Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 17, 2014
Researchers discern the shapes of high-order Brownian motions
For the first time, scientists have vividly mapped the shapes and textures of high-order modes of Brownian motions -- in this case, the collective macroscopic movement of molecules in microdisk resonators.

Subtle shifts in the Earth could forecast earthquakes, tsunamis
Earthquakes and tsunamis can be giant disasters no one sees coming, but now an international team of scientists led by a University of South Florida professor have found that subtle shifts in the earth's offshore plates can be a harbinger of the size of the disaster.

Fat around the heart may cause irregular heartbeat
The layer of fat around the outside of the heart is more closely associated with atrial fibrillation than the most common measure of obesity, body mass index, a study has found.

Small fraction of students attended schools with USDA nutrition components
If the latest US Department of Agriculture standards for school meals and food sold in other venues such as vending machines and snack bars are fully implemented, there is potential to substantially improve school nutrition because only a small fraction of students attended schools with five USDA healthy nutritional components in place from 2008 through 2012, according to a study published online by JAMA Pediatrics.

Stanford biologists explore link between memory deficit and misfiring circadian clock
By disrupting Siberian hamsters' circadian rhythms, Stanford scientists have identified a part of the brain that, when misfiring, inhibits memory.

A new genetic cause for a progressive form of epilepsy identified
An international research consortium has discovered a new gene underlying progressive myoclonus epilepsy, one of the most devastating forms of epilepsy.

New technique to help produce next-generation photonic chips
Researchers from the University of Southampton have developed a new technique to help produce more reliable and robust next generation photonic chips.

Understanding adverse blood vessel remodeling following stenting
Atherosclerosis can be treated with angioplasty or stenting to improve blood flow.

A new approach to fighting chronic myeloid leukemia
Chronic myeloid leukemia is caused by the hyperactivity of a mutated enzyme.

New NASA and NSBRI report on sex and gender differences in adaptation to space flight
In the future, as space exploration takes astronauts on longer missions and more female astronauts participate, 'The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space' will become increasingly critical to astronaut safety and mission success, as explored in a special collection of articles published in Journal of Women's Health.

Adjusting Earth's thermostat, with caution
A team of researchers from the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences has outlined how a small-scale 'stratospheric perturbation experiment' could work.

Tiny fish provides giant insight into how organisms adapt to changing environment
An Indiana University-Dartmouth College team has identified genes and regulatory patterns that allow some organisms to alter their body form in response to environmental change.

UT Arlington to lead $1.6 million research project focused on digital learning
The University of Texas at Arlington will lead a new Digital Learning Research Network dedicated to bridging the gap between digital learning research and its impact on practice.

US-China climate change deal: EU initiative calls on innovators to exceed targets
Bertrand van Ee, CEO of Climate-KIC, the EU's largest public-private innovation partnership focused on mitigating and adapting to climate change, has called on innovators and entrepreneurs to step up their 'open innovation' efforts to bring down CO2 emission levels, boost the clean economy and exceed current targets.

Thomas Gaborski named 2014 Young Innovator by international Biomedical Engineering Society
Thomas Gaborski, assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Rochester Institute of Technology, and his research team are developing ways to use ultra-thin nano-membranes and adipose stem cells to create the vascular network necessary in engineering tissue, skin and organs.

Worldwide ship traffic up 300 percent since 1992
New satellite data reveal a whopping boost in shipping.

Young teen smokers may run heightened risk of chronic severe period pain
Young teen smokers may run a heightened risk of developing chronic severe period pain, suggests research published online in the journal Tobacco Control.

Datasets used by policymakers, scientists for public health analyses inconsistent
Commercially available datasets containing a wealth of information about food and alcohol establishments differ significantly, raising concerns about their reliability as sources of information that could be used to set public policy or conduct scientific research, according to a University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health investigation.

A noncoding RNA promotes pediatric bone cancer
Ewing sarcoma is a cancer of bone or its surrounding soft tissue that primarily affects children and young adults.

Diarrhea and candidiasis associated with common antibiotic amoxicillin
Diarrhea and candidiasis can result from taking the common antibiotic treatments, amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, although harms may be underreported, according to a study published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal.

Stenospermocarpic fruit linked to unmarketable black walnuts
Studies were conducted to determine the incidence of ambered black walnut kernels in an orchard, and to ascertain when symptoms were apparent in specific tissues.

