Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

December 15, 2014
Molecular 'hats' allow in vivo activation of disguised signaling peptides
When someone you know is wearing an unfamiliar hat, you might not recognize them.

A taxonomic toolkit ends a century of neglect for a genus of parasitic wasps
Entomologists from the University of Alberta have used a combination of morphometric and molecular techniques to describe the first new North American species of a particularly morphologically-challenging genus of parasitic wasps in over 100 years.

Back to future with Roman architectural concrete
A key discovery to understanding Roman architectural concrete that has stood the test of time and the elements for nearly two thousand years has been made by researchers using beams of X-rays at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source.

Research links soil mineral surfaces to key atmospheric processes
Research by Indiana University scientists finds that soil may be a significant and underappreciated source of nitrous acid, a chemical that plays a pivotal role in atmospheric processes such as the formation of smog and determining the lifetime of greenhouse gases.

Teen use of e-cigarettes growing; Hawaii use rates higher than in mainland
E-cigarette use among teenagers is growing in the US, and Hawaii teens take up e-cigarette use at higher rates than their mainland counterparts, a new study by University of Hawaii Cancer Center researchers has found.

Past global warming similar to today's
The rate at which carbon emissions warmed Earth's climate almost 56 million years ago resembles modern, human-caused global warming much more than previously believed, but involved two pulses of carbon to the atmosphere, University of Utah researchers and their colleagues found.

If cells can't move ... cancer can't grow
By blocking a widespread enzyme, Centenary researchers have shown they can slow down the movement of cells and potentially stop tumors from spreading and growing.

NASA's Fermi Mission brings deeper focus to thunderstorm gamma-rays
Each day, thunderstorms around the world produce about a thousand quick bursts of gamma rays, some of the highest-energy light naturally found on Earth.

Climate policy pledges are an important step forward but fall short of 2°C
Pledges to reduce emissions in China, Europe and the US provide an important step forward for climate change action, but a more comprehensive effort is needed to stabilize the climate below critical thresholds.

NASA's MAVEN mission identifies links in chain leading to atmospheric loss
Early discoveries by NASA's newest Mars orbiter are starting to reveal key features about the loss of the planet's atmosphere to space over time.

Seasoned policymakers drive the fairest bargain of all
Is an experienced policymaker a more rational and a more self-interested bargainer than the average person?

Long noncoding RNAs: A novel prognostic marker in older patients with acute leukemia
A new study shows that patterns of molecules called long noncoding RNAs might help doctors choose the least toxic, most effective treatment for many older patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Shame on us
Emotions are complicated and never more so than in the realm of the scientific, where commonly accepted definitions are lacking.

IU and Regenstrief GRACE study selected as landmark for advancing care of older adults
The seminal 2007 GRACE study from the Indiana University Center for Aging Research and the Regenstrief Institute has been identified as one of 27 studies conducted over the past quarter century that have helped shape the practice of geriatric medicine.

Simple steps can safeguard against Ebola transmission through organ donation
While serious infections can be transmitted from donated organs, the risk of passing Ebola virus disease from an organ donor to a recipient is extremely small.

Virtual bodyswapping diminishes people's negative biases about others
In a new Trends in Cognitive Sciences paper publishing Dec.

Linguistic methods uncover sophisticated meanings, monkey dialects
The same species of monkeys located in separate geographic regions use their alarm calls differently to warn of approaching predators, a linguistic analysis by a team of scientists reveals.

How blood parasites colonize and persist in small island bird populations
A new study highlights the complex factors at play for parasites that infect animal populations residing on small islands.

UTSW researchers identify a therapeutic strategy that may treat a childhood neurological disorder
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center researchers have identified a possible therapy to treat neurofibromatosis type 1, a childhood neurological disease characterized by learning deficits and autism.

E-cigarettes may recruit lower risk teens to nicotine use
A new study finds that one-third of Hawaiian adolescents have tried e-cigarettes, half of whom have never used another tobacco product.

