Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

April 15, 2015
Elsevier to publish the official journal of the Society for Investigative Dermatology
Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services and the Society for Investigative Dermatology have announced that they have entered into a publishing agreement.

UC researcher receives grant of almost $1.6 million to study rare lung disease
A team of University of Cincinnati researchers will use a grant of almost $1.6 million from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health to study the rare lung disease pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

Quantum cryptography at the speed of light: Researchers design first all-photonic repeaters
New research from a team of University of Toronto engineers brings perfectly secure information exchanges one step to reality.

Optimal substrate moisture content determined for high-quality bedding plants
Scientists determined if irrigation at lower, constant substrate moisture content during greenhouse production could acclimate plants for reduced shrinkage during shelf life while conserving irrigation water.

Symposium: Inspiring ideas for happier communities
On April 21, the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research presents a symposium on measuring and improving upon quality of life.

CSP and UofT Libraries' TSpace join forces to simplify OA compliance for authors
Today marks the launch of a new service available to authors who are publishing their work in CSP's NRC Research Press journals.

Brain development suffers from lack of fish oil fatty acids, UCI study finds
While recent reports question whether fish oil supplements support heart health, UC Irvine scientists have found that the fatty acids they contain are vitally important to the developing brain.

Scientists develop mesh that captures oil -- but lets water through
A stainless steel mesh with a high-tech coating captures oil, but water passes right through.

Canada, India fund 5 innovations to improve health in India, with focus on mothers and children
Canada and India today announced investments of CDN $2.5 million in five innovations in India aimed primarily at improving maternal, newborn and child health -- Canada's flagship development priority.

Are populations aging more slowly than we think?
Faster increases in life expectancy reflect a process in which people become healthier, generally more capable, and indeed younger in many ways even if they have lived longer lives, according to population experts at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

A beggars banquet -- life in a shared nest
It's not all bad for crow chicks who have to share their nest with an uninvited guest such as a cuckoo youngster.

Wind bursts strongly affect El Niño severity
A new study published online April 13 in Nature Geoscience finds that prolonged wind bursts originating in the western Pacific can have a strong effect on whether an El Niño event will occur and how severe it is likely to be.

What is more rewarding: A soccer goal or prize money?
Two players on a team are in front of the opponent's goal with the attacking player having to make an important decision: Is it better to pass the ball to the teammate or to take the shot yourself?

Depression, diabetes associated with increased dementia risk
Depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus were each associated with an increased risk for dementia and that risk was even greater among individuals diagnosed with both depression and diabetes compared with people who had neither condition, according to an article published online by JAMA Psychiatry.

VTT develops a method for printing WORM memories
VTT has developed a method for printing memory circuits directly, e.g. onto consumer packaging.

Anti-fungal drug shows promise as potential new cancer treatment
A common anti-fungal treatment has joined the ranks of drugs that may be suitable for use in treating cancer, according to research from the Repurposing Drugs in Oncology project published in ecancermedicalscience.

What drives American competitiveness? Public lecture at the National Press Club and online
With productivity slowing and wages stagnant, what can we make of American competiveness?

Restoring cellular energy signals may treat mitochondrial diseases in humans
Mitochondrial disorders, rooted in malfunctions within tiny cellular power plants, are notoriously complex, with few effective treatments.

Gene in high-altitude cattle disease sheds light on human lung disease
Vanderbilt University researchers have found a genetic mutation that causes pulmonary hypertension in cattle grazed at high altitude, and which leads to a life-threatening condition called brisket disease.

New '4-D' lung cancer model could quicken discoveries
Researchers at Houston Methodist have invented a new, ex vivo lung cancer model that mimics the process of tumor progression.

How Twitter can help predict emergency room visits
Researchers analyzed asthma-related tweets, along with data from air quality sensors, to successfully predict how many asthma sufferers would visit the emergency room on a given day.

Infants born prematurely: 2 studies identify routes to better outcomes
Two new longitudinal studies that appear in the journal Child Development have identified routes to better outcomes for infants born prematurely.

W. James Lewis receives 2015 Impact Award
W. James 'Jim' Lewis has received the 2015 AMS Award for Impact on the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics for his career-long advocacy of the idea that mathematics research and education go hand in hand.

Complex cognition shaped the Stone Age hand axe, study shows
The ability to make a Lower Paleolithic hand axe depends on complex cognitive control by the prefrontal cortex, including the 'central executive' function of working memory, a new study finds.

