Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 21, 2014
Big black holes can block new stars
Massive black holes spewing out radio-frequency-emitting particles at near-light speed can block formation of new stars in aging galaxies, a study has found.

Most published medical research is false; Here's how to improve
In 2005, in a landmark paper viewed well over a million times, John Ioannidis explained in PLOS Medicine why most published research findings are false.

'Shrinking goats' another indicator that climate change affects animal size
Alpine goats appear to be shrinking in size as they react to changes in climate, according to new research from Durham University.

UNH hosts oil spill response forum Oct. 28-29
It's been 25 years since the Exxon Valdez spilled 11 million gallons of crude oil into Prince William Sound, and nearly five years since the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico gushed 200 million gallons of crude oil.

Beyond LOL cats, social networks could become trove of biodiversity data
Vijay Barve demonstrated social networks to be a viable source for photo-vouchered biodiversity records, especially those that clarify which species exist in what places within developing nations.

Once CD8 T cells take on one virus, they'll fight others too
CD8 T cells are known for becoming attuned to fight a specific pathogen ('adaptive immunity'), but a new study shows that in that process they also become first-responders that can fend off a variety of other invaders ('innate immunity').

POLARBEAR detects B-modes in the cosmic microwave background
The POLARBEAR experiment has made the most sensitive and precise measurements yet of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background and found telling twists called B-modes in the patterns, signs that this cosmic backlight has been warped by intervening structures in the universe.

Preservation technique for marginal livers prevents biliary stricture
New research shows that a preservation technique known as sequential subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (SNEVLP) prevents ischemic type biliary stricture following liver transplantation using grafts from donations after cardiac death (DCD).

A legal trade in horn would improve rhino protection and help sustainable development
The extinction in the wild of the southern white rhino population could be prevented by letting local communities take responsibility of the animals and giving them permission to harvest horns in a controlled manner through a legal trade.

Study shows how texas campus police tackle stalking
One out of every five female students experience stalking victimization during their college career, but many of those cases are not reported to police, according to a study by the Crime Victims' Institute at Sam Houston State University.

Study finds high percentage of recalled dietary supplements still have banned ingredients
About two-thirds of FDA recalled dietary supplements analyzed still contained banned drugs at least six months after being recalled, according to a study in the Oct.

More competition among physicians related to lower prices paid by private PPOs
An examination of the relationship between physician competition and prices paid by private preferred provider organizations (PPOs) for common office visits finds that more competition is associated with lower prices paid to physicians in 10 large specialties, according to a study in the Oct.

Alternate approach to traditional CPR saves lives
A new study shows that survival and neurological outcomes for patients in cardiac arrest can be improved by adding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation when performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Disease outbreak management -- flexibility can save lives and money
What is the best way to handle a disease outbreak?

Early palliative care can cut hospital readmissions for cancer patients
Doctors at Duke University Hospital have developed a new collaborative model in cancer care that reduced the rates at which patients were sent to intensive care or readmitted to the hospital after discharge.

UMD researchers formulate cyber protection for supply chains
The supply chain is ground zero for several recent cyber breaches.

Loss of Y chromosome associated with higher mortality and cancer in men
Age-related loss of the Y chromosome from blood cells, a frequent occurrence among elderly men, is associated with elevated risk of various cancers and earlier death, according to research presented at the American Society of Human Genetics 2014 Annual Meeting in San Diego.

NASA Webb's heart survives deep freeze test
After 116 days of being subjected to extremely frigid temperatures like that in space, the heart of the James Webb Space Telescope, the Integrated Science Instrument Module and its sensitive instruments, emerged unscathed from the thermal vacuum chamber at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

UNH scientist: Cosmic rays threaten future deep-space astronaut missions
Crewed missions to Mars remain an essential goal for NASA, but scientists are only now beginning to understand and characterize the radiation hazards that could make such ventures risky, concludes a new paper by University of New Hampshire scientists.

Criminologists try to solve murder mystery: Who will become a killer?
In a study of 1,354 youths charged with serious crimes, the youths charged with homicide had lower IQs and more exposure to violence.

Ancient Europeans intolerant to lactose for 5,000 years after they adopted agriculture
By analyzing DNA from petrous bones of ancient Europeans, scientists have identified these peoples remained intolerant to lactose (natural sugar in the milk of mammals) for 5,000 years after they adopted agricultural practices.