Joslin discovery may hold clues to treatments that slow aging
In a study published today by Nature, researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center used a microscopic worm, C. elegans, to identify a new path that could lead to drugs to slow aging and the chronic diseases that often accompany it -- and might even lead to better cosmetics.

Major milestones for Carnegie-hosted Deep Carbon Observatory
Recent advances in our understanding of the quantities, movements, forms and origin of carbon in Earth are summarized in a just-published report.

Faces that distract from actions
The sudden appearance of a face within our visual field can affect the motor action accompanying a gesture even if the face is totally unrelated to what we are doing and even if we try to ignore it.

NASA catches Tropical Cyclone Bakung's remnants
Tropical Cyclone Bakung ran into adverse conditions in the Southern Indian Ocean that weakened it to a remnant low pressure system when NASA's Aqua satellite spotted it on Dec.

Less than half of parents think their 18-year-olds can make a doctors appointment
Many parents doubt their older teens are ready to manage their own health care, according to U-M's National Poll on Children's Health.

New colorectal cancer risk factor identified
Adiponectin, a collagen-like protein secreted by fat cells, derives from the ADIPOQ gene.

Nutrient-protecting 'peanut brittle' for cattle receives patent
A US patent has been issued for a Kansas State University-developed 'peanut brittle' that ensures cows and other livestock eating it get their vitamins.

A novel tool to study life-threatening arrhythmias: A genetically engineered pig
Researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center have developed the first large animal model of an inherited arrhythmic syndrome -- an advance that will lead to a better understanding of the biologic mechanisms important in normal heart conduction and rhythm.

Cake or carrots? Timing may decide what you'll nosh on
When you open the refrigerator for a late-night snack, are you more likely to grab a slice of chocolate cake or a bag of carrot sticks?

Dental plaque reveals key plant in prehistoric Easter Island diet
A University of Otago, New Zealand, Ph.D. student analyzing dental calculus from ancient teeth is helping resolve the question of what plant foods Easter Islanders relied on before European contact.

'Genome editing' could correct genetic mutations for future generations
Scientists at Indiana University and colleagues at Stanford and the University of Texas have demonstrated a technique for 'editing' the genome in sperm-producing adult stem cells, a result with powerful potential for basic research and for gene therapy.

Promising new method for rapidly screening cancer drugs
Traditional genomic, proteomic and other screening methods currently used to characterize drug mechanisms are time-consuming and require special equipment, but now researchers led by chemist Vincent Rotello at the University of Massachusetts Amherst offer a multi-channel sensor method using gold nanoparticles that can accurately profile various anti-cancer drugs and their mechanisms in minutes.

Most patients don't get counseling about sex after heart attack
Most patients don't receive counseling about resuming sexual activity after having a heart attack.

Urban stream contamination increasing rapidly due to road salt
Average chloride concentrations often exceed toxic levels in many northern United States streams due to the use of salt to deice winter pavement, and the frequency of these occurrences nearly doubled in two decades.

Stanford team combines logic, memory to build a 'high-rise' chip
Today circuit cards are like cities in which logic chips compute and memory chips store data.

Sheila E. Blumstein awarded Silver Medal in Speech Communication
Sheila E. Blumstein, Albert D. Mead Professor of Cognitive Linguistic and Psychological Sciences at Brown University, has been awarded the Silver Medal in Speech Communication by the Acoustical Society of America.

Too much, too little, just right
Scientists have long known the p53 protein suppresses tumors. However, a recent animal study by UC Davis researchers has uncovered a complicated relationship between p53 and another protein, Rbm38, highlighting how the body calibrates protein levels.

Mathematicians prove the Umbral Moonshine Conjecture
Monstrous moonshine, a quirky pattern of the monster group in theoretical math, has a shadow -- umbral moonshine.

Edmontosaurus regalis and the Danek Bonebed featured in special issue of CJES
An exciting new special issue of the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences shines the spotlight on the Danek Bonebed in Edmonton, Alberta and increases our knowledge of Edmonton's urban dinosaurs, especially the iconic hadrosaurid Edmontosaurus.

