Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

April 28, 2015
Keeping food visible throughout the house is linked to obesity
Researchers have identified two seemingly unrelated but strong predictors of obesity: having low self-esteem related to one's weight and keeping food visibly available around the house, outside the kitchen.

Not much size difference between male and female Australopithecines
Lucy and other members of the early hominid species Australopithecus afarensis probably were similar to humans in the size difference between males and females, according to researchers from Penn State and Kent State University.

ONR: Helping to train the future canine force
The Office of Naval Research's (ONR) Expeditionary Canine Sciences program is taking a fresh look at how dogs are trained to identify different explosive devices -- and their roles in future conflicts.

Electron chirp: Cyclotron radiation from single electrons measured directly for first time
A group of almost 30 scientists and engineers from six research institutions reported the direct detection of cyclotron radiation from individual electrons April 20 in Physical Review Letters.

Silicon: An important element in rice production
Recent research showed that, although long neglected by ecologists, silicon is in fact beneficial for the growth of many plants, including major crops such as rice, wheat and barley.

Researchers find evidence of groundwater in Antarctica's Dry Valleys
Using a novel, helicopter-borne sensor to penetrate below the surface of large swathes of terrain, a team of researchers supported by the National Science Foundation, or NSF, has gathered compelling evidence that beneath the Antarctica ice-free McMurdo Dry Valleys lies a salty aquifer that may support previously unknown microbial ecosystems and retain evidence of ancient climate change.

New IVF device may improve fertility treatment
A team of researchers from National Tsing Hua University and the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan has developed a technique to more effectively grow and screen embryos prior to implantation.

Study shows diversity of habitat needed around spotted owl reserves
New study shows birds of conservation concern avoiding 1000-acre California Spotted Owl reserves in Lassen and Plumas National Forests.

Emergency department treatment for opioid addiction better than referrals
Yale researchers conducted the first known randomized trial comparing three treatment strategies for opioid-dependent patients receiving emergency care.

Studies in cell transplantation show beneficial effects for variety of serious conditions
A special issue of Cell Transplantation is devoted to work presented at a recent meeting of ASNTR, a society focused on cell therapy, stem cells, gene therapy and biopharmaceuticals for neurological injury and disease, include: MSCs promote improvement after complete spinal cord injury; bone marrow culture enhances human neural stem cells; primate model of Parkinson's disease upgrades endogenous neurons; human pluripotent stem cells hold promise for Parkinson's disease; and anti-tumor secretion effects on glioblastoma-like cells.

Loyola study provides evidence that premature girls thrive more than premature boys
A new study from Loyola University Medical Center provides further evidence that female infants tend to do better than males when born prematurely.

Build or burn? Competition for wood on the rise
Wood is becoming an increasingly popular raw material -- and not just in the construction sector.

Age at autism diagnosis differs between boys, girls
Girls are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder later than boys, possibly because females exhibit less severe symptoms, according to a study to be presented Tuesday, April 28, at the Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting in San Diego.

U-Michigan scientists observe deadly dance between nerves and cancer cells
In certain types of cancer, nerves and cancer cells enter an often lethal and intricate waltz where cancer cells and nerves move toward one another and eventually engage in such a way that the cancer cells enter the nerves.

Two new creeping water bug species found in Belize and Peru
Two new saucer bugs (also called the creeping water bugs) have been found in streams in western Belize and southeastern Peru.

Engineering a better future for the Mississippi Delta
River deltas, low-lying landforms that host critical and diverse ecosystems as well as high concentrations of human population, face an uncertain future.

Childhood obesity -- 1 epidemic or 2?
The research, led by the University of Exeter Medical School and part of the internationally respected EarlyBird Study, could have far-reaching implications for attempts to reduce the global epidemic of childhood obesity, as it indicates that very different approaches may be needed at various stages of development.

