Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 07, 2014
Acknowledging appearance reduces bias when beauties apply for masculine jobs, says CU-led study
Past research shows physical beauty can be detrimental to women applying for masculine jobs.

Toddlers regulate behavior to avoid making adults angry
Researchers at the University of Washington have found that children as young as 15 months can detect anger when watching other people's social interactions and then use that emotional information to guide their own behavior.

Stroke patients past the 90-day danger period remain at high risk for repeat event
People who have had a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA or mini-stroke) are at high risk for a second similar event or other serious medical problems for at least five years and need better follow up and strategies to prevent these problems, according to data presented at the Canadian Stroke Congress

Testosterone promotes prostate cancer in rats
A researcher who found that testosterone raised the risk of prostate tumors and exacerbated the effects of carcinogenic chemical exposure in rats is urging caution in prescribing testosterone therapy to men who have not been diagnosed with hypogonadism, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's journal Endocrinology.

Tobacco use associated with increased risk of oral HPV-16 infection
Study participants who reported tobacco use or had higher levels of biomarkers of tobacco exposure had a higher prevalence of the sexually transmitted infection, oral human papillomavirus type 16, according to a study in the Oct.

How dinosaurs divided their meals at the Jurassic dinner table
How the largest animals to have ever walked the Earth fed, and how this allowed them to live alongside one another in prehistoric ecosystems is the subject of new research from the University of Bristol and the Natural History Museum, London.

A new pathway discovered regulating autoimmune diseases
Researchers found that NAD+, a natural molecule found in living cells, plants and food protects against autoimmune diseases by altering the immune response and turning 'destructive' cells into 'protective' cells.

The 'cyberwar' against cancer gets a boost from intelligent nanocarriers
Cancer possesses special traits for cooperative behavior and uses intricate communication to distribute tasks, share resources, and make decisions.

Antimicrobial use in hospitals appears to be common
A one-day prevalence survey of 183 hospitals found that approximately 50 percent of hospitalized patients included in the survey were receiving antimicrobial drugs, and that about half of these patients were receiving two or more antimicrobial drugs, according to a study in the Oct.

INFORMS Announces Details for its 2014 Annual Meeting in San Francisco
The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences today announced the first details of its 2014 Annual Meeting, including an impressive line-up of top operations research, analytics and Big Data speakers from academia, industry and government; industry case studies to be presented on numerous topics; a local Job Fair for both employers and job seekers; and a number of important networking sessions.

Fundamentals of physics confirmed
The special theory of relativity of Albert Einstein and quantum electrodynamics, which was formulated by, among others, Richard Feynman, are two important fundaments of modern physics.

Advocating weight diversity
A new review of the way health-care professionals emphasize weight to define health and well-being suggests the approach could be harmful to patients.

Around the world in 400,000 years: The journey of the red fox
University of California, Davis, researchers have for the first time investigated ancestry across the red fox genome, including the Y chromosome, or paternal line.

Antarctic sea ice reaches new record maximum
Sea ice surrounding Antarctica reached a new record high extent this year, covering more of the southern oceans than it has since scientists began a long-term satellite record to map the extent in the late 1970s.

NREL software tool a boon for wind industry
Wind energy is blowing away skeptics -- it's so close to achieving cost parity with fossil fuels that just a little extra efficiency is all that is likely needed to push it into the mainstream and past the Energy Department's goal of 20 percent wind energy by 2030.

New at-risk group identified for gastrointestinal stromal tumors
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have, for the first time, clearly defined the epidemiology of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, which occur primarily in the lining of the stomach and small intestine.

Bio researchers receive patent to fight superbugs
Superbugs, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, have been on the rise since antibiotics were first introduced 80 years ago.

Sleeping in dentures doubles the risk of pneumonia in the elderly
Today, the International & American Associations for Dental Research published a paper titled 'Denture wearing during sleep doubles the risk of pneumonia in very elderly,' by lead researcher Toshimitsu Iinuma.

Equation helps assess blood flow to flaps for breast reconstruction
For women undergoing breast reconstruction using the advanced 'DIEP' technique, a simple formula can reliably tell whether there will be sufficient blood flow to nourish the DIEP flap, reports a paper in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery -- Global Open, the official open-access medical journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.

Combined behavioral support and medication offers smokers best chance of quitting
Numerous randomized clinical trials have shown the effectiveness of the two major forms of smoking cessation treatment -- behavioral support and medication -- in helping smokers quit.