Fighting tuberculosis using the body's natural anti-microbial processes
A new approach to combatting tuberculosis would take advantage of a complex, natural process called autophagy that the human body uses to recycle nutrients, remove damaged cell components, eliminate invading bacteria, and respond to inflammation.

Unnecessary preoperative testing still done on cataract patients
Although routine preoperative testing is not indicated for patients undergoing cataract surgery, researchers at UC San Francisco have found that it is still a common occurrence and is driven primarily by provider practice patterns rather than patient characteristics.

New evidence adds the Capitanian extinction to the list of major extinction crises
Since the Cambrian Explosion, ecosystems have suffered repeated mass extinctions, with the 'Big 5' crises being the most prominent.

Yale launches national study of personalized medicine for metastatic melanoma
Yale University has launched a multicenter clinical trial, sponsored by Stand Up to Cancer and Melanoma Research Alliance, that will apply the latest in personalized medicine technology to treat metastatic melanoma.

High flavoring content in some e-cigarettes may be cause for concern
The levels of chemicals used to flavor some brands of e-cigarette fluid exceed recommended exposure limits and could be respiratory irritants, in some cases, suggests research published online in the journal Tobacco Control.

Scientists develop new technique that reduces halo effect caused by lenses
In a recent study published in Optics Communications, scientists from Bar-Ilan University in Israel have presented a new technique that significantly reduces the halo effect that is generated when using multifocal -- contact and intra-ocular -- lenses and looking at bright point sources in dark conditions.

Perceptions of environmental damage improves over time, despite lack of real change
Hua Qin, an assistant professor of rural sociology and sustainable development at MU, found that human perception of the beetle kill problem in the Kenai Peninsula has improved over time, despite little improvement in the environmental conditions.

Actual dating requires calibration down to the last ion
Thermoluminescence is used in archaeology and the earth sciences to date artefacts and rocks.

Man with restored sight provides new insight into how vision develops
Fifteen years after California man Mike May underwent a pioneering stem cell procedure that restored his sight, researchers look at whether he has regained functional vision.

GW Cancer Institute publishes core competencies for oncology patient navigators
The George Washington University Cancer Institute has finalized 45 core competency statements for oncology patient navigators, published in the Journal of Oncology Navigation and Survivorship.

Study reveals an absence of consistent standards in children's hospital environments
The sound, light and temperature levels in pediatric hospital wards often vary, highlighting the lack of consistent environmental standards, according to a new study.

ASU team unlocks clues in unidentified human remains
Armed with a high-tech, chemistry-driven approach, ASU researchers will study how different isotopes in the human body behave during decomposition in different environments.

BPA exposure affects fertility in next 3 generations of mice
When scientists exposed pregnant mice to levels of bisphenol A equivalent to those considered safe in humans, three generations of female mouse offspring experienced significant reproductive problems, including declines in fertility, sexual maturity and pregnancy success.

Early use of palliative care in cancer improves patients' lives, outcomes for caregivers
A new randomized clinical trial with Dartmouth investigators has noted significant improvement in several measures among those who began palliative care early.

Disruption of sleep in children could hamper memory processes
Sleep-disordered breathing can hamper memory processes in children, according to a new study.

Tumor-only genetic sequencing may misguide cancer treatment in nearly half of all patients
A study by Johns Hopkins scientists strongly suggests that sequencing tumor genomes for clues to genetic changes might misdirect treatment in nearly half of all patients unless it is compared first to a genetic readout of their noncancerous tissue.

Dwindling bird populations in Fukushima
This is the time of year when birds come out and really spread their wings, but since a disastrous day just before spring's arrival four years ago, Japan's Fukushima province has not been friendly to the feathered.

Protein finding can pave the way for improved treatment of malignant melanoma
Researchers from Aarhus University have for the first time linked a new protein with malignant melanomas.

Thinking positively: A new way to deliver medicine into cells
Just as a scientist dressed in a lab coat and goggles might get stuck behind the velvet rope at a trendy bar, many otherwise good drugs can't get inside cells if they don't look the part.

Knuckle-cracking observed using MRI
A cavity forming rapidly inside our finger joints may cause the popping sound heard when cracking knuckles.

Many teens try e-cigarettes, but few become regular users
E-cigarettes are popular with teens, including those who have never smoked, but few of those who try them become regular users, with most of those who do so also being smokers, finds research by Cardiff University.

New blood test can predict future breast cancer
By analyzing a simple blood sample, scientists from the University of Copenhagen have succeeded in predicting if a woman will get breast cancer within two to five years.