Feeling younger than actual age meant lower death rate for older people
Turns out, feeling younger than your actual age might be good for you.

Neuronal circuits filter out distractions in the brain
Scientists have hypothesized for decades about how the brain filters out distractions, but it has been challenging to find evidence to support the theories.

Dartmouth researchers create 'green' process to reduce molecular switching waste
Dartmouth researchers have found a solution using visible light to reduce waste produced in chemically activated molecular switches, opening the way for industrial applications of nanotechnology ranging from anti-cancer drug delivery to LCD displays and molecular motors.

Evidence of Viking/Norse metalworking in Arctic Canada
A small stone container found by archaeologists a half-century ago has now been recognized as further evidence of a Viking or Medieval Norse presence in Arctic Canada during the centuries around 1000 A.D.

COUNTDOWN research consortium calls 'time' on NTDs
The COUNTDOWN research consortium has been launched today following a £7 million grant allocation from the UK Department for International Development earlier in the year.

People with low numeracy feel negative about taking part in bowel cancer screening
People who have problems with numbers may be more likely to feel negative about bowel cancer screening.

Research: Two drugs before surgery help women with triple-negative breast cancer
A breast cancer specialist and clinical researcher at Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island presented research yesterday at the 2014 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium showing that adding either the chemotherapy drug carboplatin or the blood vessel-targeting drug bevacizumab to the standard treatment of chemotherapy before surgery helped women who have the basal-like subtype of triple-negative breast cancer.

PNNL talks climate, carbon, drinking water and the nexus of health and environment at AGU
Scientists from the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will present a variety of research at the 2014 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, which runs Monday, Dec.

Skipping meals increases children's obesity and cardiometabolic risk
Children who skip main meals are more likely to have excess body fat and an increased cardiometabolic risk already at the age of 6 to 8 years, according to a Finnish study.

Mason Inman and Karl Urban awarded EGU Science Journalism Fellowship
The European Geosciences Union has named journalists Mason Inman and Karl Urban as the winners of its 2015 Science Journalism Fellowship.

Aflibercept in diabetic macular oedema: Added benefit not proven
There were no relevant differences between the treatment groups for patients in whom the area of greatest visual acuity is also affected.

MD Anderson, UnitedHealthcare launch new cancer care payment model
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and UnitedHealthcare have launched a pilot to explore a new cancer care payment model for head and neck cancers that focuses on quality patient care and outcomes.

New research is a rare study of fake pot use among college students
UC researchers find that for the college population, curiosity is the main motivator behind synthetic THC use.

How to treat Ebola during pregnancy
A pregnant woman in Africa who has contracted Ebola is likely to suffer with a spontaneous abortion, pregnancy-related hemorrhage, or the death of her newborn.

Current practices in reporting on behavioral genetics can mislead the public
'Media reports about behavioral genetics unintentionally induce unfounded beliefs, therefore going against the educational purpose of scientific reporting,' writes the University of Montreal's Alexandre Morin-Chassé, following his study of 1,500 Americans.

Rekindling marriage after combat deployment
A new study offers strategies for rekindling marriage after a spouse returns home from combat with post-traumatic stress symptoms present in one or both of the spouses.

Signaling mechanism could be target for survival, growth of tumor cells in brain cancer
UT Southwestern Medical Center neurology researchers have identified an important cell signaling mechanism that plays an important role in brain cancer and may provide a new therapeutic target.

Climate change could leave cities more in the dark
Cities like Miami are all too familiar with hurricane-related power outages.

Seeing the forest for the trees
The largest trees in a forest may command the most attention, but the smallest seedlings and youngest saplings are the ones that are most critical to the composition and diversity of the forest overall.

Ancient wisdom boosts sustainability of biotech cotton
Combining computer modeling and field research on cotton pests, a UA-led study suggests that biotechnology and traditional agriculture can be compatible approaches toward sustainable agriculture.