Researchers turn computers into powerful allies in the fight against AIDS
The battle against AIDS cannot be won in the laboratory alone.

The unexamined diversity in the 'Coral Triangle'
Research on zoantharians, a group of animals related to corals and anemones, by researchers James Reimer of the University of the Ryukyus in Okinawa, Japan, Angelo Poliseno of Universita Politecna delle Marche in Italy, and Bert Hoeksema from Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Netherlands, has demonstrated how little we know about marine diversity in the so-called 'center of marine biodiversity' located in the central Indo-Pacific Ocean.

World's first child born after uterus transplantation
In a ground-breaking research project at the University of Gothenburg, seven Swedish women have had embryos reintroduced after receiving wombs from living donors.

It's time to fight sepsis like we fight heart attack, UM researchers say
A decade ago, America's health care community took on heart attacks with gusto, harnessing the power of research and data to make sure that every patient got the best possible care.

Drug regimen enough to control immune disease after some bone marrow transplants
Johns Hopkins and other cancer researchers report that a very short course of a chemotherapy drug, called cyclophosphamide, not only can prevent a life-threatening immune response in some bone marrow transplant recipients, but also can eliminate such patients' need for the usual six months of immune suppression medicines commonly prescribed to prevent severe forms of this immune response.

Study: Even motivated dieters need close access to healthy food
A new study from the UMass Medical School and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health finds that not having close access to healthy foods can discourage even the most motivated dieters.

Studies examine vaccination strategies for prevention, control of avian flu
Two randomized trials in the October 8 issue of JAMA examine new vaccination strategies for the prevention and control of avian influenza, often referred to as 'bird flu.' This is a theme issue on infectious disease.

Potty training before age 2 linked to increased risk of later wetting problems
Children who start toilet training before age 2 have a three times higher risk of developing daytime wetting problems later.

Sharing makes both good and bad experiences more intense
Undergoing an experience with another person -- even if we do it in silence, with someone we met just moments ago -- seems to intensify that experience, according to new research published in Psychological Science.

New genetic variants associated with coffee drinking
A new, large-scale study has identified six new genetic variants associated with habitual coffee drinking.

Researchers prefer citing researchers of good reputation
If a scientist has a good reputation among his colleagues, other scientists are more likely to cite his publications.

Probiotics protect children and pregnant women against heavy metal poisoning
Yogurt containing probiotic bacteria successfully protected children and pregnant women against heavy metal exposure in a recent study.

Liquid detergent pods pose risk to children's eye health
Liquid laundry and dishwasher detergent pods are an emerging source of chemical exposure in children.

Influenza researcher Yoshihiro Kawaoka wins Breakthrough Award
The University of Wisconsin-Madison's Yoshihiro Kawaoka has been recognized as a 2014 Popular Mechanics Breakthrough Award recipient for his efforts to understand and prevent pandemic influenza.

Timely Ebola information from Journal of Disaster Medicine & Public Health Preparedness
The DMPHP Special Edition on Ebola has been designed from the outset to be a conduit for operational and policy level information that will improve outcomes and decision making, and to ensure that this information is available to all practitioners.

Five UCSF researchers win NIH high-risk, high-reward grants
UC San Francisco researchers received five awards announced this week by the National Institutes of Health for high-risk, high-reward scientific research projects.

State policies can influence access to heroin treatment, study finds
Abuse of heroin and prescription opioid drugs is growing rapidly, creating a need for more treatment options.

Why do women struggling with low sexual desire not seek treatment?
Low sexual desire is common among both pre- and post-menopausal women.

CWRU nursing school receives nation's largest NFLP grant of $3.16 million
The US Department of Health and Human Services' Health Resources and Service Administration awarded Case Western Reserve University's nursing school a $3.16 million Nurse Faculty Loan Program grant -- the largest among 93 accredited college and nursing programs receiving grants for the current academic year.

Results of study of the human mind and consciousness at the time of death available
The results of a four-year international study of 2,060 cardiac arrest cases across 15 hospitals are published and available now on ScienceDirect.

Satellite sees Tropical Storm Simon over Baja California
NOAA's GOES-West satellite took a picture of Tropical Storm Simon weakening over Mexico's Baja California.

Talking to your car is often distracting
Two new AAA-University of Utah studies show that despite public belief to the contrary, hands-free, voice-controlled automobile infotainment systems can distract drivers, although it is possible to design them to be safer.