NIH launches largest clinical trial focused on HIV-related cardiovascular disease
Researchers have begun enrolling participants in a multicenter international clinical trial to test whether a statin can reduce the risk of heart disease in people with HIV infection, who are up to twice as likely as people without HIV infection to have heart disease.

Cobalt film a clean-fuel find
A Rice University lab produces a thin-film catalyst for both hydrogen and oxygen generation.

Children with disabilities can make competent witnesses
It's estimated that one in three children with disabilities experiences some form of maltreatment.

Frog uses different strategies to escape ground, air predators
Frogs may flee from a ground predator and move towards an aerial predator, undercutting the flight path.

New genomic research amends earlier triple negative breast cancer finding
Weill Cornell Medical College investigators tried to validate a previously reported molecular finding on triple negative breast cancer that many hoped would lead to targeted treatments for the aggressive disease.

New Notre Dame book offers strategies for engaging millennials for ethical leadership
In 'Engaging Millennials for Ethical Leadership: What Works for Young Professionals and Their Managers,' Notre Dame's Jessica McManus addresses many of the stereotypes about millennials and offers strategies for optimizing their performance in the workplace.

One-third of women with ADHD report being sexually abused during childhood
Adults who have ADHD are much more likely to report they were sexually and physically abused before they turned 16 than their peers without ADHD, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Toronto.

NIST develops NMR 'fingerprinting' for monoclonal antibodies
NIST researchers have demonstrated the most precise method yet to measure the structural configuration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), an important factor in determining the safety and efficacy of these biomolecules as medicines.

Young offenders in Victorian times were much less likely to re-offend than today
Young offenders in late Victorian times were much less likely to go on to commit other crimes after serving a sentence in an institution than their counterparts today, new research shows.

Patents forecast technological change
Engineers at MIT have devised a formula for estimating how fast a technology is advancing, based on information gleaned from relevant patents.

Transatlantic dialogue on democracy and justice in education
Educational researchers from Germany and the USA will exchange ideas in a seminar held in Chicago.

ASTRO praises bipartisan Congress and President for passage of legislation to permanently fix SGR
The American Society for Radiation Oncology applauds the House of Representatives, the Senate and the President for milestone passage last night of the 'Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act' (H.R.

Many teens try e-cigs, but few become regular users
E-cigarettes are popular with teens, including those who have never smoked, but few of those who try them become regular users, while most of those who do so are also smokers, finds research published in the online journal BMJ Open.

Light in a spin
Researchers at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg have demonstrated that laser light traveling along a helical path through space, can accelerate and decelerate as it spins into the distance.

Study: Most partisans treat politics like sports rivalries, instead of focusing on issues
The researchers analyzed the attitudes of voters nationwide in survey data from the 2010 Cooperative Congressional Election Study.

Wildfires emit more greenhouse gases than assumed in California climate targets
A new study led by the National Park Service and UC Berkeley quantifies the amount of carbon stored and released through California forests and wildlands.

OLCF selects application readiness projects to prepare for Summit supercomputer
Summit, a high-performance computing system set to be delivered to Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2017 and available to researchers in 2018, will support DOE's Office of Science in its broad science and energy mission.

Researchers can trace dust samples using fungal DNA
Researchers have developed a statistical model that allows them to tell where a dust sample came from within the continental United States based on the DNA of fungi found in the sample.

Does home care serve men and women equally?
A new study published in Women's Health Issues explores whether there are differences in outcomes between men and women receiving home care.

Botox makes unnerving journey into our nervous system
Researchers at the University of Queensland have shown how Botox -- also known as Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A -- is transported via our nerves back to the central nervous system.

A camera that powers itself!
A team led by Shree K. Nayar, computer science professor at Columbia Engineering, has invented a prototype video camera that is the first to be fully self-powered -- it can produce an image each second, indefinitely, of a well-lit indoor scene.

Packing heat: New fluid makes untapped geothermal energy cleaner
More American homes could be powered by the Earth's natural underground heat with a nontoxic fluid that could cut in half the amount of water needed for a new power generation method called enhanced geothermal systems.

Heavy snoring, sleep apnea may signal earlier memory and thinking decline
Heavy snoring and sleep apnea may be linked to memory and thinking decline at an earlier age, according to a new study published in the April 15, 2015, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

Father (and mother) knows best
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can develop symptoms before two years of age and usually can be diagnosed by three years of age; early identification of ASD is associated with improved long-term developmental outcomes.

Big data key to precision medicine's success
Technological advances are enabling scientists to sequence the genomes of cancer tumors, revealing a detailed portrait of genetic mutations that drive these diseases.

