Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 06, 2014
New theorem determines the age distribution of populations from fruit flies to humans
The initial motivation was to estimate the age structure of a fruit fly population, the result a fundamental theorem that can help determine the age distribution of essentially any group.

Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation selected to receive Innovation Grant from EMD Serono
An Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation scientist has been selected to receive one of only five Grants for Multiple Sclerosis Innovation awarded this year by the pharmaceutical company EMD Serono.

Treatments for HIV-visceral leishmaniasis co-infected patients
The international research and development consortium, AfriCoLeish, formed by six research organizations from East Africa and Europe, has launched a Phase III clinical study to address the extreme difficulty in treating visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in patients who also are HIV-positive.

Stigma can hinder access to health care for the poor
In a study of 574 low-income adults, many felt stigmatized when receiving medical care.

Invading crabs could threaten life in the Antarctic
Life on the Antarctic sea floor is under threat from crabs that could invade the area thanks to favorable conditions as a result of global warming, researchers warn.

Effective treatments available for HIV patients not eligible for efavirenz regimens
A new national clinical trial found HIV drug regimens that do not include efavirenz are effective as first-line antiretroviral therapy.

NASA spots Typhoon Phanfone affecting Japan
Over the weekend of Oct. 5 and 6, Typhoon Phanfone's center made landfall just south of Tokyo and passed over the city before exiting back into the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Research paves way for new generation of fungicides
Research by the University of Exeter has provided novel insight into the mechanism by which pathogenic fungi avoid the immune responses of the plants they attack.

Code stroke on the ward
At the first sign of a stroke, time is of the essence.

McLean Hospital and Harvard Medical School to conduct study on marijuana and the brain
Thanks to a $500,000 gift from international best-selling author and mental health advocate Patricia Cornwell, McLean Hospital and Harvard Medical School researchers will launch a landmark new program that will more fully explore the potential impact of medical marijuana on cognition, brain structure and function.

NJIT to work with the defense and aerospace industries to maintain US military readiness
With defense budgets shrinking in the wake of Congressional spending cuts and a sharp reduction in US forces abroad, the New Jersey Institute of Technology has been given the opportunity by the federal government to examine the defense industry in New Jersey for its capacity to meet current and projected defense needs while also supporting company transitions into new markets.

One of the most demanding ITER operations completed successfully: VTT uses remote control to replace the fusion reactor cassette collecting impurities
The Technical Research Centre of Finland has reached an important objective in the development of ITER fusion reactor remote control, when the divertor cassette was replaced for the first time using remote control in the research facility for remote controlled maintenance.

Eating white meat and fish may lower risk of liver cancer
Eating lots of white meat -- such as poultry -- or fish may reduce the risk of developing liver cancer by 31 percent and 22 percent, respectively, according to a recent analysis of studies published between 1956 and 2013.

Guang Yue, Ph.D., of Kessler Foundation awarded NIH grant for cancer rehabilitation research
Guang Yue, Ph.D., of Kessler Foundation has been awarded an NIH grant for $1,962,767 to study the impact of high-effort training on the muscle weakness that impairs quality life for individuals with cancer.

Nanoparticles break the symmetry of light
If a particle emits light into one direction, it usually emits just as much light into the opposite direction.

President Obama honors nation's top scientists and innovators
President Obama today announced a new group of recipients of the National Medal of Science and National Medal of Technology and Innovation -- the nation's highest honors for achievement and leadership in advancing the fields of science and technology.

Improving biology education: A numbers game
Math is increasingly important to understanding and investigating the world of biology because quantitative biology, computational biology, and computer-based modeling approaches have emerged as important modes of inquiry.

Pressing the accelerator on quantum robotics
Quantum computing will allow for the creation of powerful computers, but also much smarter and more creative robots than conventional ones.

Drug-loaded beads may help treat liver cancer
A new phase 1 safety trial has demonstrated that idarubicin-loaded beads are well tolerated by patients but are toxic to liver cancer cells.

