Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

September 18, 2014
Kids eat better if their parents went to college
Children of college-educated parents eat more vegetables and drink less sugar, according to a new study from the University of British Columbia.

Nuclear spins control current in plastic LED
University of Utah physicists read 'spins' in hydrogen nuclei and used the data to control current in a cheap, plastic light emitting diode -- at room temperature and without strong magnetic fields.

CHEST announces China as site of CHEST World Congress 2016
The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) together with the Chinese Thoracic Society (CTS) announced today at the annual congress of CTS that CHEST World Congress 2016 will be held in China.

Hispanic Physicists Society organizes under SURA sponsorship
Last month, representatives of the National Society of Hispanic Physicists and the Southeastern Universities Research Association met to formalize an affiliation agreement on terms of the Southeastern Universities Research Association's sponsorship to provide group tax exemption status to the National Society of Hispanic Physicists.

Rosuvastatin treatments particularly effective among prediabetic patients
Cardiovascular disease is the leading causes of death worldwide and high cholesterol plays a major role in accelerating its progression.

Video game could help anxious children
Tom Hollenstein is running a two-year trial to see if the video game MindLight can help youth cope with and eventually conquer their anxiety.

No sedative necessary: Scientists discover new 'sleep node' in the brain
A sleep-promoting circuit located deep in the primitive brainstem has revealed how we fall into deep sleep.

Penn research helps uncover mechanism behind solid-solid phase transitions
Researchers have found that some crystals have an easier time of making a solid-solid transition if they take it in two steps.

Flu vaccine for expectant moms a top priority
All pregnant women and those planning to become pregnant should receive a flu shot because the normal changes to a pregnant woman's immune system, heart and lungs put moms-to-be at increased risk of the harmful effects of flu infection.

Researchers solve data science tasks in big data era using decision trees learning
Data mining is the art of exploring large and complex bodies of data in order to discover useful patterns.

New high-resolution satellite image analysis: 5 of 6 Syrian World Heritage sites 'exhibit significant damage'
In war-torn Syria, five of six World Heritage sites now 'exhibit significant damage' and some structures have been 'reduced to rubble,' according to new high-resolution satellite image analysis by the nonprofit, nonpartisan American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Withdrawal from the evolutionary race
In some HIV sufferers, the immune system does not fight off the immune deficiency virus.

BGI Tech, DLF-Trifolium A/S, and Aarhus University applying genomic selection methods
BGI Tech Solutions Co., LTD., is providing sequencing service to Denmark-based DLF-Trifolium and the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Aarhus University in an effort to develop a series of new high-yielding forage grass varieties by employing genomic selection methods.

Language evolution: Quicker on the uptake
Defects in the gene FOXP2 result in a severe speech disorder.

Stem cells use 'first aid kits' to repair damage
Neural stem cells -- master cells that can develop into any type of nerve cell -- are able to generate mini 'first aid kits' and transfer them to immune cells, according to a study published today.

The viability of premature babies is minimal at 22 weeks' gestation
A new study analyses the survival rates in Spain of newborns with a gestational age under 26 weeks.

Pupil size shows reliability of decisions
The precision with which people make decisions can be predicted by measuring pupil size before they are presented with any information about the decision, according to a new study published in PLOS Computational Biology this week.

CERN and the American Physical Society announce partnership for open access
The American Physical Society and The European Organization for Nuclear Research jointly announce a partnership to make all European Organization for Nuclear Research-authored articles published in the American Physical Society journal collection to be open access.

Tropical fish a threat to Mediterranean Sea ecosystems
The tropical rabbitfish which have devastated algal forests in the eastern Mediterranean Sea pose a major threat to the entire Mediterranean basin if their distribution continues to expand as the climate warms, a new study warns.

Melanoma risk found to have genetic determinant
A leading Dartmouth researcher, working with The Melanoma Genetics Consortium, GenoMEL, co-authored a paper published today in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute that proves longer telomeres increase the risk of melanoma.