Cell-assisted lipotransfer: Safety not demonstrated
In reconstructive and esthetic medicine, a technique called cell-assisted lipotransfer, i.e., the grafting of the patient's own adipose tissue to another site in the body after mixing with autologous stem cells, is being increasingly used and aggressively promoted.

Embracing the 5G era
To meet the demands of 2020, the 5G research has attracted global attention and made remarkable progress.

Georgia State names partner cities for tobacco control project
Georgia State University's School of Public Health has named five major municipalities in China that will partner with the school on efforts to improve policies and programs to reduce smoking in a nation that produces more tobacco and has more smokers than any other in the world.

Small high school reform boosts districtwide outcomes
Creating small high schools improves outcomes for students in the overall school district -- both in new small schools and existing larger schools -- according to a study of New York City schools by researchers at New York University, Syracuse University, and Arizona State University.

Cal-BRAIN selects 16 California research projects for seed grants
California research grants program Cal-BRAIN has selected 16 projects to receive inaugural seed grants of $120,000 each.

Scientists uncover surprising new details of potential Alzheimer's treatment
Taking a new approach, scientists from the Florida campus of the Scripps Research Institute have uncovered some surprising details of a group of compounds that have shown significant potential in stimulating the growth of brain cells and memory restoration in animal models that mimic Alzheimer's disease.

Robotically discovering Earth's nearest neighbors
A team of astronomers using ground-based telescopes in Hawaii, California, and Arizona recently discovered a planetary system orbiting a nearby star that is only 54 light-years away.

Human hunting weapons may not have caused the demise of the Neanderthals
The demise of Neanderthals may have nothing to do with innovative hunting weapons carried by humans from west Asia, according to a new study published in the Journal of Human Evolution.

Crustaceans from the second largest river basin in South America
A new research presents a new guide for identification of planktonic copepods from the second largest river in South America.

Quantum particles at play: Game theory elucidates the collective behavior of bosons
Quantum particles behave in strange ways and are often difficult to study experimentally.

When mediated by superconductivity, light pushes matter million times more
When a mirror reflects light, it experiences a slight push.

Youths evaluated for sexual abuse at risk for revictimization online
Many suspected victims of child sexual abuse are sharing sexually explicit photos and videos via their cell phones and social media, and are receiving online sexual solicitations, according to a study to be presented Tuesday, April 28, at the Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting in San Diego.

Scientists discover salty aquifer, previously unknown microbial habitat under Antarctica
Using an airborne imaging system for the first time in Antarctica, scientists have discovered a vast network of unfrozen salty groundwater that may support previously unknown microbial life deep under the coldest, driest desert on our planet.

History of breastfeeding associated with reduced risk of breast cancer recurrence
Women diagnosed with breast cancer who previously breastfed their babies had a 30 percent overall decreased risk of the disease recurring, according to a new Kaiser Permanente study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Two-week international diet swap shows potential effects of food on colon cancer risk
African-Americans and Africans who swapped their typical diets for just two weeks similarly exchanged their respective risks of colon cancer as reflected by alterations of their gut bacteria, according to an international study led by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine published online in Nature Communications.

New material for creating artificial blood vessels
A special material has been developed in Vienna from which artificial blood vessels can be made.

Diverse sea creatures evolved to reach same swimming solution
Moving one's body rapidly through water is a key to existence for many species.

Genethon, winner of the World Innovation Competition 2030
Tuesday, April 28, during a ceremony at the Elysee Palace, Généthon, the laboratory of the AFM-Telethon, was named recipient of the Global Innovation Competition 2030 in the category 'Risk lift.' A prize that rewards the expert laboratory and world leader in the field of gene therapy for the development of an industrial production process of gene therapy vectors.

New studies examine the significant risk of blood clots in post-surgical lung cancer patients
In the first prospective study of its kind, the incidence of VTE was found to be higher than previously reported (5.4 percent VTE-specific mortality rate).

Genital-only screening misses many cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia in women
Current public health guidelines recommend that only gay men and people with HIV should be routinely screened for extragenital gonorrhea and chlamydia, given the high burden of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in this at-risk population.