Massive study provides first detailed look at how Greenland's ice is vanishing
Led by geophysicist Beata Csatho at the University at Buffalo, the research provides what the authors believe is the first comprehensive picture of how Greenland's ice is vanishing.It suggests that current ice sheet modeling studies are too simplistic to accurately predict the future contributions of the entire Greenland Ice Sheet to sea level rise, and that Greenland may lose ice more rapidly in the near future than previously thought.

To know the enemy
Recent collaborations between scientists in Okinawa and Australia are helping to spur genomic research of the Crown of Thorns starfish, a threat to coral reefs across the Indo-Pacific region.

Parkinson's patients identify balance and anxiety among top 10 research priorities
Patients with Parkinson's, medics and carers have identified the top ten priorities for research into the management of the condition.

Reshaping the horse through millennia
Whole genome sequencing of modern and ancient horses unveils the genes that have been selected by humans in the process of domestication through the last 5,500 years, but also reveals the cost of this domestication.

Stunning zinc fireworks when egg meets sperm
Sparks literally fly when a sperm and an egg hit it off.

Occasional heroin use may worsen HIV infection
Researchers at Yale and Boston University and their Russian collaborators have found that occasional heroin use by HIV-positive patients may be particularly harmful to the immune system and worsens HIV disease, compared to persistent or no heroin use.

Vulnerable young adults will have better access to mental health care
The University of Missouri School of Social Work, in partnership with the University of Missouri-St.

A 2-minute delay in cutting the umbilical cord leads to a better development of newborns
A study conducted by University of Granada scientists and from the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital has demonstrated that delaying the cutting of the umbilical cord in newborns by two minutes leads to a better development of the baby during the first days of life.

'Darwinian' test uncovers an antidepressant's hidden toxicity
The organismal performance assay detects subtle toxic effects by subjecting mice to a relentless, Darwinian competition for food, shelter and mates.

University of Nevada, Reno and Renown Health announce partnership for brain fMRI research
University of Nevada, Reno neuroscientists are working with Renown Health to bring new research capabilities to northern Nevada.

Affordable Care Act increases reliance on emergency rooms, WSU study finds
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act may have provided health care insurance to an estimated 20 million Americans who lacked coverage, but it has not eased the demand on the nation's emergency departments.

Even expectant dads experience prenatal hormone changes
Researchers recently completed one of the most extensive investigations to date of prenatal hormones in first-time expectant couples.

Günter Meyer receives 2014 Jere L. Bacharach Service Award
At its most recent congress in Washington, the Middle East Studies Association of North America presented the 2014 Jere L.

Squid supplies blueprint for printable thermoplastics
Squid, what is it good for? You can eat it and you can make ink or dye from it, and now a Penn State team of researchers is using it to make a thermoplastic that can be used in 3-D printing.

Chapman University research on farmers' markets shows presence of Salmonella and E. coli
Researchers in Chapman University's Food Science Program and their collaborators at University of Washington have just published a study on the presence of Salmonella and E. coli on certain herbs sold at farmers' markets.

Attitudes to climate change depend on people's sense of belonging to the planet
New research led by the University of Exeter has found that people who have a stronger sense of place at the global than the national level are more likely to accept that climate change is caused by human activities.

Scientists' unique system of oral vaccine delivery to address global health threats
Scientists at The Forsyth Institute and Tufts University have succeeded in describing and validating a unique system of oral vaccine delivery using a common bacteria found in the mouth.

Female sexual arousal: Facilitating pleasure and reproduction
Despite numerous studies, publications, and commentaries on human female sexual arousal and orgasm, there is still so much to study and understand about women's sexual pleasure.

UTMB study finds that Hispanic women less likely to survive endometrial uterine cancer
In the largest study to date evaluating outcomes of Hispanic women with endometrial uterine cancer, researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have found that Hispanic women in the United States were significantly less likely to survive the cancer than non-Hispanic white women.

Women's age at first menstrual cycle linked to heart disease risk
The risk of heart disease, stroke and high blood pressure was significantly higher when menstruation began at age 10 or younger, or age 17 or older.