Grand Challenges Canada catalyzes partnership for 'Saving Brains'
Grand Challenges Canada, funded by the Government of Canada, today welcomed Aga Khan Foundation Canada, Norlien Foundation and World Vision Canada as new partners in the 'Saving Brains' grand challenge.

Neurons in human muscles emphasize the impact of the outside world
Stretch sensors in our muscles participate in reflexes that serve the subconscious control of posture and movement.

Slime-producing molecules help spread disease from cats to sea otters
Sticky polymers that form slimy biofilms and large, waterborne particles speed the transmission of a parasitic disease from cats to marine snails to endangered sea otters in California's coastal waters, this study finds.

Live and let-7: MicroRNA plays surprising role in cell survival
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have identified a microRNA molecule as a surprisingly crucial player in managing cell survival and growth.

Easy recipe to make bone and cartilage
The repair of large bone defects and damaged cartilage remains a significant clinical challenge, with current strategies unable to reliably generate the cells that make bone and cartilage.

New 'lab-on-a-chip' could revolutionize early diagnosis of cancer
Yong Zeng and colleagues from the University of Kansas Medical Center and KU Cancer Center have published a breakthrough paper in the Royal Society of Chemistry journal describing their invention of a miniaturized biomedical testing device for exosomes.

Hypoglycemia link to HbA1c has declined in type 1 diabetes
The link between low average glucose blood levels and greater risk for severe hypoglycemia and hypoglycemic coma substantially declined between 1995 and 2012 in young Germans and Austrians with type 1 diabetes, according to a study published by Beate Karges and colleagues from the RWTH Aachen University, Germany in this week's PLOS Medicine.

BIRDS is for sustainability: New NIST tool for evaluating building performance, trade-offs
Designing a building that simply meets local code requirements is not necessarily the optimal way to do it when you consider all the long-term costs.

Researchers find link between tobacco use and viral infection that causes oral cancers
Johns Hopkins scientists have shown a strong association between tobacco use or exposure and infection with oral human papillomavirus type 16, the sexually transmitted virus responsible for mouth and throat cancers worldwide.

Pitt receives $1.25 million from Defense Department for whole-eye transplantation
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine researchers have been awarded $1.25 million from the US Department of Defense to fund two projects that aim to establish the groundwork for the nation's first whole-eye transplantation program.

Study: Stroke-fighting drug offers potential treatment for traumatic brain injury
The only drug currently approved for treatment of stroke's crippling effects shows promise, when administered as a nasal spray, to help heal similar damage in less severe forms of traumatic brain injury.

Mid-Atlantic states release course of action, convene experts on deep sea canyon science
The Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean has recently adopteda course of action to consider and develop recommendations to strengthen federal protection of submarine canyon habitats.

Templeton World Charity Foundation joins Cambridge-based CMEDT Smart Villages Initiative
The Templeton World Charity Foundation has become a co-funder of the Cambridge Malaysian Education and Development Trust's Smart Villages Initiative looking at sustainable off-grid development for rural communities.

Closing the gap: Extreme desert gecko spotted on salt-flats in central Oman
Two new records of the salt-flat specialist gecko, Pseudoceramodactylus khobarensis, from the eastern Rub Al Khali desert in Arabia have closed the distributional knowledge gap for this species, offering a better understanding of the diversity pattern of this extreme desert dweller across the Arabian Peninsula.

NIST quantum probe enhances electric field measurements
National Institute of Standards and Technology researchers together with the University of Michigan have demonstrated a technique based on the quantum properties of atoms that directly links measurements of electric field strength to the International System of Units.

New study finds nearly 6 million more dengue cases in India than official annual tally
The annual number of dengue fever cases in India is 282 times higher than officially reported, and the disease inflicts an economic burden on the country of at least US$1.11 billion each year in medical and other expenses, according to a new study published online today in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene.

JAMA findings reveal vaccine approach to fight pandemic bird flu
A Saint Louis University study in JAMA reveals a vaccination strategy researchers can continue to study to protect people from bird flu that has the potential to become epidemic.

Hospitalized patients don't wash their hands enough, study finds
Hospitalized patients wash their hands infrequently. They wash about 30 per cent of the time while in the washroom, 40 per cent during meal times, and only three per cent of the time when using the kitchens on their units

Back off: Female chimps stressed out by competing suitors
Being the center of attention can have its drawbacks. For female chimpanzees, being around too many rowdy males is disadvantageous when foraging for food, an effect that can ultimately interfere with her reproductive ability.