UM study: Oil and gas development transforms landscapes
Researchers at the University of Montana have conducted the first-ever broad-scale scientific assessment of how oil and gas development transforms landscapes across the US and Canada.

Victims of bullying fare worse in the long run than maltreated children
Children who have been bullied by peers have similar or worse long-term mental health outcomes than children maltreated by adults, according to a study to be presented Tuesday, April 28, at the Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting in San Diego, and to be published in The Lancet Psychiatry at the same time.

UT research uncovers lakes, signs of life under Antarctica's dry valleys
Many view Antarctica as a frozen wasteland. Turns out there are hidden interconnected lakes underneath its dry valleys that could sustain life and shed light on ancient climate change.

Pneumonectomy or lobectomy?
Prior investigations have shown that different resection procedures for non-small cell lung cancer have very different outcomes, with pneumonectomy associated with three-fold higher mortality than other resection types.

New study links drinking behaviors with mortality
A new University of Colorado Boulder study involving some 40,000 people indicates that social and psychological problems caused by drinking generally trump physically hazardous drinking behaviors when it comes to overall mortality rates.

Make calorie labels compulsory on all alcoholic drinks, says public health expert
Calorie counts should be mandatory on all alcoholic drinks as a matter of urgency, argues a leading public health doctor in The BMJ this week.

A glitch in the recycling
In studying the molecular biology of brain development, a team of researchers led by Ludwig Stockholm director Thomas Perlmann has discovered how disruption of a developmental mechanism alters the very nerve cells that are most affected in Parkinson's disease.

Audubon Society honors Apelian for promoting sustainable stewardship of Earth's resources
Diran Apelian, Alcoa-Howmet Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, has received the Audubon Society's Joan Hodges Queneau Palladium Medal.

Beijing Olympics study links pollution to lower birth weight
Exposure to high levels of pollution can have a significant impact on fetal growth and development, that is the conclusion of research appearing today in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

Chemotargets launches easier-to-use, more intuitive graphical interface CTlink[GUI]
Chemotargets, a spin-off company of IMIM, has launched CTlink[GUI] -- a commercial version of the CTlink software that offers users intuitive, interactive graphical tools enabling them to more easily analyze results obtained using this software.

Living liver donors report lower sexual function in early months post-surgery
A new study found that sexual function in adult living donors was lower at the evaluation phase and at three months following liver transplantation.

No single cut-off for parasite half-life can define artemisinin-resistant malaria
Data from southeast Asia -- where artemisinin-resistant malaria strains were first detected -- broadly support WHO's 'working definition' for artemisinin resistance, but the currently used definitions require important refinements, according to a study by Lisa White and colleagues, from Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand, published this week in PLOS Medicine.

Dive discovers missing aircraft hangar of sunken WW II-era Japanese submarine
A recent survey of newly discovered submarine wreck successfully located, mapped and captured on video for the first time not only the submarine's hangar and conning tower (navigation platform), and the submarine's bell.

Two-thirds of bowel cancer patients aren't advised to exercise despite health benefits
More than two-thirds (69 percent) of bowel cancer patients say they weren't advised to exercise regularly after their diagnosis.

Rubber from dandelions
Dandelions deliver a desirable product: rubber. This is why the robust and undemanding plant has become the focus of attention of the rubber-producing industry.

Improving the effect of HIV drugs by the use of a vaccine
A vaccine containing a protein necessary for virus replication can boost an HIV-infected patient's immune system, according to clinical research published in the open-access journal Retrovirology.

The victimization quandary: To help victims we have to stop blaming them
Psychologists have long realized that blaming victims is a defense mechanism that helps blamers feel better about the world, and see it as fair and just.

NASA sees weekend Texas severe storms in 3-D
Stormy spring weather over the US Southwest generated at least 20 tornado sightings over Texas on Sunday, April 26, 2015.