Queen's in international 'attosecond' science breakthrough
Scientists from Queen's University Belfast have been involved in a groundbreaking discovery in the area of experimental physics that has implications for understanding how radiotherapy kills cancer cells, among other things.

Resetting the circadian clock: Shift workers might want to skip high-iron foods
A study sheds light on higher incidence of metabolic diseases among those who work off-hours.

Sleep duration affects risk for ulcerative colitis
If you are not getting the recommended seven to eight hours of sleep each night, you may be at increased risk of developing ulcerative colitis, according to a new study in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association.

Detecting cancer earlier is goal of rutgers-developed medical imaging technology
A new medical imaging method being developed at Rutgers University could help physicians detect cancer and other diseases earlier than before, speeding treatment and reducing the need for invasive, time-consuming biopsies.

Study shows CPAP use for sleep apnea does not negatively impact sexual quality of life
Patients who use a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device to treat obstructive sleep apnea often believe that it makes them less sexually attractive, according to researchers at Rosalind Franklin University.

NC State researchers advance genome editing technique
Customized genome editing -- the ability to edit desired DNA sequences to add, delete, activate or suppress specific genes -- has major potential for application in medicine, biotechnology, food and agriculture.

Bar attendance supports heavy drinking by young adults in the US-Mexico border region
Mexico is a nearby destination where younger US residents can legally drink heavily.

Super stable garnet ceramics may be ideal for high-energy lithium batteries
Scientists have discovered exceptional properties in a garnet material that could enable development of higher-energy battery designs.

Understanding drinking behaviors among women with unwanted pregnancies
Most women reduce or stop drinking alcohol upon discovery of pregnancy.

Quantum holograms as atomic scale memory keepsake
A theoretical model of quantum memory for light, adapting the concept of a hologram to a quantum system has been published in EPJD.

In disease outbreak management, flexibility can save lives and money
A new, more flexible, approach for responding to and managing disease outbreaks has been developed that could save many lives and millions of dollars.

A rich vocabulary can protect against cognitive impairment
Some people suffer incipient dementia as they get older. To make up for this loss, the brain's cognitive reserve is put to the test.

Even depressed people believe that life gets better
Adults typically believe that life gets better -- today is better than yesterday was and tomorrow will be even better than today.

Diet for your DNA: Novel nutrition plan sparks debate around data protection
Personalized nutrition based on an individual's genotype -- nutrigenomics -- could have a major impact on reducing lifestyle-linked diseases such as obesity, heart disease and Type 2 diabetes but strict regulations need to be put in place to protect people's personal data.

Making health services prices available linked to lower total claims payments
Searching a health service pricing website before using the service was associated with lower payments for clinical services such as advanced imaging and laboratory tests, according to a study in the Oct.

What Americans fear most -- new poll from Chapman University
The Chapman Survey on American Fears included 1,500 participants from across the nation and all walks of life.

The ocean's living carbon pumps
When algal blooms get viral infections, global carbon cycles are affected.

UT Arlington researcher's device could detect vapors in environment or a person's breath
A University of Texas at Arlington researcher has received a three-year, $400,369 National Science Foundation grant to build a handheld device that could analyze a person's breath to reveal whether certain dangerous gasses are present that need more immediate medical attention.

UCSF researchers identify key factor in transition from moderate to problem drinking
A team of UC San Francisco researchers has found that a tiny segment of genetic material known as a microRNA plays a central role in the transition from moderate drinking to binge drinking and other alcohol use disorders.

Study examines differences between types of physician practice ownership and expenditures
From the perspective of the insurers and patients, between 2009 and 2012, hospital-owned physician organizations in California incurred higher expenditures for commercial health maintenance organization enrollees for professional, hospital, laboratory, pharmaceutical and ancillary services than did physician-owned organizations, according to a study in the Oct.

Backpack physics: Smaller hikers carry heavier loads
Hikers are generally advised that the weight of the packs they carry should correspond to their own size, with smaller individuals carrying lighter loads.

Immune proteins moonlight to regulate brain-cell connections
When it comes to the brain, 'more is better' seems like an obvious assumption.

Competition keeps health-care costs low, Stanford researchers find
Medical practices in less competitive health-care markets charge more for services, according to a study conducted by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and the National Bureau of Economic Research.