A quick look at electron-boson coupling
Using an ultrafast spectroscopy technique called time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, Berkeley Lab researchers demonstrated a link between electron-boson coupling and high-temperature superconductivity in a high-Tc cuprate.

Tracing our ancestors at the bottom of the sea
A new European Marine Board report recommends exploration of sea-submerged settlements abandoned by our ancestors.

New imaging technique could detect acoustically 'invisible' cracks
The next generation of aircraft could be thinner and lighter thanks to the development of a new imaging technique that could detect damage previously invisible to acoustic imaging systems.

ESA vice president-elect named National Medal of Science winner
Dr. May Berenbaum, 2014 Vice President-Elect of the Entomological Society of America, has been named a winner of the National Medal of Science, the United States' highest honor for achievement in science and technology.

Liquid DNA behind virus attacks
Viruses can convert their DNA from solid to fluid form, which explains how viruses manage to eject DNA into the cells of their victims.

Prenatal BPA exposure associated with diminished lung function in children
Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A, a common chemical used in some plastics, appears to be inconsistently associated with diminished lung function and the development of persistent wheeze in children.

Lizards in the Caribbean -- How geography influences animal evolution
Researchers from Nottingham and Harvard have enlisted a Caribbean lizard to help them find out on how geography can influence the evolution of animal species.

Teen hormones and cellphones
Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston say that sexting may be the new 'normal' part of adolescent sexual development and is not strictly limited to at-risk teens.

Atmospheric chemistry hinges on better physics model
Understanding photoabsorption of nitrous oxide -- a process involving the transfer of the energy of a photon to the molecule -- matters because a small fraction of nitrous oxide reacts with oxygen atoms in the stratosphere to produce among others nitric oxide.

Bristol-Myers Squibb and MD Anderson Cancer Center announce novel research collaboration
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company and The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center today announced a novel clinical research collaboration to evaluate multiple immunotherapies, including Opdivo (nivolumab), Yervoy (ipilimumab) and three early-stage clinical immuno-oncology assets from Bristol-Myers Squibb, as potential treatment options for acute and chronic leukemia as well as other hematologic malignancies.

Stem cells, malaria, and the genetics of drug response at Translational Medicine Symposium
The University of Pennsylvania's Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics' 9th Annual International Symposium, Progress in Translational Science: Emerging Therapeutic Modalities, will be held on Oct.

Vesicles influence the function of nerve cells
As cell biologists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz in Germany have discovered, nerve cells can enlist the aid of mini-vesicles of neighboring glial cells to defend themselves against stress and other potentially detrimental factors.

Penn Medicine study finds tongue fat and size may predict sleep apnea in obese adults
Obesity is a risk factor for many health problems, but a new Penn Medicine study published this month in the journal Sleep suggests having a larger tongue with increased levels of fat may be a sign of obstructive sleep apnea in obese adults.

The overlooked history of African technology
A new book from an MIT professor explores the confluence of innovation, hunting, and nature in Zimbabwe.

Researchers redefine hypothesis on holes in the brain
Researchers at University of Copenhagen have studied access conditions at brain cell level.

Study of identical twins reveals type 2 diabetes clues
By studying identical twins, researchers from Lund University in Sweden have identified mechanisms that could be behind the development of type 2 diabetes.

A warm dark matter search using XMASS: Editors' suggestion of Physical Review Letters
The XMASS collaboration has reported its latest results on the search for warm dark matter.

A vicious cycle in osteoarthritis: Sleep disturbance-pain-depression-disability
New research confirms that sleep disturbances are linked to pain and depression, but not disability, among patients with osteoarthritis.

'Virological penicillin': Plant MIR2911 directly targets influenza A viruses
In a new study, Chen-Yu Zhang's group at Nanjing University present an extremely novel finding that a plant microRNA, MIR2911, which is enriched in honeysuckle, directly targets influenza A viruses (IAV) including H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9.