Water could have been abundant in the first billion years
How soon after the Big Bang could water have existed?

Boston Children's Hospital study reveals first 6 months best for stimulating heart growth
Boston Children's Hospital's Translational Research Center reports that the optimal window of time to stimulate heart muscle cell regeneration -- cardiomyocyte proliferation -- in humans is the first six months of life.

Megacity metabolism: Is your city consuming a balanced diet?
New York is an energy hog, London and Paris use relatively less resources and Tokyo conserves water like a pro.

New study raises the bar in the cough and cold category
Newly published in the International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, the study -- conducted by leading cough researcher, Peter Dicpinigaitis, M.D., Director of the Montefiore Cough Center in New York -- is the first to demonstrate the significant ability of diphenhydramine to inhibit cough reflex sensitivity in acute pathological cough (common cold).

Polygamy increases risk of heart disease by more than 4-fold
Polygamy increases the risk of heart disease by more than four-fold, reveals research presented at the Asian Pacific Society of Cardiology Congress 2015 by Dr.

New blueberry species found in the Colombian forests
The description of five new species of blueberry relatives from Colombia highlights the country's great diversity of the plant family Ericaceae and the importance of field exploration.

New study shows parrotfish are critical to coral reef island building
As well as being a beautiful species capable of changing its colour, shape and even gender, new research published today shows that parrotfish, commonly found on healthy coral reefs, can also play a pivotal role in providing the sands necessary to build and maintain coral reef islands.

Bigger bang for your buck: Restoring fish habitat by removing barriers
A new study from a multidisciplinary team, published April 27 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, describes a powerful new model to help decision makers maximize the cost-effectiveness of barrier removal projects that also restore migratory fish habitat.

Book on brown recluse spiders dispels myths and misconceptions
'The Brown Recluse Spider' (Cornell University Press, 2015) is a book by Richard Vetter of UC Riverside and is the culmination of 20 years of work on the brown recluse.

Simple, active intervention program after major thoracic surgery reduces ER visits and saves money
Alarmingly, readmission after pulmonary resection for lung cancer has been associated with worse outcomes, including higher mortality.

Majority of people unable to pay their medical bills skip medical care
Difficulty paying medical bills is an important predictor of the likelihood that a person will forego medical and prescription drug care and can add to the impact of lack of health insurance and other factors such as income, education level, and health status, according to an article in Population Health Management, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers.

Study allays concerns that cardiothoracic physicians-in-training provide suboptimal care
When educating medical students or residents to perform highly technical procedures, there is always a challenge to balance the educational mission with maintaining quality results and optimal patient care.

Framing time in days instead of years could spur action toward goals
People starting to plan for retirement or other big goals should pull out a calculator and multiply the years ahead by 365.

Cocaine changes the brain and makes relapse more common in addicts
Cocaine use causes 'profound changes' in the brain that lead to an increased risk of relapse due to stress -- according to new research from the University of East Anglia.

Childhood bullying causes worse long-term mental health problems than maltreatment
Bullying adversely affects children in later life more than being maltreated, according to new research from the University of Warwick.

Wound healing, viral suppression linked to less HIV shedding from circumcision wounds
The likelihood of viral shedding from male circumcision wounds intially increases, then decreases as the wounds heal, and is lower in patients with lower plasma viral load, according to a study published this week in PLOS Medicine.

Space Station safari's ultimate wildlife research vantage point
A new investigation planned for the space station is leveraging observations from on high to help track animals, the results of which could improve the safety and health of animals and people around the world.

A new constitutive model for the thermo-elasto-plasticity deformation of crystals
The thermo-elasto-plasticity behavior of metal crystals at finite temperature is complex.

Water companies license 2 UW-Milwaukee sensor technologies
Two novel water-sensing technologies that offer low-cost, immediate protection from the threat of contaminated water supplies were developed at UWM and have subsequently been licensed to four water-related companies.