Where will big neuroscience take us?
The US, Europe and Asia have launched big brain research projects.

The implications of new cholesterol guidelines on a rural Midwest community
The health records of 4,281 New Ulm residents between the ages of 40 to 79 years old were analyzed.

Magic tricks created using artificial intelligence for the first time
Researchers working on artificial intelligence at Queen Mary University of London have taught a computer to create magic tricks.

Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on postconcussion symptoms in military members
A clinical trial testing hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment on persistent postconcussion symptoms in US military service members showed no benefits over a sham procedure in an air-filled chamber, but symptoms did improve in both the HBO and sham treatment groups compared with a group of patients who received no supplemental air chamber treatment, according to a report published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.

Clues to trees' salt tolerance found in native habitat, leaf traits
Canyon maple was compared with bigleaf maple and eucalyptus to investigate whether salt tolerance can be inferred from observable cues based on woody species' native habitat and leaf traits.

Blood vessel receptor that responds to light may be new target for vascular disease treatments
A team of researchers from Johns Hopkins Medicine has discovered a receptor on blood vessels that causes the vessel to relax in response to light, making it potentially useful in treating vascular diseases.

Anti-leukemia drug may also work against ovarian cancer
An antibody therapy already in clinical trials to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia may also prove effective against ovarian cancer -- and likely other cancers as well, report researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine.

Lawrence Livermore develops method to measure residual stress in 3-D printed metal parts
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have developed an efficient method to measure residual stress in metal parts produced by powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing.

Graphene/nanotube hybrid benefits flexible solar cells
Rice University scientists create a graphene/nanotube cathode that may make cheap, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells more practical.

'Probiotics' for plants boost detox abilities; untreated plants overdose and die
Scientists using a microbe that occurs naturally in eastern cottonwood trees have boosted the ability of two other plants -- willow and lawn grass -- to withstand the withering effects of the nasty industrial pollutant phenanthrene and take up 25 to 40 percent more of the pollutant than untreated plants.

UTSW cancer researchers identify gene mutations and process for how kidney tumors develop
Using next generation gene sequencing techniques, cancer researchers at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center have identified more than 3,000 new mutations involved in certain kidney cancers, findings that help explain the diversity of cancer behaviors.

Second protein associated with common cause of kidney failure identified
An international team of researchers including University of Louisville faculty has published data in the New England Journal of Medicine showing a new protein involved in membranous nephropathy.

Age matters: Young larvae boost pollen foraging in honey bees
Adult bees foraging for food use the changing pheromone signals of the young to adjust what nutritional resources they collect.

NTU engineers develop innovative process to print flexible electronic circuits
Nanyang Technological University has successfully printed complex electronic circuits using a common t-shirt printer.

Recommendations by other customers significantly influence Internet purchasing behavior
The online purchasing behavior of private individuals shopping in their leisure time is heavily influenced by recommendations made by other customers.

NASA computer model provides a new portrait of carbon dioxide
An ultra-high-resolution NASA computer model has given scientists a stunning new look at how carbon dioxide in the atmosphere travels around the globe.

Reprogramming cells, long term
HSCI researchers have demonstrated that adult cells, reprogrammed into another cell type in a living animal, can remain functional over a long period.

Vital exhaustion may raise risk of first-time cardiovascular disease
Vital exhaustion may raise risk of first-time cardiovascular disease.

Hispanic women with multiple births may face increased risk of cardiovascular disease
Hispanic women with multiple births may face increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

News from Nov. 18 Annals of Internal Medicine Supplement
The supplement is comprised of research conducted by current and former Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars.

UN Chief of Academic Impact Ramu Damodaran to keynote NJIT Fourth Annual Business Conference
'The Transforming Horizon: A Flat World Perspective for Business Today' is the theme of the Fourth Annual Business Conference presented by the School of Management at New Jersey Institute of Technology on Nov.

Study suggests home cooking is a main ingredient in a healthier diet
People who frequently cook meals at home eat healthier and consume fewer calories than those who cook less, according to new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research.

Overhaul in tropical forest research needed
New work from a team led by Carnegie's Greg Asner shows the limitations of long-used research methods in tropical rainforest ecology and points to new technological approaches for understanding forest structures and systems on large geographic scales.