Link between breast implants and cancer under investigation
An international research group including Viennese pathologist Lukas Kenner has reviewed cases of possible association between breast implants and a form of lymphoma that may develop tumors at a later stage.

Most liver cancer patients do not receive proper care
Many US patients with liver cancer -- even those with early stage disease that can often be cured -- do not receive treatment for their disease, according to an analysis of studies published between 1989 and 2013.

If you want an antibiotic see your doctor later in the day
Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston found that doctors appeared to 'wear down' during their morning and afternoon clinic sessions, and antibiotic prescribing rates increased.

A novel roadmap through bacterial genomes leads the way to new drug discovery
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Northwestern University have innovated and demonstrated the value of an algorithm to analyze microbial genomic data and speed discovery of new therapeutic drugs.

News from Annals of Internal Medicine tip sheet -- Oct. 7, 2014
The Oct. 7 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine includes: 'Sesame Street inspires physicians to advocate for criminal justice reform'; 'Opinion: Hospitals should promote

Tropical Storm Simon says, 'US Southwest is an arm's reach'
Infrared satellite imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite shows what looks like an arm from Tropical Storm Simon's northern quadrant, reaching over Baja California to mainland Mexico.

No need for water, enzymes are doing it for themselves
New research by scientists at the University of Bristol has challenged one of the key axioms in biology -- that enzymes need water to function.

Controlling Ebola in communities is critical factor in containing outbreaks
Reducing community transmission and changing behavior in communities is key to containing Ebola outbreaks, according to new research into the first known outbreak of the virus in 1976 by researchers at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and Fogarty International Center at the National Institutes of Health.

High-sugar diet no problem for genetic mutants
Scientists find a genetic pathway for circumventing the weight gain that accompanies a high-sugar diet.

Program to reduce hospital readmissions doesn't have impact
Researchers at UC San Francisco have found that a nurse-led intervention program designed to reduce readmissions among ethnically and linguistically diverse older patients did not improve 30-day hospital readmission rates.

What 20 years of research on cannabis use has taught us
In the past 20 years recreational cannabis use has grown tremendously, becoming almost as common as tobacco use among adolescents and young adults, and so has the research evidence.

Basel scientists are bringing cells on the fast track
During cancer metastasis, immune response or the development of organisms, cells are moving in a controlled manner through the body.

Are Montana's invasive fish in for a shock?
A new paper from the Wildlife Conservation Society, Montana State University, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, and the US Geological Survey looks at the feasibility of electrofishing to selectively remove invasive trout species from Montana streams as an alternative to using fish toxicants known as piscicides that effect all gill-breathing organisms.

The skin cancer selfie
Melanoma is the fifth most common cancer type in the US, and it's also the deadliest form of skin cancer.

New vaccines targeting adults and teens are best chance to eliminate TB by 2050
Targets to eliminate tuberculosis by 2050 are more likely to be met if new vaccines are developed for adults and adolescents instead of for infants, according to new research from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.

Cancer medicine: New, improved, expensive and exploited?
Two studies published in the October 2014 issue of Health Affairs by a University of Chicago health economist examine spending on oral anti-cancer drugs as well as a federal program designed to help the poor, which researchers say instead helps hospitals boost profits.

Does emotional stability affect the success of online poker players?
While poker is a game of chance, there is skill and decision-making involved, and the quality of those decisions depends on both knowledge of the game and the ability to control one's emotions.

Are leaders born or made? New study shows how leadership develops
Hardly a day passes without pundits crying for leadership in the NFL commissioner and team owners, among high-ranking government officials, and in other public figures.

Montefiore & Einstein investigators present research at 2014 AAP National Conference & Exhibition
Investigators at The Children's Hospital at Montefiore and Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University will present their latest research on neonatal lung disease, reducing wrong-patient errors in the NICU, hormonal contraception and more at the AAP Experience, the National Conference & Exhibition of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

A new way to extract bone-making cells from fat tissue
By sorting human fat tissue cells by their expression of a certain gene, Brown University scientists were able to retrieve a high yield of cells that showed an especially strong propensity to make bone tissue.