Exercise boosts tumor-fighting ability of chemotherapy, Penn team finds
Study after study has proven it true: exercise is good for you.

3rd annual Golden Goose award ceremony honors 8 researchers; unusual work had big results
Eight researchers from several disciplines will be celebrated tonight at the third annual Golden Goose Award ceremony for their roles in improving the health of premature infants and in paving the way for the telecommunications and supercomputing revolutions.

Down syndrome helps researchers understand Alzheimer's disease
The link between a protein typically associated with Alzheimer's disease and its impact on memory and cognition may not be as clear as once thought, according to a new study from the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Waisman Center.

Survey: Fortune 500 employees can expect to pay more for health insurance
A survey of chief HR officers provides the first facts on how the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act has impacted firms and how firms are responding.

Scientists discover 'dimmer switch' for mood disorders
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified a control mechanism for an area of the brain that processes sensory and emotive information that humans experience as 'disappointment.'

Electrical urban transport has arrived
Irizar presents the first electrical urban bus in Europe. Tecnalia, by means of 'eDrive Control' team, has actively participated in its development, and goes on collaborating with Irizar and Jema (Group Irizar) in the design of propulsion system and its power control units.

Curcumin, special peptides boost cancer-blocking PIAS3 to neutralize STAT3 in mesothelioma
A common Asian spice and cancer-hampering molecules show promise in slowing the progression of mesothelioma, a cancer of the lung's lining often linked to asbestos.

Marcellus drilling boom may have led to too many hotel rooms
Drilling in Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale region led to a rapid increase in both the number of hotels and hotel industry jobs, but Penn State researchers report that the faltering occupancy rate may signal that there are now too many hotel rooms.

The 'Angelina Effect' was not only immediate, but also long-lasting
Referrals for genetic counselling and testing for breast cancer risk more than doubled across the UK after actress Angelina Jolie announced in May last year that she tested positive for a BRCA1 gene mutation and underwent a double mastectomy.

LA BioMed receives NIH grant to study vaccine for hospital-acquired infections
NIH awarded grant to LA BioMed to aid in the research and development of a vaccine to protect patients from the healthcare-related infections, Candida and MRSA.

Improving medicines for children in Canada
A new expert panel report, Improving Medicines for Children in Canada, released today by the Council of Canadian Academies, addresses the importance of developing safe and effective medicines for children.

Fall foliage season may be later, but longer on warmer Earth
The fall foliage season in some areas of the United States could come much later and possibly last a little longer by the end of the century as climate change causes summer temperatures to linger later into the year, according to Princeton University researchers.

Elsevier and Australasian Research Management Society award scientists at Scopus ceremony
Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, and the Australasian Research Management Society, recognized the academic research achievements of 17 young scientists at the 5th Scopus Young Researcher of the Year Awards.

Video games could dramatically streamline educational research
A Washington State University professor has figured out a dramatically easier and more cost-effective way to do research on science curriculum in the classroom -- and it could include playing video games.

Cooling of dialysis fluids protects against brain damage
Dialysis drives progressive white matter brain injury due to blood pressure instability; however, patients who dialyzed at 0.5 C below body temperature were completely protected against such white matter changes.

NASA marks Polo for a hurricane
Hurricane Polo still appears rounded in imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite, but forecasters at the National Hurricane Center expect that to change.

A new way to prevent the spread of devastating diseases
Researchers around the country are adopting a technique developed in the Caltech lab of Nobel Laureate David Baltimore to try to guard against infection.

Trial begins for MRI-compatible robot designed to improve accuracy of prostate biopsies
A novel robot that can operate inside the bore of an MRI scanner is currently being tested as part of a biomedical research partnership program at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston with the aim of determining if the robot, in conjunction with real-time MRI images, can make prostate cancer biopsies faster, more accurate, less costly, and less discomforting.

Researchers study vital 'on/off switches' that control when bacteria turn deadly
No matter how many times it's demonstrated, it's still hard to envision bacteria as social, communicating creatures.