Spice up your memory
Adding just one gram of turmeric to breakfast could help improve the memory of people who are in the very early stages of diabetes and at risk of cognitive impairment.

Verbal abuse in the workplace: Are men or women most at risk?
There is no significant difference in the prevalence of verbal abuse in the workplace between men and women, according to a systematic review of the literature conducted by researchers at the Institut universitaire de santé mentale de Montréal and the University of Montreal.

Geologic mapping of asteroid Vesta reveals history of large impacts
A Arizona State University-led project to map the impact sequence on the asteroid Vesta is helping scientists compare its history to other solar system objects.

The chemistry of cats: On catnip, pheromones and kitty litter (video)
They are seemingly the most popular thing on the Internet, the subject of millions of videos and hundreds of memes: cats.

Viruses impaired if their targets have diverse genes
When a viral infection spread through five genetically identical mice in a row, the virus replicated faster and became more virulent or severe.

Scientists X-ray tiny cell organelles responsible for carbon fixation
An international team of scientists led by Uppsala University has developed a high-throughput method of imaging biological particles using an X-ray laser.

TSRI researchers discover new type of neuron that plays key role in nicotine addiction
For decades, scientists thought drug addiction was the result of two systems in the brain -- the reward system, activated when a person used a drug, and the stress system, which kicked in during withdrawal.

Ten ways remote sensing can contribute to conservation
Scientists from WCS, NASA, and other organizations have partnered to focus global attention on the contribution of satellites to biodiversity conservation in a recently released study entitled 'Ten Ways Remote Sensing Can Contribute to Conservation,' featured in the latest edition of the scientific journal Conservation Biology.

Physicians prescribe less brand name drugs when EHR default settings show generics first
Programming electronic health records to make generic drugs the default choice when physicians write prescriptions may offer one way to reduce unnecessary spending and improve health care value in the face of spiraling US health expenditures, according to a new study from researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Family ties that bind: Having the right surname sets you up for life
If your surname reveals that you descended from the 'in' crowd in the England of 1066 -- the Norman Conquerors -- then even now you are more likely than the average Brit to be upper class.

The secret life of anti-cancer drugs
The public is bombarded with news of exciting developments in cancer research every day, with new anti-cancer drugs greeted with excitement.

Creating trust in the time of Ebola
One of the key reasons the Ebola outbreak got out of control in West Africa in the early days of the crisis was a lack of trust among community members, frontline health workers and the broader health system, suggests new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research.

With rewards, we remember more than we should
Perhaps to prevent confusion between facts we've made a point of learning and closely related facts we haven't, the brain employs 'retrieval-induced forgetting.' In a new experiment, Brown University brain scientists show that reward during learning can undo that presumably helpful mechanism.

Researchers create & control spin waves, lifting prospects for enhanced info processing
A team of NYU and University of Barcelona physicists has developed a method to control the movements occurring within magnetic materials, which are used to store and carry information.

Rapid response for inflammation control in songbirds' brains could lead to therapies in humans
A biological process in the brains of zebra finches shows that the songbirds respond quickly to trauma and are capable of controlling the natural inflammation that occurs to protect the brain from injury.

Catering to needs of in-store, online customers boosts marketing effectiveness, revenue
A University of Missouri researcher found that consumers' preferences differ when they are shopping in a physical store compared to shopping online.

Investigational oral drug combo shows promise for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma
The investigational drug ixazomib taken orally in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone shows promise in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, according to the results of a phase 1/2 study published in the journal Lancet Oncology.

Businesses can help preserve endangered species with small landscape changes
University of Missouri researchers have found that businesses can contribute to raptor preservation efforts by engaging in less development of lawn areas and increased planting or preservation of native grasslands and woodlots.

Chemical disguise transforms RNAi drug delivery
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have developed a way to chemically disguise RNAi drugs so that they are able to enter cells.

Young children take but often barely touch healthy school cafeteria food options
You can offer young children healthier food choices in the elementary school cafeteria, but will they actually put it on their trays and eat it?

Protecting forests alone would not halt land-use change emissions
Global forest conservation measures meant to mitigate climate change are likely to drive massive cropland expansion into shrublands or savannahs to satisfy the ever-growing hunger for arable land.