The chemistry of The Avengers (video)
Science fans, assemble! On May 1, the world's top superhero team is back to save the day in 'Avengers: Age of Ultron.' This week, Reactions looks at the chemistry behind these iconic heroes' gear and superpowers, including Tony Stark's suit, Captain America's shield and more.

New method provides direct SI traceability for sound pressure
Scientists at the National Physical Laboratory -- the UK's National Measurement Institute -- have developed an optical method for remotely measuring sound pressure inside a fully anechoic chamber which is the first to provide direct traceability to the SI base units.

NYBG work on world plant database supported by Google and Sloan Foundation grants
In separate grants, Google Inc. and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation will provide major support for The New York Botanical Garden's leadership role in a worldwide project to create the definitive online scientific resource about plants, including their conservation status.

Women show persistent memory impairment after concussion
Women may have a more difficult time than men in recovering from concussion, according to a new study.

Joslin research finds gastric band and weight management therapies offer similar benefits
A small clinical trial among such patients led by Joslin Diabetes Center and Brigham and Women's Hospital researchers now has shown that two approaches -- adjustable gastric band surgery and an intensive group-based medical diabetes and weight management program -- achieved similar improvements in controlling blood sugar levels after one year.

Grant funds innovative news follows to Washington state tragedies
A Washington State University study will place microphones in popular gathering spots of the traumatized Washington State communities of Oso, Marysville and Pilchuck, along with posted questions from news media.

Windows that act like an LCD Screen
The secret desire of urban daydreamers staring out their office windows at the sad brick walls of the building opposite them may soon be answered thanks to transparent light shutters developed by a group of researchers in South Korea.

Church-based diabetes education program leads to healthier lifestyles among Latino adults
Latino adults with diabetes who participated in a church-based education program reported eating less high-fat food and exercising more following a trial intervention program run by researchers from University of Chicago's Department of Medicine.

Study: A minority of women seek health care after military sexual assault
Most female service members who experience sexual assault are unlikely to seek post-assault health care, at least in the short term, suggests a new Veterans Affairs study.

First-of-its-kind clinical guide explains uses and limitations of public blood pressure kiosks
High blood pressure affects one in three adults in the US, and blood pressure measurement is the first step toward accurate diagnosis and management of the disease.

Strong evidence for coronal heating theory presented at 2015 TESS meeting
The sun's surface is blisteringly hot at 10,340 degrees Fahrenheit -- but its atmosphere is another 300 times hotter.

NJIT's new solar telescope peers deep into the sun to track the origins of space weather
Scientists at NJIT's Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) have captured the first high-resolution images of the flaring magnetic structures known as solar flux ropes at their point of origin in the sun's chromosphere.

Switching on one-shot learning in the brain
Caltech scientists have discovered that uncertainty in terms of the causal relationship -- whether an outcome is actually caused by a particular stimulus -- is the main factor in determining whether or not rapid learning occurs.

UK coalition government derailed efforts to reduce salt in food
The coalition government derailed a successful program that reduced salt content added to foods by industry, argue experts in The BMJ this week.

Children with ADHD at risk for binge eating, study shows
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, are significantly more likely to have an eating disorder -- a loss of control eating syndrome (LOC-ES) -- akin to binge eating, a condition more generally diagnosed only in adults, according to results of a new Johns Hopkins Children's Center study.

Counting all costs, Berkeley Lab researchers find that saving energy is still cheap
Researchers at Berkeley Lab have conducted the most comprehensive study yet of the full cost of saving electricity by US utility efficiency programs and now have an answer: 4.6 cents.

Elderly crickets are set in their ways, study finds
As insects grow old their behavior becomes increasingly predictable according to new research published in the journal Behavioural Ecology.

University of Iowa team developing bioactive gel to treat knee injuries
Current surgical options for repairing damaged cartilage caused by knee injuries are costly, can have complications, and often are not very effective in the long run.

