Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

September 25, 2014
Protein controlling gut's protective force field identified
A sugary force field is activated in the gut when our defenses are down to encourage the growth of helpful bacteria and fight over-colonization by harmful micro-organisms, scientists have discovered.

New discovery could pave the way for spin-based computing
Electricity and magnetism rule our digital world. Semiconductors process electrical information, while magnetic materials enable long-term data storage.

Treatment studied to help patients 'burned to the bone'
An anti-inflammatory treatment, studied by University of Michigan regenerative medicine specialists and trauma surgeons, may prevent what's become one of the war-defining injuries for today's troops.

Dinosaur family tree gives fresh insight into rapid rise of birds
The most comprehensive family tree of meat-eating dinosaurs ever created is enabling scientists to discover key details of how birds evolved from them.

Perfectionism is a bigger than perceived risk factor in suicide: York U psychology expert
York University psychology professor Gordon Flett, calling for closer attention to perfectionism's potential destructiveness, adding that clinical guidelines should include perfectionism as a separate factor for suicide risk assessment and intervention.

Scientists develop tool to help communities stay environmentally and socially 'healthy'
Geographers at the University of Southampton have developed a new way to measure the 'health' of poor regional communities.

Playing tag with sugars in the cornfield
Grasses and crops such as maize attach sugars to chemical defenses called benzoxazinoids to protect themselves from being poisoned by their own protective agents.

Modified vitamin D shows promise as treatment for pancreatic cancer
Salk scientists find that a vitamin D-derivative makes tumors vulnerable to chemotherapy.

Massive weight loss increases risk of complications in body-shaping surgery
Patients who lost more than 100 pounds and those who shed weight through bariatric surgery had the highest risk of complications from later surgical procedures to reshape their leaner bodies, a new study from UT Southwestern Medical Center shows.

Agonizing rabies deaths can be stopped worldwide
In the current issue of Science magazine, an international team of researchers led by the Paul G.

From the renowned Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory course
'Molecular Neuroscience: A Laboratory Manual' includes protocols used in the Advanced Techniques in Molecular Neuroscience course offered annually at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, as well as protocols drawn from its best-selling lab manuals.

How to make stronger, 'greener' cement
Concrete is the world's most-used construction material, and a leading contributor to global warming, producing as much as one-tenth of industry-generated greenhouse-gas emissions.

NYU Langone scientists identify key factor that maintains stem cell identity
A protein implicated in several cancers appears to play a pivotal role in keeping stem cells in an immature 'pluripotent' state, according to a new study by NYU Langone Medical Center scientists.

Mechanized human hands: System designed to improve hand function lost to nerve damage
Engineers have developed and successfully demonstrated the value of a simple pulley mechanism to improve hand function after surgery.

Researchers uncover structure of enzyme that makes plant cellulose
Purdue researchers have discovered the structure of the enzyme that makes cellulose, a finding that could lead to easier ways of breaking down plant materials to make biofuels and other products and materials.

Super enhancers in the inflamed endothelium
A study led by researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute is the first to demonstrate that BET bromodomain-containing proteins help execute this global inflammatory program in the endothelium while BET bromodomain inhibition can significantly decrease atherosclerosis in vivo.

Heritage of Earth's water gives rise to hopes of life on other planets
A pioneering new study has shown that water found on Earth predates the formation of the Sun -- raising hopes that life could exist on exoplanets, the planets orbiting other stars in our galaxy.

Gastric bypass bests banding for weight loss, diabetes, high blood pressure and cholesterol control
Gastric bypass surgery has better outcomes than gastric banding for long-term weight loss, controlling type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure, and lowering cholesterol levels, according to a new review by UT Southwestern Medical Center surgeons of nearly 30 long-term studies comparing the two types of bariatric procedures.

Strategic or random? How the brain chooses
Many of the choices we make are informed by experiences we've had in the past.

Earth's water is older than the sun
Water was crucial to the rise of life on Earth and is also important to evaluating the possibility of life on other planets.

How the brain gains control over Tourette syndrome
Tourette syndrome is a developmental disorder characterized by involuntary, repetitive, and stereotyped movements or utterances.