Heart muscle inflammation and swelling peak twice after heart attack
Results of a new study challenge the current consensus in cardiology that peak myocardial edema, or heart muscle swelling, only occurs just after a myocardial infarction, or heart attack.

SSA honors Victor Tsai with Charles F. Richter Early Career Award
Still early in his career, Victor Tsai has already established himself as a leading seismologist, conducting pioneering research in the emerging fields of ambient noise and glacier and river seismology.

Women's fertility linked to detox element in diet
University of Adelaide research has for the first time shown how much of a critical role the natural antioxidant selenium plays at the earliest stages of a woman's fertility.

Racial disparities in ear infection treatment may contribute to antibiotic overuse
Black children are less likely to be diagnosed with and less likely to receive broad-spectrum antibiotics for ear infections than white children are, a new study has found.

British men who pay for sex have many (unpaid) sexual partners
British men who pay for sex tend to have high numbers of unpaid sexual partners, putting them at heightened risk of both acquiring and passing on sexually transmitted infections, finds research published online in the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections.

Need to encourage patients to screen for colon cancer? Try a lottery
Convincing patients to do an often dreaded colon cancer screening test could just take a little extra nudge -- like a chance to win $50.

CWRU researchers look at why some endure abuse and witnessing violence better than others
The Jack, Joseph and Morton Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences at Case Western Reserve University received a two-year, $200,000 grant to study why some children thrive, achieve and develop despite being abused and witnessing violence in the home.

Side effects of possible anti-cancer strategy discovered
The Malt1 protein is one of the most important control centers in human immune cells and a real all-rounder.

Drug lowers high potassium levels associated with potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmias
Mikhail Kosiborod, M.D., of Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, and colleagues evaluated the efficacy and safety of the drug zirconium cyclosilicate in patients with hyperkalemia -- higher than normal potassium levels.

Finding 'lost' languages in the brain
An infant's mother tongue creates neural patterns that the unconscious brain retains years later even if the child totally stops using the language, as can happen in cases of international adoption, according to a new joint study by scientists at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital -- The Neuro and McGill University's Department of Psychology.

Why lizards have bird breath
Biologists long assumed that one-way air flow was a special adaptation in birds driven by the intense energy demands of flight.

Novel basic science tip sheet
A diet high in flavonoids may help counteract pollution-related heart risk.

Potential therapy found for incurable pediatric brain tumor
scientists have discovered a new potential drug therapy for a rare, incurable pediatric brain tumor by targeting a genetic mutation found in children with the cancer.

Young vessels rejuvenate aged insulin-producing beta cells
A recent study published in the journal PNAS shows that young capillary vessels rejuvenate aged pancreatic islets.

Three popular daffodil varieties determined to be highly salt tolerant
A study examined how salinities ranging from 0 to 300 mM NaCl affected growth, flower production, and leaf physiology of three popular daffodil cultivars.

Complementary and alternative medicine for veterans and military personnel -- update from Medical Care
A growing body of research evidence shows that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has health benefits for US military veterans and active duty personnel, according to a special December supplement to Medical Care.

Drugs that prevent blood clots may protect organs during transplantation
Organs can become significantly damaged during transplantation, but a new article published in the British Journal of Surgery offers a protective strategy that could keep them safe and allow them to function optimally after the procedure.

Second protein associated with common cause of kidney failure identified
An international team of researchers from France, Germany, and the US have identified a protein that turns a person's immune system against itself in a form of kidney disease called membranous nephropathy.

Metabolic 'reprogramming' by the p53 gene family leads to tumor regression
Scientists have found that altering members of the p53 gene family, known as tumor suppressor genes, causes rapid regression of tumors that are deficient in or totally missing p53.

Specialized ambulance increases thrombolysis for stroke patients in 'golden hour'
A specialized ambulance staffed with a neurologist and equipped with a computed tomographic scanner helped increase the percentage of patients with stroke who received thrombolysis to break down blood clots within the so-called 'golden hour,' the 60 minutes from time of symptom onset to treatment when treatment may be most effective, according to a study published online by JAMA Neurology.

Pulse oximetry screenings save lives of babies with congenital heart defects
Pulse oximetry screenings save lives of babies with congenital heart defects.

As temperatures rise, soil will relinquish less carbon to the atmosphere than predicted
Current climate models probably overestimate the amount of carbon that will be released from soil into the atmosphere as global temperatures rise, according to research from Berkeley Lab.