Microbial 'signature' for sexual crimes
In the first study of hair microbiota for forensics, published in the open access journal Investigative Genetics, researchers found in their preliminary results that pubic hairs in particular show the most potential for forensic investigations, with an ability to distinguish between males, females and individual people, based on the bacteria present.

Proteins drive cancer cells to change states
A new study from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology implicates a family of RNA-binding proteins in the regulation of cancer, particularly in a subtype of breast cancer.

UTMB's Sealy Center on Aging re-designated WHO/PAHO Collaborating Center
The world experts on aging research at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have again received an international designation acknowledging their special niche in an area that grows more complex every day as the elderly population explodes worldwide.

Patients don't understand risks of unnecessary antibiotics, GW study shows
A recent study conducted by David Broniatowski, professor at the George Washington University, indicates communication material is not effective in educating patients on proper antibiotic use.

Christmas cracker pulling: How to send everyone home a winner
According to experts' statistical analyses, if you're expecting 10 guests for dinner on Christmas day, 15 crackers -- those festive cardboard tubes filled with a one-size-fits-no-one paper hat, a small toy, and a groan-inducing joke -- should be enough to send everyone home happy.

Paul Daniel Dapkus wins 2015 John Tyndall Award
The Optical Society and the IEEE Photonics Society announced that Paul Daniel Dapkus, W.

Control on shape of light particles opens the way to 'quantum internet'
In the same way as we now connect computers in networks through optical signals, it could also be possible to connect future quantum computers in a 'quantum internet'.

Team led by Louisiana Tech University biomed professor receives NSF funding
National Science Foundation funding to develop and commercialize artificially manufactured cells and cell platforms for educational, research and industry application has been awarded to a team of scientists led by Dr.

'Radiogenetics' seeks to remotely control cells and genes
A team at Rockefeller University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute is developing a system that would make it possible to switch biological targets on and off in living animals -- rapidly, without wires, implants or drugs.

Do you speak cow? Researchers listen in on 'conversations' between cattle
Researchers have been eavesdropping on 'conversations' between calves and their mothers -- measuring the process of how cows communicate using detailed acoustic analysis for the first time.

Potential new tool for cervical cancer detection and diagnosis
A team of researchers from Central South University in China have demonstrated that a technique known as photoacoustic imaging, which is already under investigation for detecting skin or breast cancers and for monitoring therapy, also has the potential to be a new, faster, cheaper and noninvasive method to detect, diagnose and stage cervical cancer with high accuracy.

Herceptin found to improve long-term survival of HER2-positive breast cancer patients
VCU Massey Cancer Center physician-researcher Charles E. Geyer, Jr., M.D., was the National Protocol Officer for one component of a large national study involving two National Cancer Institute-supported clinical trials that demonstrated that trastuzumab significantly improves the long-term survival of HER-2 positive breast cancer patients.

Neurons listen to glia cells
Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz have discovered a new signal pathway in the brain that plays an important role in learning and the processing of sensory input.

Home umpires favor their own teams in test matches
The introduction of neutral umpires in test cricket led to a drop in the number of LBW decisions going in favor of home teams, a study has revealed.

Lead islands in a sea of graphene magnetize the material of the future
Researchers in Spain have discovered that if lead atoms are intercalated on a graphene sheet, a powerful magnetic field is generated by the interaction of the electrons' spin with their orbital movement.

New algorithm a Christmas gift to 3-D printing -- and the environment
Simon Fraser University computing science professor Richard Zhang reveals how to print a 3-D Christmas tree efficiently and with zero material waste, using the world's first algorithm for automatically decomposing a 3-D object into what are called pyramidal parts.

Microbial-induced pathway promotes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
A new study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation provides a link between molecular signaling pathways in the gut, the intestinal microbiome, and development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

The Deep Carbon Observatory: Quantities, movements, forms and origins of Earth's carbon
The carbon in the atmosphere, ocean, surface life, and other shallow, near surface reservoirs accounts for only about 10 percent of Earth's carbon.