Experts issue plea for better research and education for advanced breast cancer
Breast cancer experts around the world have issued a plea to researchers, academics, drug companies, funders and advocates to carry out high quality research and clinical trials for advanced breast cancer, a disease which is almost always fatal and for which there are many unanswered questions.

Sensing neuronal activity with light
For years, neuroscientists have been trying to develop tools that would allow them to clearly view the brain's circuitry in action -- from the first moment a neuron fires to the resulting behavior in an organism.

Technique to model infections shows why live vaccines may be most effective
Vaccines against Salmonella that use a live, but weakened, form of the bacteria are more effective than those that use only dead fragments because of the particular way in which they stimulate the immune system, according to research from the University of Cambridge published today in the journal PLOS Pathogens.

Study provides insight about providing private mental health service to veterans
A new report provides insights about the hurdles faced when providing private mental health services to US veterans, an issue that has gained importance as officials work to reform the Veterans Health Administration.

Want to link genes to complex traits? Start with more diversity
Life is rarely simple. From crop yields to disease risks, the biological characteristics people care most about are considered 'complex traits,' making it hard to identify the genes involved.

A more efficient, lightweight and low-cost organic solar cell
For decades, polymer scientists and synthetic chemists working to improve the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells were hampered by the inherent drawbacks of commonly used metal electrodes, including their instability and susceptibility to oxidation.

Hepatitis C virus proteins in space
Two researchers at Technische Universit√§t M√ľnchen have won the 'International Space Station Research Competition' with their project 'Egypt Against Hepatitis C Virus.' As their prize, the scientists will see the International Space Station crew perform experiments on the space station.

Non-governmental stakeholders to discuss the Global Health Security Agenda
Non-governmental stakeholders will convene a one-day conference at the Milken Institute School of Public Health at The George Washington University on Sept.

Don't cry wolf: Drivers fed up with slowing down at inactive roadwork sites
Drivers frustrated at slowing down at inactive roadwork sites are ignoring reduced speed limits, a QUT study has found.

March of Dimes honors Arizona with first-ever newborn screening award
The March of Dimes presented Will Humble, M.P.H., Arizona's Department of Health Services director, with its first ever newborn screening quality award at a ceremony held here today.

Miranda: An icy moon deformed by convection
Miranda, a small, icy moon of Uranus, is one of the most visually striking and enigmatic bodies in the solar system.

How stress tears us apart
Chronic stress can lead to behavioral problems. A team from the Brain Mind Institute has discovered an important synaptic mechanism: the activation of a cleaving enzyme, leading to these problems.

World population to keep growing this century, hit 11 billion by 2100
The chance that world population in 2100 will be between 9.6 billion and 12.3 billion people is 80 percent, according to the first such United Nations forecast to incorporate modern statistical tools.

Middle school dilemma: Girls' body image affected by older peers
The media is highly criticized for contributing to body image issues in adolescents.

Greenhouse gas research enters a new era
Greenhouse gas researchers will convene in Brussels 23-26 Sept. 2014, at the first ICOS Science Conference that brings together more than 200 scientists to discuss the recent results and future efforts in greenhouse gas science.

World breakthrough: A new molecule allows for an increase in stem cell transplants
Investigators from the Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer at the Universite de Montreal have just published, in the prestigious magazine Science, the announcement of the discovery of a new molecule, the first of its kind, which allows for the multiplication of stem cells in a unit of cord blood.

Vitamin E, selenium supplements unlikely to effect age-related cataracts in men
Taking daily supplements of selenium or vitamin E appears to have no significant effect on the development of age-related cataracts in men.

Small, fast, and crowded: Mammal traits amplify tick-borne illness
'In our struggle to manage the ever-growing list of tick-borne diseases, we need to understand which animals magnify human disease risk.

Evolution of responses to (un)fairness
The sense of fairness did not evolve for the sake of fairness per se but in order to reap the benefits of continued cooperation, say the authors of a review article about inequity aversion, which is defined as a negative reaction to unequal outcomes.