Symmetrical knees linked to Jamaican sprinting prowess
Why is tiny Jamaica home to so many elite sprinters?

First genetic-based tool to detect circulating cancer cells in blood
Northwestern University scientists have demonstrated the first genetic-based approach that is able to detect live circulating tumor cells out of the complex matrix that is human blood -- no easy feat.

Researchers present highly anticipated IMPROVE-IT results
Results of the highly anticipated IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial, also known as IMPROVE-IT, co-led by researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Duke Medicine, indicate that adding a second drug, ezetimibe, that blocks cholesterol absorption, resulted in a significant 6.4 percent reduction in the number of cardiovascular events.

Credit score can also describe health status
A credit score also says something about a person's health status, according to a new analysis from a long-term study of the physical and mental health of more than 1,000 New Zealanders.

Penn engineers efficiently 'mix' light at the nanoscale
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania have engineered a nanowire system that could pave the way for photonic computing, combining two light waves to produce a third with a different frequency and using an optical cavity to amplify the intensity of the output to a usable level.

New study: Routine imaging screening of diabetic patients for heart disease not effective
Routine heart imaging screenings for people with diabetes at high risk to experience a cardiac event, but who have no symptoms of heart disease, does not help them avoid heart attacks, hospitalization for unstable angina or cardiac death, according to a major new study.

Study on hospital stays contributes to Hispanic Paradox
To further study the Hispanic Mortality Paradox -- why Hispanics in the US tend to outlive non-Hispanic whites by several years -- University of North Texas psychologist John Ruiz examined length of hospital stays for Hispanics, whites and blacks at the same hospital over 12 months.

Ferret genome sequenced, holds clues to respiratory diseases
The draft sequence of the ferret genome provides genetic information important to the study of respiratory disorders.

No racial disparities in development of atrial fibrillation among heart failure patients
Black patients who have been diagnosed with heart failure are no less likely than white patients to get atrial fibrillation (an irregular heartbeat, or arrhythmia), according to a new study led by researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, which was presented today at the 2014 Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association.

Imperfect system is all that protects you from genetic parasites out to destroy your genes
Brandeis biology professor Nelson Lau and his lab recently published two studies on the PIWI pathway, exploring how PIWI proteins distinguish transposons from normal DNA and how transposable elements slip past and fool the PIWI pathway.

Climate change was not to blame for the collapse of the Bronze Age
Scientists will have to find alternative explanations for a huge population collapse in Europe at the end of the Bronze Age as researchers prove definitively that climate change -- commonly assumed to be responsible -- could not have been the culprit.

Researchers find gene in kidney may play role in high blood pressure in male mice
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati have found that a gene abundant in the kidneys may actually play a role in the regulation of blood pressure and hypertension in experimental male mouse models.

Thorne Lay honored by Seismological Society of America
An influential seismologist and community leader whose research has refined our understanding of the Earth's deep interior, Thorne Lay will be honored by the Seismological Society of America with its highest honor, the Harry Fielding Reid Medal, which recognizes contributions to science and society, at the organization's annual meeting held April 21-23, 2015 in Pasadena, Calif.

Examining the effect of foundation-funded research on education
How does research funded by private foundations shape the debate on teacher quality in America?

UTHealth smoking study: Financial incentives double quit rates
Offering small financial incentives doubles smoking cessation rates among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers, according to research from the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.

New genetic cause for rare form of epilepsy identified
An international research team that includes the University of Melbourne's professor Sam Berkovic has identified a new gene for a progressive form of epilepsy.

From mice to yeast: New network to use model organisms to study rare disease
The Canadian Institutes of Health Research, in partnership with Genome Canada, has awarded the Canadian Rare Diseases Models and Mechanisms Network -- a first of its kind collaboration -- $2.3 million to investigate these molecular mechanisms and advance rare disease research.

Setting family rules promotes healthier behavior in children
An Indiana University study has found that setting specific family rules about healthy eating and sedentary behavior actually leads to healthier practices in children.

Automated reminders improve medication adherence and cholesterol control
People who received automated reminders were more likely to refill their blood pressure and cholesterol medications, according to a study published today in a special issue of the American Journal of Managed Care.