BUSM researchers find NAS treatment needs standardization
When it comes to treating infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), researchers from Boston University School of Medicine believe the care for these infants should be consistent and objective, with standardized assessment tools and evidence to back up pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment choices.

Study finds global sea levels rose up to 5 meters per century at the end of the last 5 ice ages
Land-ice decay at the end of the last five ice ages caused global sea-levels to rise at rates of up to 5.5 meters per century, according to a new study.

Neurons see what we tell them to see
Neurons programmed to fire at specific faces -- such as the famously reported 'Jennifer Aniston neuron' -- may be more in line with the conscious recognition of faces than the actual images seen.

Study: Widespread vitamin D deficiency in thyroidectomy patients
A new study from researchers at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit finds widespread vitamin D deficiency among patients who undergo a thyroidectomy, potentially putting them at greater risk for developing dangerously low blood calcium levels after surgery.

Human papilloma virus vaccination provides long-term protection
This edition of Deutsches Ärzteblatt International reveals that Yvonne Deleré of Berlin's Robert Koch Institute et al. have produced a systematic review that shows no decrease in protection over a period of five years following vaccination against HPV types 16 and 18.

World's smallest reference material is big plus for nanotechnology
The National Institute of Standards and Technology recently issued Reference Material 8027, the smallest known reference material ever created for validating measurements of these man-made, ultrafine particles between 1 and 100 nanometers -- billionths of a meter -- in size.

ACS announces new open-access journal: ACS Central Science
The American Chemical Society (ACS) announced today that internationally renowned chemist Carolyn Bertozzi, Ph.D., will take the helm as editor-in-chief of its first fully open-access journal, ACS Central Science, which is set to launch in early 2015.

Nanotechnology expert Somenath Mitra to receive NJIT Excellence in Research award
NJIT Distinguished Professor Somenath Mitra, Ph.D., whose pioneering research has spanned a spectrum of applications for carbon nanotechnology that address critical quality-of-life issues, will receive the seventh annual Board of Overseers Excellence in Research Prize and Medal on Oct.

Cryptogenic strokes may find explanation in the heart
More than half of the patients who have suffered a stroke with no well-defined aetiology have an enlarged left atrial appendage of the heart, according to a Finnish study.

Risk of esophageal cancer decreases with height
Taller individuals are less likely to develop esophageal cancer and it's precursor, Barrett's esophagus, according to a new study in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association.

Tropical disease prevalence in Latin America presents opportunity for US
Recently published prevalence estimates of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in five Latin American countries -- Bolivia, Cuba, Ecuador, Nicaragua and Venezuela -- could suggest a new direction for United States foreign policy in the region, according to a tropical-disease expert at Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy.

The ideal age of sexual partners is different for men and women
New evolutionary psychology research shows gender differences in age preferences regarding sexual partners.

Single-photon detection, generation, and applications featured in Optical Engineering
A new special section in the SPIE journal Optical Engineering including several open-access papers covers analysis and applications of single-photon detection technology with applications as diverse as space exploration and quantum computing.

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite sees Tropical Storm Kammuri coming together
When NASA-NOAA Suomi NPP satellite passed over Tropical Storm Kammuri the VIIRS instrument aboard took a visible picture of the storm that showed bands of thunderstorms wrapped around its center.

Live long and phosphor: Blue LED breakthrough for efficient electronics
In a step that could lead to longer battery life in smartphones and lower power consumption for large-screen televisions, researchers at the University of Michigan have extended the lifetime of blue organic light emitting diodes by a factor of 10.

Longstanding bottleneck in crystal structure prediction solved
The various patterns that atoms of a solid material can adopt, called crystal structures, can have a huge impact on its properties.

Turmeric compound boosts regeneration of brain stem cells
A bioactive compound found in turmeric promotes stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the brain, reveals new research published today in the open access journal Stem Cell Research & Therapy.