Study: Workplace diversity can help the bottom line
An MIT economist scrutinizes firm data suggesting diverse offices function more effectively.

Meeting: Modeling and Measuring Competencies in Higher Education
This year's international KoKoHs Conference will take place at Mainz University from Nov.

Former Carnegie director Sean Solomon wins National Medal of Science
Sean Solomon, director of Carnegie's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism from 1992 until 2012, will receive the nation's highest scientific award, the National Medal of Science at a White House ceremony later this year.

Brains in the balance: New $11.5 million grant fuels U-M Parkinson's disease research center
Deep in the brains of people with Parkinson's disease, changes to brain cells create a high risk of dangerous falls -- a problem that resists treatment.

UT Arlington researchers demonstrate direct fluid flow influences neuron growth
Nature Scientific Reports has published a new report from UT Arlington scientists that describes using flow from a microtube to turn axonal growth cones that connect neurons.

Hospitals use performance on publicly reported quality measures in annual goals
A majority of hospitals reported incorporating performance on publicly reported quality measures into their quality improvement efforts, however many hospital leaders expressed concern about the clinical meaningfulness of quality measures, the ability to draw inferences about quality from them and the potential for 'gaming' the system to improve them.

Asthma risk varies with ethnic ancestry among Latinos, UCSF team finds
Native-American ancestry is associated with a lower asthma risk, but African ancestry is associated with a higher risk, according to the largest-ever study of how genetic variation influences asthma risk in Latinos, in whom both African- and Native-American ancestry is common.

Innovative stroke patient management system cuts hospital bed usage by more than 25 percent
An innovative patient management system at the acute stroke unit of Kelowna General Hospital has reduced the number of stroke patient bed days by more than 25 percent, according to a study of the system presented at the annual Canadian Stroke Congress in Vancouver.

How rabies 'hijacks' neurons to attack the brain
For the first time, Tel Aviv University scientists have discovered the exact mechanism the killer rabies virus uses to efficiently enter the central nervous system, where it erupts in a toxic explosion of symptoms.

Small molecule 'jams the switch' to prevent inflammatory cell death
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute scientists have discovered a small molecule that blocks a form of cell death that triggers inflammation, opening the door for potential new treatments for inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and psoriasis.

School connectedness can help bullied gay and bisexual youth
In a study of 951 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, those experiencing both cyber and school bullying were most likely to engage in aggressive and suicidal behaviors.

Trying to share our 'epic' moments may leave us feeling left out
We might love to reminisce and tell others about our extraordinary experiences -- that time we climbed Mt.

Why does toothpaste make orange juice taste awful? (video)
This week, Reactions explains why toothpaste and orange juice don't mix.

The future is now: Navy's autonomous swarmboats can overwhelm adversaries
As autonomy and unmanned systems grow in importance for naval operations, officials at the Office of Naval Research announced today a technological breakthrough that will allow any unmanned surface vehicle to not only protect Navy ships, but also, for the first time, autonomously 'swarm' offensively on hostile vessels.

Former fashion photographer celebrates beauty in human diversity
Award-winning fashion photographer Rick Guidotti crisscrossed the globe taking photos for renowned clients such as Yves Saint Laurent, Revlon and GQ.

Natural gene selection can produce orange corn rich in provitamin A for Africa, US
Purdue University researchers have identified a set of genes that can be used to naturally boost the provitamin A content of corn kernels, a finding that could help combat vitamin A deficiency in developing countries and macular degeneration in the elderly.

IUPUI School of Science biophysicist receives $470,350 NSF award
A $470,350 award from the National Science Foundation will support research at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis to gain a better understanding of how proteins form groups or clusters within cells in the living body.