I'll take that brain to go! Advancements in the transport of human brain samples and epilepsy research
Biomedical engineers, neurologists and neurosurgeons from the University of Southern California Viterbi School of Engineering and the Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California develop a better way to transport human brain samples from hospital to lab and a multi-electrode array to record and temporarily halt epileptic seizures in human brain slices.

Making the world's most dreaded undergrad course fun (video)
Organic chemistry: it's among the most feared courses undergraduate science students take.

Small spills at gas stations could cause significant public health risks over time
A new study suggests that drops of fuel spilled at gas stations -- which occur frequently with fill-ups -- could cumulatively be causing long-term environmental damage to soil and groundwater in residential areas in close proximity to the stations.

Gastrostomy tube not advised for advanced dementia or other near end-of-life patients
Based on current scientific literature, gastrostomy tube placement or other long-term enteral access devices should be withheld or withdrawn in patients with advanced dementia or other near end-of-life conditions, according to a special report published today in the OnlineFirst version of Nutrition in Clinical Practice, the official journal of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

Working memory hinders learning in schizophrenia
Trouble with working memory makes a distinct contribution to the difficulty people with schizophrenia sometimes have in learning, according to a new study.

Brazil's rainforests are releasing more carbon dioxide than previously thought
Because of the deforestation of tropical rainforests in Brazil, significantly more carbon has been lost than was previously assumed.

Oral chelation for environmental lead toxicity
Treatment with dimercaptosuccinic acid, an oral chelation agent, was linked to reductions in the amount of lead in blood in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria following environmental lead contamination, according to a study by Jane Greig and colleagues from Médecins Sans Frontières published in this week's PLOS Medicine.

How female flies know when to say 'yes'
A fundamental question in neurobiology is how animals, including humans, make decisions.

The Lancet Psychiatry: Schools key to reaching the 1 in 10 children with mental health problems
Schools are a vital way of reaching the 10-20 percent of children and young people across the globe who would benefit from some sort of mental health intervention, according to a new Series on mental health interventions in schools published in The Lancet Psychiatry.

NASA adds up Japan's soaking rains from Typhoon Phanfone
Typhoon Phanfone packed heavy rainfall as it brushed over Japan and NASA's TRMM satellite identified where the rain fell.

H7N9 flu vaccine study shows adjuvant is essential for effective immune response
A clinical trial of an experimental H7N9 avian influenza vaccine found an immune response believed to be protective in 59 percent of study participants who received two injections of inactivated vaccine at the lowest dosage tested when mixed with an adjuvant.

MIT Deshpande Center announces Fall 2014 research grants
Fourteen research teams receive $976,000 to develop new technological innovations.

Candidate H7N9 avian flu vaccine works better with adjuvant
An experimental vaccine to protect people against H7N9 avian influenza prompted immune responses in 59 percent of volunteers who received two injections at the lowest dosage tested, but only if the vaccine was mixed with adjuvant -- substance that boosts the body's response to vaccination.

This week From AGU: Avalanche detection, paleoclimate reconstructions, India's Tapti Fault
This week from AGU: Avalanche detection, paleoclimate reconstructions and India's Tapti Fault

Gothenburg researchers identify molecule that protects women's eggs
A new study led by professor Kui Liu at the University of Gothenburg has identified the key molecule 'Greatwall kinase' which protects women's eggs against problems that can arise during the maturation process.

Noted American education history & desegregation expert to give Brown Lecture in Education Research
The 11th Annual Brown Lecture in Education Research, held by the American Educational Research Association.

Efficacy of potential therapy for autoimmune disorder of muscle weakness
Researchers have made a fast-acting 'vaccine' that can reverse the course of myasthenia gravis, a non-inherited autoimmune form of muscle weakness, in an animal model of the disease.

E. coli outbreak at hospital associated with contaminated specialized GI endoscopes
Despite no lapses in the disinfection process recommended by the manufacturer being identified, specialized gastrointestinal endoscopes called duodenoscopes had bacterial contamination associated with an outbreak of a highly resistant strain of E. coli at a hospital in Illinois, according to a study in the Oct.

Rural hospitals replicate experiences of big city stroke care
A new model for stroke care is being studied in rural Alberta to reduce inequities in health across communities.