'Big data' approach helps pinpoint possible new stent drug to prevent heart attacks
Stanford University School of Medicine researchers hunting for a better drug coating for coronary stents, the small mesh tubes used to prop open plaque-filled arteries, have pinpointed a cancer drug as a possible candidate.

AGU Fall Meeting: Virtual press room and PIO uploader -- Now live!
Included in this advisory: 'Virtual Press Room and PIO Uploader - Now live!,' 'Fall Meeting Virtual Options,' 'Preliminary press conference topics,' 'Fall Meeting events,' 'Journalism awards reception,' 'First-timers breakfast,' 'Mass Media Fellows breakfast,' 'Northern California Science Writers Association holiday dinner registration,' 'Press registration information,' and 'Who's Coming.'

Revolutionary solar-friendly form of silicon shines
Silicon is the second most-abundant element in the earth's crust.

Advances in electron microscopy reveal secrets of HIV and other viruses
UC Davis researchers are getting a new look at the workings of HIV and other viruses thanks to new techniques in electron microscopy developed on campus.

People with COPD who received nutrition treatment in the hospital had better health outcomes
New research in the international medical journal CHEST showed patients had reduced hospital stays, medical costs and returns to the hospital.

New study demonstrates high burden of AFib is associated with lower cognitive function
iRhythm Technologies, Inc. announced today that study results presented during the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions showed an association between a high burden of atrial fibrillation and lower cognitive function, specifically executive and verbal function.

EARTH Magazine: How much natural hazard mitigation is enough?
It's a question that arises in the wake of most natural disasters: What steps can society take to protect itself from storms, floods, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis or volcanic eruptions?

Simple clinical tests help differentiate Parkinson's disease from atypical parkinsonism
Two simple tests conducted during the neurological exam can help clinicians differentiate between early-stage Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism.

Less sex plus more greens equals a longer life
While a life in the slow lane may be easier, will it be any longer?

Evolutionary constraints revealed in diversity of fish skulls
In the aquatic environment, suction feeding is far more common than biting as a way to capture prey.

One firm's loss is another's gain
Good news for savvy businesses: customers who walk through your doors unhappy with another firm's service can be won back with simple gestures of goodwill.

Case Western Reserve malaria expert named one of 100 leading global thinkers for 2014
Case Western Reserve malaria specialist Brian Grimberg, Ph.D., is among Foreign Policy magazine's 100 Leading Global Thinkers of 2014 being honored this evening in Washington, D.C.

74 percent of parents would remove their kids from daycare if others are unvaccinated
Forty-one percent of parents say under-vaccinated kids should be excluded from daycare, according to U-M's National Poll on Children's Health.

Scripps Research Institute scientists reveal weak spots in Ebola's defenses
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have identified weak spots on the surface of Ebola virus that are targeted by the antibodies in ZMapp, the experimental drug cocktail administered to several patients during the recent Ebola outbreak.

The dirty side of soap
Triclosan is an antimicrobial commonly found in soaps, shampoos, toothpastes and many other household items.

NASA sees the Southern Indian Ocean cyclone season awaken
The first tropical cyclone of the Southern Indian Ocean cyclone season has formed over 300 miles from Diego Garcia.

Unveiling the effects of an important class of diabetes drugs
Study results shed additional light on how a longstanding class of diabetes drugs, known as thiazolidinediones, work to improve glucose metabolism and suggest that inhibitors of the signaling pathway -- known as the MEK/ERK pathway -- may also hold promise in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

New paper identifies virus devastating sea stars on Pacific Coast
Specimens from the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County have helped explain the mysteriously sudden appearance of a disease that has decimated sea stars on the North American Pacific Coast.

New tools in fight against virus that attacks the brain
Researchers have developed new insight into a rare but deadly brain infection, called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

Penn study shows bed bugs can transmit parasite that causes Chagas disease
A new study from Penn Medicine researchers in the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics demonstrated that bed bugs, like the triatomines, can transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, one of the most prevalent and deadly diseases in the Americas.

Three new ornamental dogwoods introduced
Researchers at the University of Tennessee introduced three new ornamental dogwood varieties that are resistant to powdery mildew and dogwood anthracnose.

U Mass Medical School receives $9.5 million for Fragile X research center
The National Institutes of Health has awarded a $9.5 million grant to investigators at the University of Massachusetts Medical School to establish a Center for Collaborative Research in Fragile X.