Hospital acquisitions leading to increased patient costs
The trend of hospitals consolidating medical groups and physician practices in an effort to improve the coordination of patient care is backfiring when it comes to lowering the cost of patient care, according to a new study.

Animal therapy reduces anxiety, loneliness symptoms in college students
Animal-assisted therapy can reduce symptoms of anxiety and loneliness among college students, according to researchers at Georgia State University, Idaho State University and Savannah College of Art and Design.

This week from AGU: Rainfall and landslide risk, lava lake, winds hasten glacial melting
This week, the American Geophysical Union is publishing articles about rainfall and landslide risk, lava lakes, and how winds hasten glacial melting.

New research on walnuts and the fight against Alzheimer's disease
A new animal study published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease indicates that a diet including walnuts may have a beneficial effect in reducing the risk, delaying the onset, slowing the progression of, or preventing Alzheimer's disease.

Clot dissolver tPA's tardy twin could aid in stroke recovery
uPA appears to help brain cells recover from the injuries induced by loss of blood flow.

Rising above the risk: America's first tsunami refuge
Washington's coast is so close to the seismically active Cascadia Subduction Zone that if a megathrust earthquake were to occur, a tsunami would hit the Washington shoreline in just 25 minutes.

Expert highlights research innovation and is optimistic about the future of IBS treatment
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome may at last be able to hope for a brighter future as innovative new treatments emerge and researchers clarify the role of current therapies.

Researchers take big-data approach to estimate range of electric vehicles
Researchers have developed new software that estimates how much farther electric vehicles can drive before needing to recharge.

Flu vaccine may hold key to preventing heart disease
Flu vaccines are known to have a protective effect against heart disease, reducing the risk of a heart attack.

Temple study suggests a novel approach for treating non-cardiac chest pain
Chest pain doesn't necessarily come from the heart. An estimated 200,000 Americans each year experience non-cardiac chest pain.

Smoking interferes with neurocognitive recovery during abstinence from alcohol
Researchers know that alcohol-dependent individuals sustain neurocognitive impairment even after detoxification.

Osteoporosis screening guidelines miss many younger post-menopausal women
To reduce the risk of bone fractures and associated complications, the United States Preventive Services Task force recommends that postmenopausal women aged 50 to 64 get bone mineral density screenings if their 10-year probability of suffering a is 9.3 percent or greater.

Scientists take step towards drug to treat norovirus stomach bug
An experimental drug currently being trialled for influenza and Ebola viruses could have a new target: norovirus, often known as the winter vomiting virus.

NASA sees Himalayan snow from Cyclone Hudhud's remnants
When does a Tropical Cyclone drop snowfall? When it makes landfall in India and the moisture moves over the Himalayas as Cyclone Hudhud has done.

UNH research highlights extent and effects of school violence
Six percent of US children and youth missed a day of school over the course of a year because they were the victim of violence or abuse at school.

Flexibility in disease outbreak management could save lives and money
Research by a team of epidemiologists from the United Kingdom and the United States has proposed a new approach for responding to and managing disease outbreaks.

Sweet science: How chemistry makes your treats sweet (video)
It's National Chemistry Week, and this year's theme is the sweetest of all: candy.

New viral mutation made middle-aged adults more susceptible to last year's flu
A team of scientists, led by researchers at The Wistar Institute, has identified a possible explanation for why middle-aged adults were hit especially hard by the H1N1 influenza virus during the 2013-2014 influenza season.

Undescended testis: The recommended surgery is being performed too late
In the currently valid medical guideline for the treatment of undescended testis, early surgery is recommended, i.e., orchidopexy before the child's first birthday, in order to prevent late sequelae.

NOAA team discovers 2 vessels from WWII convoy battle off North Carolina
A team of researchers led by NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries have discovered two significant vessels from World War II's Battle of the Atlantic.

Color and texture matter most when it comes to tomatoes
A new study in the Journal of Food Science, published by the Institute of Food Technologists, evaluated consumers' choice in fresh tomato selection and revealed which characteristics make the red fruit most appealing.

Tarantula venom illuminates electrical activity in live cells
Researchers have created a cellular probe that combines a tarantula toxin with a fluorescent compound to help scientists observe electrical activity in neurons and other cells.

Peanut in house dust linked to peanut allergy in children with skin gene mutation
A new study led by researchers at King's College London in collaboration with the University of Manchester and the University of Dundee has found a strong link between exposure to peanut protein in household dust during infancy and the development of peanut allergy in children genetically predisposed to a skin barrier defect.