LSU Health research discovers means to free immune system to destroy cancer
LSU Health New Orleans research has identified the crucial role an inflammatory protein known as Chop plays in the body's ability to fight cancer.

Dogs can be pessimists too
Dr. Melissa Starling is the lead author of research published in PLOS ONE on cognitive bias in dogs.

Buzzing with activity: Fruit flies orbit Earth for science
Recently the space station has hosted increasing numbers of fruit fly research studies.

Single dose of antidepressant changes the brain
A single dose of antidepressant is enough to produce dramatic changes in the functional architecture of the human brain.

Global agriculture: More land, fewer harvests
Most of the Earth's agricultural land resources are already under cultivation.

Farmers to be offered market-driven ways out of poverty through ICRAF-SNV partnership
A new partnership between The World Agroforestry Centre, a Dutch development organization, will help farmers create better, reliable and sustainable markets to reduce poverty.

Gambling with confidence: Are you sure about that?
Confidence determines much of our path through life, but what is it?

Decision-support program helps keep seniors out of the emergency room
An emergency room decision-support program can significantly reduce emergency room visits and hospital admissions among older adults on Medicare.

Research milestone in CCHF virus could help identify new treatments
New research into the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus which causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans similar to that caused by Ebolavirus, has identified new cellular factors essential for CCHFV infection.

First eyewitness accounts of mystery volcanic eruption
New light has been shed on one of the biggest volcanic eruptions in the last 500 years -- the so-called 'Unknown eruption' -- thanks to an unusual collaboration between a historian and a team of earth scientists at the University of Bristol, UK.

Mouse model sheds light on role of mitochondria in neurodegenerative diseases
A study indicates that motor neuron diseases might result from poor distribution of mitochondria along the spinal cord and axons.

Scientists find how mysterious 'circular RNA' is formed, claim muscular dystrophy link
The role of circular RNA, discovered several years ago, is poorly understood.

UT Dallas study uncovers factors in students' reporting of weapons at school
University of Texas at Dallas criminology researchers discovered that academic achievement and knowledge of security measures increased the likelihood that high school students would report a knife or gun at school.

Professional recommendations against routine prostate cancer screening have little effect
The effect of guidelines recommending that elderly men should not be routinely screened for prostate cancer 'has been minimal at best,' according to a new study led by researchers at Henry Ford Hospital.

NASA sees western edge of Tropical Storm Fung-Wong affecting Philippines
The NASA-NOAA Suomi NPP satellite saw the western edge of Tropical Storm Fung-Wong over the central Philippines on Sept.

Americans rate losing eyesight as having greatest impact on their lives
Many Americans across racial and ethnic groups describe losing eyesight as potentially having the greatest impact on their day-to-day life, more so than other conditions including: loss of limb, memory, hearing and speech (57 percent of African-Americans, 49 percent of non-Hispanic whites, 43 percent of Asians and 38 percent of Hispanics).

New insights on an ancient plague could improve treatments for infections
Dangerous new pathogens such as the Ebola virus invoke scary scenarios of deadly epidemics, but even ancient scourges such as the bubonic plague are still providing researchers with new insights on how the body responds to infections.

Benefits of telecommuting greater for some workers, study finds
A new study from University of Illinois business professor Ravi S.

Scientists pioneer microscopy technique that yields fresh data on muscular dystrophy
New microscopy technique yields resolution an order of magnitude better than previously possible.

Everything in moderation: Micro-8 to study regulating pathogens in space
Scientists want to address controlling outbreaks of Candida albicans, an opportunistic yeast pathogen, with the next round of cellular growth experiments on the International Space Station -- Micro-8.

Agricultural fires in the Ukraine
Numerous fires -- marked with red dots -- are burning in Eastern Europe, likely as a result of regional agricultural practices.

New insights into the world of quantum materials
In Innsbruck, Austria, a team of physicists led by Francesca Ferlaino experimentally observed how the anisotropic properties of particles deform the Fermi surface in a quantum gas.