Growth factor regenerates damaged nerves without sprouting new blood vessels
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine have found that a growth factor can regenerate damaged peripheral nerves without causing the growth of new blood vessels -- making it a unique candidate to treat nerve damage in areas of the body where the proliferation of blood vessels would be a drawback.

News from Nov. 18, 2014 Annals of Internal Medicine
This issue includes: 'NSAIDS associated with serious bleeding and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation,' 'Three in 10 adults with diabetes remain undiagnosed' and 'CABG superior to PCI for treating diabetics with heart disease.'

Fruit flies learn from others
Fruit flies do not always conform to the norm. When female fruit flies have to decide where to lay their eggs, they take their lead from what they see most others in their group do.

Densovirus named top suspect in devastating sea star wasting disease
Since 2013, millions of sea stars native to the Pacific coast of North America from Baja California to southern Alaska have succumbed to a mysterious wasting disease in which their limbs pull away from their bodies and their organs exude through their skin; a disease researchers say could trigger an unprecedented ecological upheaval under the waves.

Race, hospital, insurance status all factors in how lung cancer is treated
African Americans, Hispanics, and those who receive care at a community hospital are all significantly less likely than other patients to receive treatment for early stage non-small cell lung cancer, according to a report in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology.

Research suggests warmth, flowing water on early Mars were episodic
There is ample evidence that water once flowed on the surface of ancient Mars.

Climate capers of the past 600,000 years
An international consortium of researchers under the auspices of the University of Bonn has drilled deposits on the bed of Lake Van (Turkey) which provide unique insights into the last 600,000 years.

Chlamydia knock out the body's own cancer defence
By breaking down the cancer-suppressing protein p53, Chlamydia prevent programmed cell death and thereby favour the process of cancer development

Behavioral flexibility impaired after exposure to oxycodone
Brief usage of the painkiller oxycodone may impair behavioral flexibility even after that use ends, suggesting impaired decision-making as an enduring consequence of exposure, according to a study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published Nov.

Mayo Clinic researchers: TNF inhibitors may increase cancer risk in the eye
One of the family of drugs prescribed for rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions is called tumor necrosis factor inhibitors.

Calorie-restricting diets slow aging, study finds
Neuroscientists at NYU Langone Medical Center have shown that calorie-reduced diets stop the normal rise and fall in activity levels of close to 900 different genes linked to aging and memory formation in the brain.

Cigna Foundation gives grant to NYU to help minority, senior women with heart disease
A $100,000 World of Difference grant has been awarded to Dr.

Penn study examines patients' perspectives on deactivation of ICDs in end-of-life
Most patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) -- small devices placed in a person's chest to help treat irregular heartbeats with electrical pulses, or shocks -- haven't thought about device deactivation if they were to develop a serious illness from which they were not expected to recover.

TopBP1 a sweet spot for treatment in multiple cancers
A compound called calcein may act to inhibit topoisomerase IIβ-binding protein 1 (TopBP1), which enhances the growth of tumors, said researchers from Baylor College of Medicine in a report that appears online in the journal Nature Communications.

Elsevier announces the launch of a new journal: Big Data Research
Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, today announced the launch of a new journal: Big Data Research.

NASA's SDO sees returning sunspot produce mid-level flare
The sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 12:48 p.m.

Big city hospitals severely penalized for Medicare readmissions
Big city hospitals are severely penalized for Medicare readmissions.

Pharmaceutical industry improves access to medicine for the poor, but progress uneven
The world's leading pharmaceutical companies are doing more to improve access to medicine in developing countries, with a raft of new initiatives, scale-ups and innovations over the last two years.

State-of-the-art integrated imaging system allows mapping of brain cells responsible for memory
Scientists from Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences in Japan have developed an advanced imaging system to identify cells responsible for storing memory within a tiny worm.

Effect of once-daily, low-dose aspirin on CV death and other outcomes
Yasuo Ikeda, M.D., of Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, and colleagues examined whether once-daily, low-dose aspirin would reduce the total number of cardiovascular events, such as death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal heart attack or stroke, compared with no aspirin in Japanese patients 60 years or older with hypertension, diabetes, or poor cholesterol or triglyceride levels.

Antibiotics get a 'time-out'
Resistance to antibiotics is an important health concern that affects both the spread of infections and the medication budget.