Pneumonia bacterium leaves tiny lesions in the heart, study finds
The long-observed association between pneumonia and heart failure now has more physical evidence, thanks to research in the School of Medicine at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

Study identifies gauntlet of obstacles facing migrating pronghorn in greater Yellowstone
One of North America's last remaining long-distance land migrations, better known as the Path of the Pronghorn, is being threatened by a mosaic of natural gas field development, highway traffic, and fencing in the upper Green River Basin, according to the Wildlife Conservation Society.

IU-Regenstrief CHICA system improves developmental delay screening and surveillance
A new study from Indiana University School of Medicine and Regenstrief Institute researchers reports that a computerized clinical decision support system, which they developed to automate pediatric care guidelines, significantly increased the number of children screened for developmental delay at 9, 18 and 30 months of age, as recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Fecal microbiota transplantation recommended for treatment of C. difficile
The transplantation of fecal microbiota from a healthy donor has been shown in recent clinical studies to be a safe and highly effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and is now recommended in European treatment guidelines.

Inhaled form of oxytocin to manage bleeding after childbirth in developing nations
International public and private organizations are accelerating development of an innovative heat-stable and low-cost inhaled form of oxytocin to manage postpartum hemorrhage in resource-poor settings.

Surprising diversity of antibody family provides clues for HIV vaccine design
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have described how a single family of antibodies that broadly neutralizes different strains of HIV has evolved remarkably diverse structures to attack a vulnerable site on the virus.

With NIH grant, Cedars-Sinai helps bring big data to neuro disease research
Investigators at the Cedars-Sinai Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute have received a grant from the National Institutes of Health to participate in a consortium taking the study of motor neuron disorders -- such as Lou Gehrig's disease and spinal muscular atrophy -- to a new, comprehensive perspective.

Researchers engineer 'Cas9' animal models to study disease and inform drug discovery
Researchers from the Broad Institute and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have created a new mouse model to simplify application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for in vivo genome editing experiments.

Chemists recruit anthrax to deliver cancer drugs
Researchers from MIT have found that with some tinkering, a deadly protein becomes an efficient carrier for antibody drugs.

Can genetic engineering help food crops better tolerate drought?
The staggering growth rate of the global population demands innovative and sustainable solutions to increase food production by as much as 70-100 perecnt in the next few decades.

Natural selection causes early migration and shorter parental care for shorebirds
The paper shows that in the years when peregrine migration begins early, the early-migrators appear to cut short their breeding activities, presumably to beat the onrush of raptors.

Stem cell transplant does not cure SHIV/AIDS after irradiation of infected rhesus macaques
A study published on Sept. 25 in PLOS Pathogens reports a new primate model to test treatments that might cure HIV/AIDS and suggests answers to questions raised by the 'Berlin patient,' the only human thought to have been cured so far.

Simple blood test could be used as tool for early cancer diagnosis
High levels of calcium in blood, a condition known as hypercalcemia, can be used by GPs as an early indication of certain types of cancer, according to a study by researchers from the universities of Bristol and Exeter.

Novel compound prevents metastasis of multiple myeloma in mouse studies
Dana-Farber scientists and colleagues find the compound olaptesed pegol can stop multiple myeloma from spreading in mouse models, potentially leading to a new approach in addressing the challenge of metastasis, one of the deadliest aspects of cancer.

New protein players found in key disease-related metabolic pathway
Cells rely on the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway -- which senses the availability of nutrients -- to coordinate their growth with existing environmental conditions.

Coping techniques help patients with COPD improve mentally, physically
Coaching patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to manage stress, practice relaxation and participate in light exercise can boost a patient's quality of life and can even improve physical symptoms, researchers at Duke Medicine report.

Drivers admit to risky behaviors in RU-Eagleton, NJ Medical School public health poll
New Jersey drivers are generally intolerant of behaviors perceived as risky or prone to cause distraction in other drivers, but many do engage in these behaviors themselves, a Rutgers poll finds.

New scientific review of genetically engineered feeds in livestock diets
An article published in the peer-reviewed Journal of Animal Science concludes feeding livestock diets that contain genetically engineered (GE) crops has no impact on the health or productivity of those animals.

Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation joins consortium of partners for USAID-funded research
The Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation today announced that it will join the Population Council and a prestigious consortium of leading HIV research organizations as part of a five-year project funded by the US Agency for International Development.