Adolescent childbearing in Iraq rose due to earlier marriages among less-educated women
A new study has shown that soon after the beginning of the eight-year Iraq War, adolescent fertility in Iraq rose by more than 30 percent, reaching over 95 births per 1,000 girls in 2010.

LSA Annual Meeting brings world's leading linguists to Portland
Research presentations on 'creaky voice' and cronuts, a film showing on The Race To Save Cherokee, and a Wikipedia 'edit-a-thon' are among the highlights of the upcoming Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, to be held in Portland, Ore., from Jan.

CCNY psychologist links burnout and depression
Research by City College of New York psychology Professor Irvin Schonfeld in the Colin Powell School for Civic and Global Leadership suggests a strong connection between burnout and depression.

Scientists observe the Earth grow a new layer under an Icelandic volcano
New research into an Icelandic eruption has shed light on how the Earth's crust forms, according to a paper published today in Nature.

New floor covering can lead to breathing problems in babies
New flooring in the living environment of pregnant women significantly increases the risk of infants to suffer from respiratory diseases in their first year of life.

Non-gluten proteins identified as targets of immune response to wheat in celiac disease
Researchers at Columbia University Medical Center have found that, in addition to gluten, the immune systems of patients with celiac disease react to specific types of non-gluten protein in wheat.

Review highlights ways to prevent and manage jaw bone disease
A review of more than a decade's worth of research on osteonecrosis of the jaw -- when the bone in the jaw is exposed and begins to starve from a lack of blood -- points to an increased risk for patients taking certain drugs for osteoporosis, anticancer drugs or glucocorticoids, those undergoing dental surgery, and people with poor oral hygiene, chronic inflammation, diabetes, or ill-fitting dentures.

News from Dec. 16, 2014 Annals of Internal Medicine
This issue of Annals of Internal Medicine includes: 'Earlier detection could close the race gap on colon cancer deaths'; 'Emphysema on CT an important independent risk factor for death'; and 'Patient feelings about consent for use of personal medical data: It's complicated.'

Migrating 'supraglacial' lakes could trigger future Greenland ice loss
Predictions of Greenland ice loss and its impact on rising sea levels may have been greatly underestimated, according to scientists at the University of Leeds.

New study reveals Montmorency tart cherry juice accelerated recovery after intense cycling
Cyclists who are preparing for race day may have a new sports drink to give them an edge in recovery: tart cherry juice.

Hidden movements of Greenland Ice Sheet, runoff revealed
For years NASA has tracked changes in the massive Greenland Ice Sheet.

Do carrots actually help you see better? (video)
It's something your mother told you time and time again at the dinner table: 'Eat your carrots, they'll help you see better!' So was she right?

Live images from inside materials
X-rays are a tried and tested way to investigate components and materials.

Fraud-proof credit cards possible with quantum physics
Though corporations and individuals work to improve safeguards, it has become increasingly difficult to protect financial data and personal information from criminal activity.

Outreach program gets cessation help to smokers of low socioeconomic status
A strategy that relied on electronic health records to identify smokers and interactive voice-response telephone calls to reach them may help promote tobacco cessation efforts among smokers of low-socioeconomic status, according to a report published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.

Receptor may be key to treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Inhibiting a nuclear receptor in the gut could lead to a treatment for a liver disorder that affects almost 30 percent of the Western world's adult population, according to an international team of researchers.

Hazy road to Mecca
Dangerously high levels of air pollutants are being released in Mecca during the hajj, the annual holy pilgrimage in which millions of Muslims on foot and in vehicles converge on the Saudi Arabian city, according to findings reported today at the American Geophysical Union meeting in San Francisco.

Do crows have an impact on the population of their prey?
They steal, raid nests, and keep the company of witches, but the unpopular crow may not be as big a menace as people think.

Research finds copyright confusion has 'chilling effects' in online creative publishing
A Georgia Tech study notes that copyright law is navigated on a daily basis by Internet users, and that for amateur creative types publishing on the Web's largest creative venues, they often don't trust the websites to safeguard their art.