New advance in cryopreservation could change management of world blood supplies
Engineers have identified a method to rapidly prepare frozen red blood cells for transfusions, which may offer an important new way to manage the world's blood supply.

Most people would rather harm themselves than others for profit
A UCL-led experiment on 80 pairs of adults found that people were willing to sacrifice on average twice as much money to spare a stranger pain than to spare themselves, despite the decision being secret.

U-M-led study adds to understanding of how phthalate exposure impacts pregnancy
In recent years, scientists have linked chemicals known as phthalates with complications of pregnancy and fetal development.

New insights that link Fragile X syndrome and autism spectrum disorders
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability, as well as the most frequent monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorders.

microRNA silencing provides a successful new model for cancer therapeutics
By exploiting a unique feature of the tumor microenvironment, scientists identify a novel delivery platform that leads to the inhibition of microRNA activity -- and the control of cancer growth.

Working the night shift burns less energy and increases risk of weight gain
People who work the night shift are likely burning less energy during a 24-hour period than those on a normal schedule, increasing their risk for weight gain and obesity, according to a new study led by the University of Colorado Boulder.

Newly discovered hormone with potential treatment for obesity, type 2 diabetes, liver disease
Researchers at the University of Michigan have discovered how a previously unknown hormone serves as a messenger from fat cells to the liver and are investigating the potential of developing a new treatment for metabolic disorders.

Jennifer Lewis named 2014 Global Thinker by Foreign Policy magazine
Wyss Institute Core Faculty Member Jennifer Lewis, Sc.D., has been selected as one of Foreign Policy's 100 Leading Global Thinkers of 2014 for her disruptive research in 3-D bioprinting.

NIH-sponsored study identifies superior drug regimen for preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission
For HIV-infected women in good immune health, taking a three-drug regimen during pregnancy prevents mother-to-child HIV transmission more effectively than taking one drug during pregnancy, another during labor and two more after giving birth, an international clinical trial has found.

Middle managers and hermit crabs
Ideas from mid-level managers that can benefit an organization are less likely to be passed up to superiors as hierarchy in the organization increases, according to a just published paper by an assistant professor at the University of California, Riverside.

Fatigue, irritability, and demoralization can affect your heart health
Fatigue, increased irritability, and feeling demoralized, may raise a healthy man or woman's risk of first-time cardiovascular disease by 36 percent, according to a study led by researchers at Mount Sinai St.

Nothing fishy about health benefits of plant-based omega-3 fatty acid
Increasing the amount of omega-3s in your diet, whether from fish or flax, will likely decrease your risk of getting heart disease, according to Penn State nutritionists.

Hiding in plain sight: Elusive dark matter may be detected with GPS satellites
The everyday use of a GPS device might be to find your way around town or even navigate a hiking trail, but for two physicists, the Global Positioning System might be a tool in directly detecting and measuring dark matter, so far an elusive but ubiquitous form of matter responsible for the formation of galaxies.

Disney Research's software plug-in enables users to add haptic effects to games, media
A library developed by Disney Research makes adding a haptic, or 'feel' effect to a video game, movie or virtual simulation simple enough that a novice can do it.

Insect-resistant maize could increase yields and decrease pesticide use in Mexico
According to an expert panel composed of Mexican researchers and crop advisers, the adoption of genetically-modified, insect-resistant maize could reduce the use of chemical insecticides by thousands of tons each year.

Infection-fighting B cells go with the flow
Newly formed B cells take the easy way out when it comes to exiting the bone marrow, according to researchers at Yale University School of Medicine.

Outcome of routine screening of patients with diabetes for CAD with CT angiography
Joseph B. Muhlestein, M.D., of the Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute, Murray, Utah, and colleagues examined whether screening patients with diabetes deemed to be at high cardiac risk with coronary computed tomographic angiography would result in a significant long-­term reduction in death, heart attack, or hospitalization for unstable angina.

Major brain pathway rediscovered after century-old confusion, controversy
Researchers recently rediscovered a mysterious major brain pathway that had long been absent from anatomy textbooks.

Cardiac stem cell therapy may heal heart damage caused by Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Researchers at the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute have found that injections of cardiac stem cells might help reverse heart damage caused by Duchenne muscular dystrophy, potentially resulting in a longer life expectancy for patients with the chronic muscle-wasting disease.
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