In the face of uncertainty, the brain chooses randomness as the best strategy
A new study shows that, in competitive situations, rats abandon their normal tactic of using past experience to make decisions and instead make random choices when their competitor is hard to defeat.

Water research tackles growing grassland threat: Trees
Two Kansas State University biologists are studying streams to prevent tallgrass prairies from turning into shrublands and forests.

Stone Age site challenges old archaeological assumptions about human technology
Analysis of stone artifacts from the excavation of a 300,000 year old site in Armenia shows that new technologies evolved locally, rather than being imported from outside, as previously thought.

Smallest-possible diamonds form ultra-thin nanothread
A team has, for the first time, discovered how to produce ultra-thin 'diamond nanothreads' that promise extraordinary properties, including strength and stiffness greater than that of today's strongest nanotubes and polymer fibers.

CHEO doctor wins national award for concussion research
The Brain Injury Association of Canada recognizes Dr. Roger Zemek's leadership in the development of the first comprehensive pediatric guidelines for diagnosing and managing concussion.

Genetic, developmental and anatomical basis of natural selection for sensory structures
Hoping to understand how the tremendous diversity of life on Earth evolved even as irreversible species and habitat loss rapidly proceeds, a research group of bat experts including biologist Elizabeth Dumont of the University of Massachusetts Amherst has received a five-year, $1.91 million grant from the National Science Foundation to study how bats sense their environment and other individuals, including potential mates, to ensure survival and reproduction.

CAREER grant to help UT Arlington professor study earthquakes, create teacher Geocorps
A UT Arlington assistant professor of earth and environmental sciences awarded up to $400,000 from the National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program will study how rock structures react to events such as earthquakes, meteor impacts and explosions.

Osteoarthritis of the hip: Appropriate exercise therapy can alleviate symptoms
Osteoarthritis of the hip is a progressive degenerative disorder affecting the hip joints, which affects one in 10 adults.

Geology of northern Alaska: Examining the Arctic Alaska-Chukotka microplate
The tectonic evolution of the Arctic remains a subject of considerable uncertainty.

Protecting the body from itself
Scientists from A*STAR's Bioprocessing Technology Institute have established a clearer relationship between two cells which serve our body's natural defense mechanisms against diseases and infections.

Calming down immune cells could hold key to melanoma treatment
Immune cells may be responsible for drug resistance in melanoma patients, according to research published in Cancer Discovery.

Experts at LSTM use modelling approach to assess the effectiveness TB diagnostics
Experts at LSTM have used a novel modelling approach to project the effects of new diagnostic methods and algorithms for the diagnosis of tuberculosis recently endorsed by the World Health Organization, looking at the patient, health system and population perspective in Tanzania.

Drug discovery process will be fundamentally different in the future
Over the past several decades, Michael Kinch of Washington University in St.

Genes causing pediatric glaucoma contribute to future stroke
A study from the University of Alberta, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation extends knowledge of stroke's genetic underpinnings and demonstrates that in some cases it originates in infancy.

How the ends of chromosomes are maintained for cancer cell immortality
Maintaining telomeres is a requisite feature of cells that are able to continuously divide and also a hallmark of human cancer.

Looking for a spouse or a companion
The increasing popularity of social media, online dating sites, and mobile applications for meeting people and initiating relationships has made online dating an effective means of finding a future spouse.

NIH and VA address pain and related conditions in US military personnel and veterans
Thirteen research projects totaling approximately $21.7 million over five years will explore nondrug approaches to managing pain and related health conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder, drug abuse, and sleep issues.

Goats better than chemicals for curbing invasive marsh grass
Herbivores, not herbicides, may be the most effective way to combat the spread of Phragmites australis, one of the most invasive plants now threatening East Coast salt marshes.

DRI expands Chinese partnership to address water pollution, management issues
The Desert Research Institute (DRI) and the Nevada Center of Excellence proudly announce a unique partnership with China's foremost water research university to address global water pollution and supply issues.

NASA honors researchers behind film from space
Star cameras developed by researchers at DTU Space have ensured unique footage of Earth and the moon seen from space.