Male beetles up their game when they catch a whiff of competition
Male flour beetles increase their courtship effort and their sperm count if a female smells of other males according to a study published in the journal Behavioural Ecology.

Monkey droppings complement field observations, researchers report
Behavioral observation, ecological sampling, and high-throughput sequencing give researchers insight into tamarin foraging strategies and prey preferences.

Heat makes electrons' spin in magnetic superconductors
Physicists have shown how heat can be exploited for controlling magnetic properties of matter.

Weighing -- and imaging -- molecules one at a time
Building on their creation of the first-ever mechanical device that can measure the mass of individual molecules, one at a time, a team of Caltech scientists and their colleagues have created nanodevices that can also reveal their shape.

Whitening the Arctic Ocean: May restore sea ice, but not climate
Some scientists have suggested that global warming could melt frozen ground in the Arctic, releasing vast amounts of the potent greenhouse gas methane into the atmosphere, greatly amplifying global warming.

CTCA at Western Regional Medical Center launches Phase II of PembroPlus clinical trial
This innovative 'PembroPlus' clinical trial combines an immunotherapy drug (pembrolizumab) with already FDA-approved chemotherapy drugs (gemcitabine, docetaxel, nab-paclitaxel, vinorelbine, irinotecan, and/or liposomal doxorubicin).

Burmese python habitat use patterns may help control efforts
The largest and longest Burmese python tracking study of its kind -- here or in its native range -- is providing researchers and resource managers new information that may help target control efforts of this invasive snake, according to a new study led by the US Geological Survey.

Research shows brain differences in children with dyslexia and dysgraphia
The study is among the first to identify structural brain differences between children with the two learning disabilities and between those children and typical language learners.

The fearsome foursome: Technologies enable ambitious MMS mission
It was unprecedented developing a mission that could fly four identically equipped spacecraft in a tight formation and take measurements 100 times faster than any previous space mission -- an achievement enabled in part by four NASA-developed technologies that in some cases took nearly 10 years to mature.

Endangered corals smothered by sponges on overfished Caribbean reefs
For reef-building corals, sponges do not make good neighbors. Aggressive competitors for space, sponges use toxins, mucus, shading, and smothering to kill adjacent coral colonies and then grow on their skeletons.

The Lancet Psychiatry: Childhood bullying has worse effects on mental health in young adulthood than being maltreated
Being bullied in childhood has a greater negative impact on teenager's mental health than being maltreated, according to new research published in The Lancet Psychiatry journal.

UTSW's Dr. Lora Hooper and Dr. Steven Kliewer elected to prestigious National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) today announced the election of two UT Southwestern Medical Center faculty members -- Dr.

Genetic markers for fetal overgrowth syndrome discovered
Researchers have identified a number of genes that contribute to large offspring syndrome, which can result in the overgrowth of fetuses and enlarged babies.

C. difficile rates highest in Northeast region, spring season
Rates of infection with the deadly superbug Clostridium difficile were highest in the Northeast region of the country and in the spring season over the last 10 years, according to a study published in the May issue of the American Journal of Infection Control, the official publication of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology.

Early separation of cow and calf has long-term effects on social behavior
Calves of dairy cows are generally separated from their mothers within the first 24 hours after birth.

Partially logged rainforests could be emitting more carbon than previously thought
Global carbon emissions from forests could have been underestimated because calculations have not fully accounted for the dead wood from logging.

New technique for exploring structural dynamics of nanoworld
A new technique for visualizing the rapidly changing electronic structures of atomic-scale materials as they twist, tumble and traipse across the nanoworld is taking shape at the California Institute of Technology.

Coastal light pollution disturbs marine animals, new study shows
Marine ecosystems can be changed by night-time artificial lighting according to new research published in the Royal Society journal Biology Letters.

Acoustical Society of America Spring Meeting in Pittsburgh, May 18-22, 2015
From noise in buildings and open park spaces to musical instruments, human voices and the vocalizations of animals on the ground, in the air and underwater, the science of sound is all around.