Cathleen Crudden receives 2015 Killam Research Fellowship
Professor Cathleen Crudden of Queen's University and ITbM, Nagoya University has been selected as one of the recipients of the 2015 Killam Research Fellowship.

Should a political party form a coalition? Voters and math decide
In a paper published in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, author Fabio Bagarello proposes mathematical models to analyze political decision-making.

Mentally stepping back from problems helps youth deal with negative emotions
A study of adolescents has found that youth who are able to mentally take a step back from their point of view become less upset than peers who reflect on a negative situation from a self-immersed perspective.

New synthetic technology for medicines and fine chemicals
A University of Tokyo research group has synthesized the medicine (R)- and (S)-rolipram in high yield with high selectivity by an innovative flow technology instead of the traditional batch method used in production of 99 percent of medicines.

Scientists uncover how molecule protects brain cells in Parkinson's disease model
Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have found how a widely known but little-studied enzyme protects brain cells in models of Parkinson's disease.

Leading scientists and policymakers to discuss California drought research and response
What's really causing California's epic drought? Is it linked to climate change or not?

BPA can disrupt sexual function in turtles, could be a warning for environmental health
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in food storage products and resins that line plastic beverage containers.

Racial disparity in cancer mortality is narrowing, suggests new study
Cancer mortality remains significantly elevated among African-Americans. Between 2000 and 2010, overall mortality from cancer decreased faster among African-American women and men than among Caucasians.

UH Seidman Cancer Center performs first-ever prostate cancer treatment
The radiation oncology team at UH Seidman Cancer Center in Cleveland performed the first-ever prostate cancer treatment April 3 using a newly-approved device -- SpaceOAR which enhances the efficacy of radiation treatment by protecting organs surrounding the prostate.

MIT sensor detects spoiled meat
MIT chemists have devised an inexpensive, portable sensor that can detect gases emitted by rotting meat, allowing consumers to determine whether the meat in their grocery store or refrigerator is safe to eat.

Longest mammal migration raises questions about distinct species
A team of scientists from the United States and Russia has documented the longest migration of a mammal ever recorded -- a round-trip trek of nearly 14,000 miles by a whale identified as a critically endangered species that raises questions about its status as a distinct species.

Active aging on the up in EU, despite economic crisis and austerity
A healthy and active old age is a reality for many Europeans and is a genuine possibility for many more, despite the 2008 economic crash and years of austerity measures, according to a new United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and European Commission report, produced at the University of Southampton.

Video games can power up from merely fun to meaningful experiences
It may be game over for critics who claim that video games are nothing more than a fun diversion.

Study will parse evolutionary shift between life in water and on land
University of Kansas researcher Andrew Short will analyze South American water scavenger beetles' transition between aquatic and terrestrial living -- and in the process learn more about the mechanics of evolution itself.

Human health in the face of climate change: Science, medicine, and adaptation
The conference is being convened in light of new research, which seeks to provide a deeper understanding of the health consequences of climate change on humans -- including better quantification of these effects -- to improve health preparedness and protect vulnerable populations.

New UT Arlington technology could create more efficient energy, solve power shortages
A team of UT Arlington researchers has created a new power generator that can produce electricity up to 25 percent more efficiently than existing technology, reduce emissions and could alleviate power shortages in more remote areas of the globe.

Immunology: Macrophages as T-cell primers
New work by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet in Munich researchers demonstrates that macrophages can effectively substitute for so-called dendritic cells as primers of T-cell-dependent immune responses.

Smallpox vaccine virus helps UNL scientist understand immunity
Understanding a virus that helped wipe out smallpox in the last century could lead to better treatment of some viral diseases such as HIV and herpes.

Shape-shifting molecule tricks viruses into mutating themselves to death
A newly developed spectroscopy method is helping to clarify the poorly understood molecular process by which an anti-HIV drug induces lethal mutations in the virus's genetic material.

Teachers more likely to label black students as troublemakers
Teachers are likely to interpret students' misbehavior differently depending on the student's race, according to new research findings published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

Diversity in a monoculture
Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, demonstrated in field experiments with Nicotiana attenuata plants that it is sufficient to alter the expression of certain defense genes in individual plants to protect the whole population and to alter the diversity of the ecosystem as a whole.

Building healthier communities should be a priority when preparing for and recovering from disasters
US communities and federal agencies should more intentionally seek to create healthier communities during disaster preparation and recovery efforts -- something that rarely happens now, says a new report from the Institute of Medicine.

Iceberg armadas not the cause of North Atlantic cooling
Armadas of icebergs were probably not the cause of abrupt episodes of cooling in the North Atlantic over the past 440,000 years, according to new research published today in Nature.