Intravenous vs. oral antibiotics for serious bone infections in children
Children with osteomyelitis -- a serious bacterial bone infection -- who were discharged from the hospital to complete several weeks of outpatient antibiotic therapy with an oral medication did not have a higher rate of treatment failure than children who received their antibiotic therapy intravenously, according to a study published online by JAMA Pediatrics.

Injuries from indoor tanning include burns, passing out, eye injuries
Skin burns, passing out and eye injuries were among the primary injuries incurred at indoor tanning sites and treated in emergency departments at US hospitals, according to a research letter published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.

Researchers generate tunable photon-pair spectrum using room-temperature quantum optics silicon chip
A team of researchers from the University of California, San Diego have demonstrated a way to emit and control quantum light generated using a chip made from silicon -- one of the most widely used materials for modern electronics.

Switching to vehicles powered by electricity from renewables could save lives
Driving vehicles that use electricity from renewable energy instead of gasoline could reduce the resulting deaths due to air pollution by 70 percent.

Tobacco cessation outreach to disadvantaged smokers
Although tobacco use in the United States has declined, substantial socioeconomic, racial and ethnic disparities in smoking prevalence remain, particularly among smokers of low socioeconomic status, who have more difficulty quitting.

Mobility disabilities can contribute to complications during pregnancy
A new study indicates that women with mobility disabilities often experience problems during pregnancy related to their functional impairments.

Study: Novel agent decreases neuropathic pain in patients with type 2 diabetes
A promising profile of disease modification and pain reduction leads to proof-of-concept trials.

The flying inventory assistant
Standing on top of a ladder several meters high, pad and pen in hand, just to count boxes?

Disney Research builds computer models to analyze play in pro basketball and soccer
With the ball at the three-point line near the top of the key, what will Tim Duncan of the NBA's San Antonio Spurs do?

Mobile radio passive radar makes harbors safer
Many coastal areas and harbors go almost unprotected against acts of terror.

Yoga has the potential to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular disease
Following a systematic review of 37 randomized controlled trials, investigators from the Netherlands and USA have found that yoga may provide the same benefits in risk factor reduction as such traditional physical activities as biking or brisk walking.

Images in Roman mosaics meant to dispel the envious
Driving away bad luck, the evil eye and, in short, envious people -- this was one of the purposes of mosaics in Ancient Rome, according to research coordinated by Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, which analyzed rituals and magic practices in these artistic representations.

Algorithm identifies networks of genetic changes across cancers
Using a computer algorithm that can sift through mounds of genetic data, researchers from Brown University have identified several networks of genes that, when hit by a mutation, could play a role in the development of multiple types of cancer.

War metaphors for cancer hurt certain prevention behaviors
It's not unusual for people to use war metaphors such as 'fight' and 'battle' when trying to motivate patients with cancer.

US manufacturing initiative receives Congressional approval
The Optical Society applauds the inclusion of H.R. 2996, the bipartisan Revitalize American Manufacturing and Innovation Act (RAMI), in the $1.1 trillion FY2015 Omnibus Appropriations bill, which passed the House on Dec.

Far from powerless: Ant larvae cannibalize eggs, are influenced by relatedness and sex
By exploring the evolutionary causes and consequences of selfish larvae behavior, a study published in The American Naturalist sheds new light on the evolutionary constraints of competition in social insect colonies, and demonstrates how in complex societies, even the youngest individuals are potential players in social conflict.

Targeting inflammatory pathway reduces Alzheimer's disease in mice
A new study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation indicates that activation of the receptor for the chemokine CXCL10 contributes to AD pathology in a murine model.

Show us how you play and it may tell us who you are
The way in which toys are handled and combined with one another during object play can tell use a lot about the cognitive underpinnings of the actors.

How trap-flowers attract and deceive pollinating food thieves
Researchers have discovered a new pollination system that involves food-thieving flies as pollinators.

Making sense through order
Cognitive scientists at the University of Rochester say they have an alternative to the standard explanation for why order matters when the human mind processes information.
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