Two UC San Diego scientists honored for schizophrenia research
Two professors of psychiatry at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have been honored by the New York City-based Brain & Behavior Research Foundation for their work studying the genetics, dysfunction and treatment of schizophrenia, a chronic and severe brain disorder affecting roughly 1 percent of the general population or approximately 3 million people.

Very low concentrations of heavy metals and antibiotics contribute to resistance
New Swedish research shows that plasmids containing genes that confer resistance to antibiotics can be enriched by very low concentrations of antibiotics and heavy metals.

Sugar linked to memory problems in adolescent rats
Sugar consumption affected memory and was linked to brain inflammation in juvenile rats.

Researchers pump up oil accumulation in plant leaves
A series of detailed genetic studies points scientists to a new way to dramatically increase the accumulation of oil in plant leaves, an abundant source of biomass for fuel production.

NASA eyes Super typhoon Vongfong
Typhoon Vongfong strengthened into a Super typhoon on Tuesday, Oct.

Anorexia/bulimia: A bacterial protein implicated
Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and binge eating disorder affect approximately 5-10 percent of the general population.

Can physical therapy before hip or knee replacement surgery improve outcomes?
Physical therapy after total hip or total knee replacement surgery is standard care for all patients.

Childhood eating difficulties could be a sign of underlying psychological issues
Researchers at the University of Montreal and its affiliated CHU Sainte-Justine children's hospital are warning parents that difficult eaters could have underlying psychological issues, as they have found that restrictive behaviors can appear before puberty.

'Unlikely couples' of materials enable vehicle weight to be reduced
CICmarGUNE, the Co-operative Research Centre into High-performance Manufacturing, is working to develop hybrid aluminium-steel and composite metal joints by means of different technologies that enable components with greater added value to be manufactured, thus contributing towards improving the competitive position of Basque companies.

Dynamic encryption keeps secrets
Professor Lars Ramkilde Knudsen from DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, has invented a new way to encrypt telephone conversations that makes it very difficult to 'eavesdrop.' His invention can help to curb industrial espionage.

NIST laser comb system maps 3-D surfaces remotely for manufacturing, forensics
National Institute of Standards and Technology researchers have demonstrated a laser-based imaging system that creates high-definition 3-D maps of surfaces from as far away as 10.5 meters.

MRI technique detects evidence of cognitive decline before symptoms appear
A magnetic resonance imaging technique can detect signs of cognitive decline in the brain even before symptoms appear, according to a new study.

Printing in the hobby room: Paper-thin and touch-sensitive displays on various materials
Until now, if you want to print a greeting card for a loved one, you can use colorful graphics, fancy typefaces or special paper to enhance it.

Fast, cheap, and under control
A new book argues that inexpensive, employee-driven business experiments can help drive innovation.

Mark Andermann, Ph.D., receives NIH New Innovator Award to study cravings and hunger
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center neuroendocrinologist Mark Andermann, Ph.D., has been awarded a prestigious Director's New Innovator Award from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders and the NIH Common Fund to study how hunger drives cravings.

George Washington physician addresses stigma against patients and providers with disabilities
In a Narrative Matters essay published in Health Affairs, Dr.

Survival molecule helps cancer cells hide from the immune system
A new study shows that the molecule nuclear factor kappa B helps tumors grow by inhibiting the body's ability to detect cancer cells.

Researchers identify 'Achilles heel' in metabolic pathway that could lead to new cancer treatment
Researchers at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center have found an 'Achilles heel' in a metabolic pathway crucial to stopping the growth of lung cancer cells.

Inaugural Harry Winston Fellows announced
Harry Winston, Inc. and the UCLA Children's Discovery and Innovation Institute have named the first three recipients of the inaugural Harry Winston Fellowships.

NASA Goddard scientist receives Lindsay Award for Mars research
Dr. Paul Mahaffy, an expert on the chemistry of Mars, received the John C.

A universal Ebola drug target
New tool can be used as a drug target in the discovery of anti-Ebola agents that are effective against all known strains and likely future strains.

Probiotic yogurt could help protect against heavy metal poisoning
According to scientists at Lawson Health Research Institute's Canadian Centre for Human Microbiome and Probiotic Research, a probiotic-supplemented yogurt has been shown to prevent further uptake of mercury by up to 36 percent and arsenic by up to 78 percent in pregnant women.
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