A second look at glaucoma surgery
New research led by Queen's University Professor Robert Campbell has revealed using anti-inflammatory medications after glaucoma laser surgery is not helpful or necessary.

Gun deaths twice as high among African-Americans as white citizens in US
Gun deaths are twice as high among African-Americans as they are among white citizens in the US, finds a study of national data, published in the online journal BMJ Open.

University of Kentucky research explores STXBP5 gene and its role in blood clotting
Two independent groups of researchers led by Sidney Whiteheart, PhD, of the University of Kentucky, and Charles Lowenstein, MD, of the University of Rochester, have published important studies exploring the role that a gene called STXBP5 plays in the development of cardiovascular disease.

New Dartmouth smartphone app reveals users' mental health, performance, behavior
Dartmouth researchers and their colleagues have built the first smartphone app that automatically reveals college students' mental health, academic performance and behavioral trends.

Microplastic pollution discovered in St. Lawrence River sediments
A team of researchers from McGill University and the Quebec government have discovered microplastics widely distributed across the bottom of the St.

Changes in coastal upwelling linked to temporary declines in marine ecosystem
In findings of relevance to both conservationists and the fishing industry, new research links short-term reductions in growth and reproduction of marine animals off the California Coast to increasing variability in the strength of coastal upwelling currents -- currents which historically supply nutrients to the region's diverse ecosystem.

New insights into eyewitness memory from groundbreaking replication initiative
An innovative research replication initiative has generated results that have important implications for eyewitness memory.

Toward optical chips
In the next issue of the journal Nano Letters, researchers from MIT's departments of Physics and of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science will describe a new technique for building MoS2 light emitters tuned to different frequencies, an essential requirement for optoelectronic chips.

Researchers develop unique waste cleanup for rural areas
Washington State University researchers have developed a unique method to use microbes buried in pond sediment to power waste cleanup in rural areas.

The war on leukemia: How the battle for cell production could be decisive
A key step in understanding the nature of the fight for superiority between mutated genes and normal genes could lead to new therapies to combat leukaemia, say researchers from the University of Birmingham and Newcastle University.

A new quality control pathway in the cell
In a paper published today in Science, Center for Genomic Regulation researchers describe a new protein quality control system in the inner nuclear membrane.

Research yields a game changer for improving understanding of Ebola and great apes
A group of international scientists have developed a new method to study Ebola virus in wildlife.

Human sense of fairness evolved to favor long-term cooperation
The human response to unfairness evolved in order to support long-term cooperation, according to a research team from Georgia State University and Emory University.

Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood worsens musculoskeletal pain outcomes after trauma
People living in lower-income neighborhoods have worse musculoskeletal pain outcomes over time after stressful events such as motor vehicle collisions than people from higher-income neighborhoods, a new study finds.

How pneumonia bacteria can compromise heart health
Bacterial pneumonia in adults carries an elevated risk for adverse cardiac events (such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and heart attacks) that contribute substantially to mortality -- but how the heart is compromised has been unclear.

NYU Langone scientists report reliable and highly efficient method for making stem cells
Scientists have found a way to boost dramatically the efficiency of the process for turning adult cells into so-called pluripotent stem cells by combining three well-known compounds, including vitamin C.

Study shows how epigenetic memory is passed across generations
A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental stresses can cause changes in gene expression that are transmitted from parents to their offspring, making 'epigenetics' a hot topic.

NASA sees Hurricane Edouard enter cooler waters
NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and Aqua satellite gathered data on Hurricane Edouard's rainfall, clouds and waning power is it continued moving northward in the Atlantic into cooler waters.

Spouse's personality influences career success, study finds
As much as we might try to leave personal lives at home, the personality traits of a spouse have a way of following us into the workplace, exerting a powerful influence on promotions, salaries, job satisfaction and other measures of professional success, new research from Washington University in St.

Tree rings and arroyos
A new GSA Bulletin study uses tree rings to document arroyo evolution along the lower Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in northern New Mexico, USA.
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