Why is educational achievement heritable?
New research, led by King's College London finds that the high heritability of exam grades reflects many genetically influenced traits such as personality, behavior problems, and self-efficacy and not just intelligence.

The sex difference in distance running has disappeared for participation but not for competitiveness
Even among contemporary US distance runners, men are still much more likely than women to have a competitive orientation, according to researchers at Grand Valley State University in Allendale, Michigan.

New technique allows scientists to find rare stem cells within bone marrow
MIT researchers found a new technique to identify populations of rare stem cells in bone marrow.

First-ever global life cycle assessment of renewable energy future
A future where electricity comes mostly from low-carbon and renewable resources is not only feasible in terms of material demand, but will significantly reduce air pollution, a study published in the Oct.

Livermore scientists suggest Southern Hemisphere ocean warming underestimated
Using satellite observations and a large suite of climate models, Lawrence Livermore scientists have found that long-term ocean warming in the upper 700 meters has likely been underestimated.

Cornell unveils 'Engaged Cornell,' a $150 million initiative for community engagement
Today, Cornell University will announce a groundbreaking $150 million, 10-year initiative to establish community engagement and real-world learning experiences as the hallmark of the Cornell undergraduate experience.

NASA sees Typhoon Vongfong leaving the Mariana Islands
Typhoon Vongfong has exited the Mariana Islands. Now, as the island of Iwo To begins recovery from Typhoon Phanfone, NASA's Aqua satellite is eyeing Typhoon Vongfong over 1,000 miles south of Iwo To.

Case Western Reserve scientist captures prestigious NIH director's New Innovator Award
For the second consecutive year, a Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine researcher has landed one of the year's much-coveted Director's New Innovator Awards from the National Institutes of Health.

Online games and remote experiments could reduce scientific fraud, cherry-picking
One way to combat the rising level of errors and fraud in life sciences research is through massive online laboratories, which use videogames to engage large numbers of non-professional investigators and prevent scientists from manually testing their own hypotheses, researchers from Carnegie Mellon University and Stanford University say.

Children understand familiar voices better than those of strangers
Familiar voices can improve spoken language processing among school-age children, according to a study by NYU's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development.

Same-sex marriages and heterosexual marriages show similar longevity
Among couples with marriage-like commitments, same-sex couples have a similar break-up rate as heterosexual couples, according to a recent study.

'JAKing' up blood cancers, one cell at a time
A solitary cell containing a unique abnormality can result in certain types of blood cancers known as myeloproliferative neoplasms, according to researchers in Switzerland.

Study: New device can slow, reverse heart failure
The C-Pulse device was tested for the first time in the US and was able to slow or reverse the symptoms of heart failure.

UCI stem cell scientist wins coveted NIH New Innovator Award
UC Irvine scientist Weian Zhao will receive a prestigious National Institutes of Health Director's New Innovator Award to further his efforts to create stem cell-based detection methods and treatments for cancer.

Sesame Street teaches physicians a lesson
More than two million people are incarcerated in the United States, the world's highest incarceration rate.

Randomized trial examines community-acquired pneumonia treatments
In a randomized clinical trial of antibiotic treatments for community-acquired pneumonia, researchers did not find that monotherapy with β-lactam alone was worse than a combination therapy with a macrolide in patients hospitalized with moderately severe pneumonia.

Tumors might grow faster at night
Weizmann Institute scientists reveal that a hormone that keeps us alert also suppresses the spread of cancer.

China's economic boom thwarts its carbon emissions goals
Efforts to reduce China's carbon dioxide emissions are being offset by the country's rampant economic growth, according to new research from the University of East Anglia.

Oxycodone may be more dangerous than other addictive pain medication
While all prescription opioids can be abused, oxycodone may be more potent in its ability to promote changes in the brain relevant to addiction.

Climate-KIC launches new online CO2 meter to indicate carbon emissions threat level
A new online meter combines a live data feed drawing on European data, updated regularly to show the precise level of CO2 in the Earth's atmosphere today, and comparison tools to show how CO2 levels have changed over time.