Chemists strike nano-gold: 4 new atomic structures for gold nanoparticle clusters
New nanoscale blueprints for low-energy, stable gold nanoclusters could help develop new cancer drugs or mitigate carbon monoxide emissions.

AGS unveils revised Choosing Wisely list of topics to talk about with older adults
AGS updates to a list of tests and treatments to talk about with older adults reflect an expert review of new research on several important conditions impacting older patients, including agitation, certain types of cancer, delirium, dementia, diabetes, insomnia, unintended weight loss, and certain other health concerns that may warrant deeper discussion based on new insights and information on appropriate health care choices.

POSTECH joins hands with Korean web giant NAVER
POSTECH, a leading science and technology university in South Korea, signed a Memorandum of Understanding with NAVER Corporation, on Wednesday April 22, with the goal of fostering the next generation of computer scientists and engineers.

Northwestern Medicine researchers solve mystery of deadly transplant infection
After the death of a patient, a Northwestern Medicine thoracic surgeon determines possible cause of rare infection, likely saving lives of future lung transplant patients

Elevated upper body position improves respiratory safety in women following childbirth
A study published on April 23 in the online first section of the journal CHEST finds an elevated upper body position might improve respiratory safety in women early after childbirth without impairing sleep quality.

Gene mapping reveals soy's dynamic, differing roles in breast cancer
Scientists at Illinois map genes affected by phytonutrients in soy, find that minimally processed soy flour suppresses breast cancer, while purified isoflavones stimulate genes that accelerate tumor growth, raising questions about soy supplements' safety for postmenopausal women.

Research prompts rethink of enzyme evolution
New research by scientists at New Zealand's University of Otago suggests a need for a fundamental rethink of the evolutionary path of enzymes, the proteins vital to all life on Earth.

Scientists find new mutation that may lead to better diabetes medications and prevention
An international team of scientists led by a Cedars-Sinai researcher has identified a new genetic mutation that appears to protect people from developing type 2 diabetes.

Pioneers of HIV structural biology win an award
World-renowned scientists -- Professor Mariusz Jaskólski of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland, and Dr.

First proton collisions at world's largest science experiment should start in early June
First collisions of protons at the world's largest science experiment should start the first or second week of June, said CERN Large Hadron Collider senior research scientist Albert DeRoeck, speaking at the DIS 2015 international physics workshop, Southern Methodist University, Dallas.

Carnegie's Joe Berry elected to National Academy of Sciences
Joseph A. Berry, staff scientist at Carnegie's Department of Global Ecology, has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, one of 84 new members and 21 foreign associates.

As circumcision wounds heal, HIV-positive men may spread virus to female partners
In a campaign to slow the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the World Health Organization recommends male circumcision, which reduces HIV acquisition by 50-60 percent.

Researchers develop new computer-based vision screening test for young children
Many eye disorders in young children are asymptomatic and may remain undetected without testing.

Ancient connection between the Americas enhanced extreme biodiversity
Species migrations across the Isthmus of Panama began about 20 million years ago, some six times earlier than commonly assumed, a new study by Smithsonian scientists and colleagues published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increases the risk of sudden cardiac death
People suffering from the common lung disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, have an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, according to new research published in the European Heart Journal.

Tracking exploding lithium-ion batteries in real-time
What happens when lithium-ion batteries overheat and explode has been tracked inside and out for the first time by a UCL-led team using sophisticated 3-D imaging.

Discovery of an unexpected function of a protein linked to neurodegenerative diseases
This protein is also present in humans and is known to be mutated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's.

Age at surgery and valve type in PVR key determinants of re-intervention in congenital heart disease
Survival of children with congenital heart disease has greatly improved, so that currently there are more adults than children living with CHD.

Mathematics reveals how fluid flow affects bacteria
Researchers from the University of Liverpool have used mathematical equations to shed new light on how flowing fluid hinders the movement of bacteria in their search for food.
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