Virginia Tech joins $30 million NCAA, Department of Defense effort to curb head injuries
The initiative funds the most comprehensive study of concussion and head impact exposure ever conducted.

Talk therapy -- not medication -- best for social anxiety disorder, large study finds
While antidepressants are the most commonly used treatment for social anxiety disorder, new research suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy is more effective and, unlike medication, can have lasting effects long after treatment has stopped.

America's top age beat reporters chosen for journalism fellowship
The Gerontological Society of America and New America Media have selected 19 reporters for the Journalists in Aging Fellows Program, now in its fifth year.

Putting the squeeze on quantum information
CIFAR researchers have shown that information stored in quantum bits can be exponentially compressed without losing information.

New research outlines promising therapies for small cell lung cancer
Two recently published studies by a research team at University Hospitals Case Medical Center Seidman Cancer Center have the potential to advance treatments for small cell lung cell cancer.

Suomi NPP satellite data used for mitigating aviation related volcanic hazards
A joint NOAA/NASA satellite is one of several satellites providing valuable information to aviators about volcanic hazards.

Not all Hispanics are the same when it comes to drinking
Hispanics are often grouped into a single category when it comes to alcohol use.

No sign of health or nutrition problems from GMO livestock feed, study finds
This new review study finds there is no evidence in earlier scientific studies indicating that genetically engineered feed crops harmed the health or productivity of livestock and poultry, and that food products from animals consuming such feeds were nutritionally the same as products from animals that ate non-GMO feeds.

Brain chemical potential new hope in controlling Tourette Syndrome tics
A chemical in the brain plays a vital role in controlling the involuntary movements and vocal tics associated with Tourette Syndrome, a new study has shown.

New genes identified with key role in the development of severe childhood epilepsies
In the largest collaborative study so far, an international team of researchers, including scientists from VIB and Antwerp University identified novel causes for severe childhood epilepsies.

Experts call for a moratorium on use of new internet domain .health
As the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers moves forward with plans to launch health-related generic top-level domains, such as .health and .doctor, a coalition of health policy academics and clinicians are raising concerns about a process they say 'favor[s] business interests and the generation of profits over the future integrity of the Health Internet.'

MSU to launch innovative food facility
Michigan State University will use $3 million grant from the US Economic Development Administration to launch the Food Processing and Innovation Center.

High-throughput cell-sorting method can separate 10 billion bacterial cells in 30 minutes
University of Hawaii at Manoa College of Engineering mechanical engineer Yi Zuo has developed a new, high-throughput method for sorting cells capable of separating 10 billion bacterial cells in 30 minutes.

CIFAR fellows named to Thomson Reuters list of Nobel-caliber scientists
Two CIFAR fellows have been named by Thomson Reuters to its 2014 list of 'Nobel-class' Citation Laureates.

National team awarded $16 million NIH grant to study genetics of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
A multi-institutional team of researchers studying schizophrenia and bipolar disorder has been awarded a $16 million grant from the National Institute of Mental Health to create the most extensive genetic resource to date for these two devastating psychiatric disorders, using data assembled by the University of Southern California.

Oklahoma Water Symposium brings global water experts
To help address this challenge, some of the world's leading experts in water sustainability and sanitation will gather on Friday, Sept.

After watching disturbing video, CPAP usage soars
It's estimated that more than 20 million Americans have sleep apnea, and if you're one of them, you may have been given a mask to wear overnight to help you breathe.

A galaxy of deception
Astronomers usually have to peer very far into the distance to see back in time, and view the Universe as it was when it was young.

Harvesting hydrogen fuel from the Sun using Earth-abundant materials
Today, the journal Science published the latest development in Michael Grätzel's laboratory at EPFL: producing hydrogen fuel from sunlight and water.

Brains not recognizing an angry expression
Japanese researchers first identified the characteristics of facial expression recognition of children with ADHD by measuring hemodynamic response in the brain.

Interstellar molecules are branching out
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Cornell University and the University of Cologne have for the first time detected a carbon-bearing molecule with a 'branched' structure in interstellar space.