High rate of healthcare visits before suicide attempts
Most people who attempt suicide make some type of healthcare visit in the weeks or months before the attempt, reports a study in the May issue of Medical Care, published by Wolters Kluwer.

Personal genome diagnostics study shows limitations of tumor-only sequencing for cancer
An 815-patient study from Personal Genome Diagnostics and Johns Hopkins shows that almost half of the genetic alterations identified using tumor-only sequencing are not actually associated with the patient's cancer, but instead are 'false positives' reflecting inherited mutations found in normal cells.

Iowa State anthropologist finds female chimps more likely to use tools when hunting
Iowa State University anthropology professor Jill Pruetz and her research team were the first to observe savanna chimps using tools to hunt prey.

Children who understand others' perspectives found to be more popular among peers
A meta-analysis of 20 studies, that includes 2,096 children from two to 10 years old in Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America has found that children who are good at identifying what others want, think, and feel are more popular in school than their peers who aren't as socially adept.

'Pull my finger!' say scientists who solve knuckle-cracking riddle
University of Alberta research team uses MRI video to observe for the first time what happens inside joints when they crack.

Oxycodone overdose deaths drop 25 percent after launch of Prescgram
Oxycodone-related deaths dropped 25 percent after Florida implemented its Prescription Drug Monitoring Program in late 2011 as part of its response to the state's prescription drug abuse epidemic, according to a team of UF Health researchers.

Select groundcover management systems found viable for organically managed apple orchard
A long-term study evaluated four groundcover management systems in combination with composted poultry litter, commercial organic fertilizer, or a nonfertilized control to determine ability to alter near-surface soil quality in a new organically managed apple orchard in the Ozark Highlands of northwest Arkansas.

How oxytocin makes a mom: Hormone teaches maternal brain to respond to offspring's needs
Neuroscientists at NYU Langone Medical Center have discovered how the powerful brain hormone oxytocin acts on individual brain cells to prompt specific social behaviors -- findings that could lead to a better understanding of how oxytocin and other hormones could be used to treat behavioral problems resulting from disease or trauma to the brain.

Correlation between firearm-related hospitalizations and US stock market performance: New study
Over 2001-2011, the national incidence of firearm-related hospitalizations has closely tracked the national stock market performance, suggesting that economic perturbations and resultant insecurities might underlie the perpetuation of firearm-related injuries, according to a new study published in the American Journal of Medicine.

Potential for prediction of progression for early form of breast cancer
Scientists in Manchester have identified a way to potentially predict which patients with an early form of breast cancer will experience disease progression.

New method increases accuracy of ovarian cancer prognosis and diagnosis
University of Utah scientists have uncovered patterns of DNA anomalies that predict a woman's outcome significantly better than tumor stage.

Paternal sperm may hold clues to autism
In a small study, Johns Hopkins researchers found that DNA from the sperm of men whose children had early signs of autism shows distinct patterns of regulatory tags that could contribute to the condition.

Brunel tackles 'boring science' with grant for women engineers to teach robot lessons at school
Female students at Brunel University London will teach schoolchildren to program robots in a new bid to balance the gender divide in STEM subjects.

How limiting CEO pay can be more effective, less costly
If regulators limit executive pay, boards and CEO gain more collaborative relationships that can lead to more effective, less costly incentives.

Millions of liters of juice from 1 grapefruit
New method allows production of expensive grapefruit aroma Nootkatone biotechnologically from cheap sugar using a 'turbo-yeast.' The versatile, healthy and tasty substance is used in soft drinks, pharmaceutical products or even as an insect repellent.

Discovery of new plant switch could boost crops, biofuel production
A team of Michigan State University researchers has discovered a switch that regulates plant photosynthesis -- the process that lets plants store solar energy and use it to grow and produce food.

Ovarian cancer: Genetic testing should be accessible to all women with the disease
Recent media attention has focused on American actress Angelina Jolie's decision to have her ovaries and fallopian tubes surgically removed after genetic testing for such cancers.

Combined effort for structural determination
Combining powder diffraction data with electron crystallography can give us a clearer view of modulated structures.

Inside health-reform savings
In the first year of Medicare's Pioneer Accountable Care Organization program, the 32 participating provider organizations achieved a 1.2 percent savings while maintaining or improving performance on measures of quality of care.

Homeland chemical security
The slow implementation of the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards in the USA as part of homeland security and anti-terrorism measures is leaving chemical plants vulnerable and putting at risk the safety of American citizens, according to research published in the International Journal of Critical Infrastructures.
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