be presented Sept. 21-24
The latest research on sleep apnea, tonsillectomies, hearing loss, head and neck cancers and other otolaryngic topics will be presented in Orlando, Fla., Sept.
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