New book from CSHL Press explores the evolution of sexual reproduction
'The Genetics and Biology of Sexual Conflict' from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press includes discussion of the evolutionary origins of sexual conflict and its relationship to other evolutionary forces: e.g., sexual selection.

If trees could talk
More than 100 collaborators publish a major overview of what 59 forests in 24 countries teach us about forest responses to global change.

On the road to artificial photosynthesis
New experimental results from Berkeley Lab have revealed the critical influence of the electronic and geometric effects in the carbon dioxide reduction reaction.

Unlocking long-hidden mechanisms of plant cell division
In a new paper by cell biologist Magdalena Bezanilla of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, she and her doctoral student Shu-Zon Wu present a detailed new model that for the first time proposes how plant cells precisely position a 'dynamic and complex' structure called a phragmoplast at the cell center during every division and how it directs cytokinesis.

Innovative Stone Age tools were not African invention, say researchers
A new discovery of thousands of Stone Age tools has provided a major insight into human innovation 325,000 years ago and how early technological developments spread across the world, according to research published in the journal Science.

Viral infection in transplant recipients increases risk of developing damaging antibodies
Among kidney transplant recipients, persistent infection with BK virus does not have a negative immediate-term impact on patient or kidney survival, but infected patients are more likely to develop antibodies against their kidney transplants.

Bariatric surgery not a magic wand to curb depression
Most severely obese people experience much better spirits once they shed weight through a diet, lifestyle changes or medical intervention.

Long-term unemployed struggle as economy improves, Rutgers study finds
While the unemployment rate for people out of work for six months or less has returned to prerecession levels, the levels of unemployment for workers who remain jobless for more than six months is among the most persistent, negative effects of the Great Recession, according to a new national study at Rutgers.

Blackout? Robots to the rescue
Disasters like earthquakes and hurricanes almost always lead to power outages.

Dunes reveal biodiversity secrets
Environmental filtering -- not a host of other theories -- determines local plant diversity in one of Earth's biodiversity hotspots according to an article in the Sept.

Large study pinpoints synapse genes with major roles in severe childhood epilepsies
An international research team has identified gene mutations causing severe, difficult-to-treat forms of childhood epilepsy.

New findings on how brain handles tactile sensations
The traditional understanding in neuroscience is that tactile sensations from the skin are only assembled to form a complete experience in the cerebral cortex, the most advanced part of the brain.

Solar cell compound probed under pressure
Gallium arsenide a semiconductor composed of gallium and arsenic is well known to have properties that promise practical applications.

USC researchers discover dual purpose of cancer drug in regulating expression of genes
Keck Medicine of USC scientists have discovered new clues about a drug instrumental in treating a certain blood cancer that may provide important targets for researchers searching for cures.

Brazilian zoologists discovered the first obligate cave-dwelling flatworm in South America
Typical cave-dwelling organisms, unpigmented and eyeless, were discovered in a karst area located in northeastern Brazil.

Biochemists solve 'address problem' in cells that leads to lethal kidney disease
Research published by UCLA biochemists may lead to a new treatment, or even a cure, for a rare, genetic kidney disease that afflicts children, and may provide important insights into treatments for Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative diseases.

Genetic 'instruction set' for antibodies knocks down hepatitis C in mice
A study led by Princeton University researchers found that a triple-punch of antibodies both prevented hepatitis C infection and wiped out the disease after it had established itself in laboratory mice.

New study shows that yoga and meditation may help train the brain
New research by biomedical engineers at the University of Minnesota shows that people who practice yoga and meditation long term can learn to control a computer with their minds faster and better than people with little or no yoga or meditation experience.

How physical exercise protects the brain from stress-induced depression
Physical exercise has many beneficial effects on human health, including the protection from stress-induced depression.

Spot on against autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammations
Multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes and lupus are autoimmune diseases in which the immune cells can no longer differentiate between friend and foe and thus attack the body's own tissue.

Satellite catches an oval-shaped Tropical Storm Rachel
NOAA's GOES-West satellite spotted the eighteenth tropical depression of the Eastern Pacific grow into a tropical storm that was renamed Rachel today, Sept.
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