MFM specialists contribute to Clinical Expert Series in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Katharine D. Wenstrom, M.D., and Stephen R. Carr, M.D., of Women & Infants Hospital of RI and The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, have published an article as part of a Clinical Expert Series in the October 2014 edition of Obstetrics & Gynecology, now available online.

Through the combining glass
Trying on clothes when a shop is closed could become a reality thanks to new research that uses semi-transparent mirrors in interactive systems and which will be unveiled at an international conference tomorrow, Oct.

Think and act alobally: Health Affairs' September issue
The September issue of Health Affairs emphasizes lessons learned from developing and industrialized nations collectively seeking the elusive goals of better care, with lower costs and higher quality.

Thriving in a digital age
James P. Steyer, CEO and founder of Common Sense Media, will address the social, emotional and cognitive impact of media and technology on children during a plenary address at 11:50 a.m.

Is Internet-based diabetes self-management education beneficial?
Self-management of diabetes, including medication, nutrition, and lifestyle strategies, is essential for optimal glycemic control and minimizing complications of the disease.

NanoString collaborates with Brigham and Women's Hospital
NanoString Technologies, Inc., a provider of life science tools for translational research and molecular diagnostic products, today announced that it has signed a multi-year, multi-investigator research collaboration with Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital to accelerate the translation of genomic biomarker discoveries into clinical cancer diagnostics.

Observing the Birkeland currents
When the supersonic solar wind hits the Earth's magnetic field, a powerful electrical connection occurs with Earth's field, generating millions of amperes of current that drive the dazzling auroras.

Advancing Innovation Gala to honor leaders of companies built on LA BioMed Research
Four champions of innovation to be honored at Oct. 18 Advancing Innovations Gala in Los Angeles.

Less than half of Canadians exercise to relieve stress
Of 13 coping behaviors or strategies polled, exercise was ranked eighth.

Improvements in fuel cell design
Researchers in the renewable energy sector are working hard in this respect.

Sandwiches are a major contributor to dietary sodium intake
Sandwiches make up a substantial part of the American diet and are a significant contributor to daily energy and sodium intake.

Study: 'Broad consensus' that violent media increase child aggression
Majorities of media researchers, parents and pediatricians agree that exposure to violent media can increase aggression in children, according to a new national study.

A glimpse into the 3-D brain: How memories form
People who wish to know how memory works are forced to take a glimpse into the brain.

Adolescents with cerebral palsy report similar quality of life to their able-bodied peers
Adolescents with cerebral palsy face multiple challenges, but they rate their quality of life on a par with their able-bodied peers, according to new research published in The Lancet reporting on how adolescents with cerebral palsy from nine European countries.

ACS COT releases sixth edition of 'Resources for Optimal Care of the Injured Patient'
The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma today announced the release of its 2014 edition of the 'Resources for Optimal Care of the Injured Patient.'

Mother's behavior has strong effect on cocaine-exposed children
It is not only prenatal drug exposure, but also conditions related to drug use that can influence negative behavior in children, according to a new study from the University at Buffalo's Research Institute on Addictions.

Blood levels of vitamin D may affect liver cancer prognosis
Vitamin D deficiency is linked with advanced stages of liver cancer and may be an indicator of a poor prognosis, according to a study of 200 patients with the disease who were followed for an average of 46 weeks.

FDA orphan drug designation announced for childhood cancer vaccine
The US Food and Drug Administration granted orphan drug designation for a neuroblastoma vaccine from MabVax Therapeutics, providing development incentive with market exclusivity of the novel treatment for children with this deadly childhood cancer.

There's no such thing as a vaginal orgasm, review finds
G-spot, vaginal, or clitoral orgasms are all incorrect terms, experts say.

Do no harm: Pediatrician calls for safely cutting back on tests, treatments
When parents take a sick or injured child to the doctor or emergency room, they often expect tests to be done and treatments given.
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