Reading a biological clock in the dark
Proper coordination between our gut bacteria and our biological clocks may be crucial for preventing obesity and glucose intolerance.

Ames Laboratory scientist receives award for advancing diversity
Javier Vela, scientist with the US Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory and an assistant professor in chemistry at Iowa State University, has been selected as a 2014 recipient of the Stanley C.

NASA's Aqua satellite sees Tropical Storm Ana still affecting Hawaii
Slow-moving Tropical Storm Ana was still affecting parts of Hawaii on Oct.

Teenage self-harm linked to problems in later life
Those who self-harm as teenagers are more at risk of developing mental health and substance misuse problems as adults, new research from the biggest study of its kind in the UK has revealed.

HP supercomputer at NREL garners top honor
A supercomputer created by Hewlett-Packard and the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory that uses warm water to cool its servers, and then re-uses that water to heat its building, has been honored as one of the top technological innovations of the year by R&D Magazine.

New $13.8 million project aims to boost banana production in Uganda and Tanzania
Millions of smallholder banana farmers in Tanzania and Uganda are set to benefit from a new $13.8 million project to develop and distribute higher-yielding, disease-resistant hybrid banana varieties.

Getting the salt out
A new study shows effective way to desalinate water from fracked wells.

YEDA-XL-Protein GmbH agreement
Combining two technologies makes a drug compound stronger and longer lasting.

Promising blood biomarkers identified for colorectal cancer: Is a screening blood test within reach?
The search for blood-borne biomarkers that could be used to screen for colorectal cancer (CRC) has uncovered two promising candidates that may one day lead to the development of a simple blood test.

Large-scale study shows dramatic decline in mortality rates for ARDS
The largest study to date of mortality trends in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome shows that the rate of mortality dropped significantly over a 16-year period.

Blood biomarker may detect lung cancer, study presented at CHEST 2014
A new study shows that patients with stage I to stage III non-small cell lung cancer have different metabolite profiles in their blood than those of patients who are at risk but do not have lung cancer.

NASA sees Gonzalo affect Bermuda's ocean sediment: Stirred, not shaken
NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites captured before and after images of Bermuda and surrounding waters before and after Hurricane Gonzalo struck the island on Oct.

Einstein and Montefiore receive $2.4 million from NYS DOH
Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University and Montefiore Medical Center in collaboration with Developmental Disabilities Health Alliance of New York and Community Resource Center for the Developmentally Disabled, Inc., have received a $2.4 million grant to integrate medical and mental healthcare for children and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Binge drinking in young men linked with increased risk of hypertension
Binge drinking in early adulthood is associated with an increased likelihood of high blood pressure in males.

Kung fu stegosaur
Stegosaurs might be portrayed as lumbering plant eaters, but they were lethal fighters when necessary, according to paleontologists who have uncovered new evidence of a casualty of stegosaurian combat.

Bite to the death: Sugarbag bees launch all-conquering raids
An Australian native stingless bee species declares war on its neighbours by launching swarms of bees that lock hive-defenders in a death grip with their jaws so that both combatants die.

New treatment resolves a hazardous airway complication in child with heart disease
In children with a heart condition, lymph can ooze into airways and dry into a caulk-like, potentially life-threatening cast.

Special UO microscope captures defects in nanotubes
University of Oregon chemists have devised a way to see the internal structures of electronic waves trapped in carbon nanotubes by external electrostatic charges.

When the isthmus is an island: Madison's hottest, and coldest, spots
In a new study published this month in the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers highlight the urban heat island effect in Madison: the city's concentrated asphalt, brick and concrete lead to higher temperatures than its nonurban surroundings.

Perceived hatred fuels conflicts between Democrats and Republicans, Israelis and Palestinians
A new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academic of Sciences by a team of researchers from The New School for Social Research, Northwestern University and Boston College demonstrates how seemingly unsolvable political and ethnic conflicts are fueled by asymmetrical perceptions of opponents' motivations -- and that these tensions can be relieved by providing financial incentives to better understand what drives an adversary group.

Triplet threat from the sun
The most obvious effects of too much sun exposure are cosmetic, like wrinkled and rough skin.

World record in data transmission with smart circuits
Fewer cords, smaller antennas and quicker video transmission. This may be the result of a new type of microwave circuit that was designed at Chalmers University of Technology.

Analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs may have an impact on depression
Ordinary over the counter painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs purchased from pharmacies may also be effective in the treatment of people suffering of depression.

Unconventional experimental design
Over two years of observation McRae, working closely with professor of biology Steven Green, found that he could quite accurately predict what type of predator was threatening a squirrel by analyzing its sounds and tail movements.

Impressions shaped by facial appearance foster biased decisions
Research in recent years has shown that people associate specific facial traits with an individual's personality.

Solar energy prices see double-digit declines in 2013; Trend expected to continue
Distributed solar photovoltaic system prices dropped by 12-19 percent nationwide in 2013, according to the third edition of a jointly written report on PV pricing trends from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Two Michigan high school students develop screening tools to detect lung and heart disease
Two Michigan high school students, sisters Ilina and Medha Krishen, have developed screening tools using electronic stethoscopes to detect lung and heart disease.

Studies must be carried out to determine whether exercise slows the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adults
Rates of type 1 diabetes -- the autoimmune form of the condition that often begins in childhood and eventually results in lifelong dependency on insulin -- are increasing in almost all nations worldwide.

Unsteady on your feet? Little touches could make all the difference
When a toddler takes their first steps we observe an uncertain sway in their walking.

Large variation in cesarean rates across US hospitals
Katy Kozhimannil and colleagues S.V. Subramanian and Mariana Arcaya used the 2009 and 2010 US Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, a 20 percent sample of US hospitals, to study hospital variation in cesarean section rates.

Immersed in violence: How 3-D gaming affects video game players
Playing violent video games in 3-D makes everything seem more real -- and that may have troubling consequences for players, a new study reveals.

11 million will lose health insurance if ACA subsidies are eliminated, study finds
Several lawsuits have challenged the legality of the subsidies that help low- and moderate-income people buy private healtah insurance through marketplaces set up under the federal Affordable Care Act.

Study will teach algebra via student-authored stories that draw on their own interests
A new study funded by the National Academy of Education will teach algebra via student-authored stories that draw on their interests, says teaching expert Candace Walkington, Southern Methodist University.

Could I squeeze by you?
Scientists at the US Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have developed deeper understanding of the ideal design for mesoporous nanoparticles used in catalytic reactions, such as hydrocarbon conversion to biofuels.

Less-numerate investors swayed by corporate report presentation effects
Less-numerate investors are more susceptible to style and presentation effects in corporate social responsibility reports, according to research from W.

Study shows how troubled marriage, depression history promote obesity
The double-whammy of marital hostility and a history of depression can increase the risk for obesity in adults by altering how the body processes high-fat foods, according to new research.

Extremely high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging
For the first time, researchers have succeeded to detect a single hydrogen atom using magnetic resonance imaging, which signifies a huge increase in the technology's spatial resolution.

Hospitals converting to for-profit status show better financial health, no loss in quality
Switching from nonprofit to for-profit status appears to boost hospitals' financial health but does not appear to lower the quality of care they provide or reduce the proportion of poor or minority patients receiving care.

David and Barbara Roux make $10 million gift to the Jackson Laboratory
The Jackson Laboratory announced today that technology investor David Roux and his wife Barbara have gifted $10 million to support research and find cures for genetically based diseases.

Study examines effect of hospital switch to for-profit status
Hospital conversion from nonprofit to for-profit status in the 2000s was associated with better subsequent financial health but had no relationship to the quality of care delivered, mortality rates, or the proportion of poor or minority patients receiving care, according to a study in the Oct.

Exploring X-Ray phase tomography with synchrotron radiation
X-ray phase tomography is an imaging technique that uses penetrating X-rays to create volumetric views through 'slices' of soft biological tissues, and it offers strongly enhanced contrast compared to conventional CT scans, yet scientists do not know which X-ray phase tomography methods are best suited to yield optimized results for a variety of conditions.

New analysis methodology may revolutionize breast cancer therapy
Stroma cells are derived from connective tissue and may critically influence tumor growth.

Bogus recycling bins help identify drinking patterns among low-income seniors
Substance abuse is the fastest growing health concern for older adults.

UT Arlington to host international gathering of mind, brain and education experts
University of Texas at Arlington prepares for major role in international gathering of mind, brain and education experts.

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine dean, department chair elected to IOM
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine Dean Pamela B.
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