Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 20, 2015
Galaxy's snacking habits revealed
A study published today in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society reveals a spiral galaxy devouring a nearby compact dwarf galaxy and evidence of previous galactic snacks in unprecedented detail.

Kidney failure impacts survival of sepsis patients
Researchers at Duke Medicine have determined that kidney function plays a critical role in the fate of patients being treated for sepsis, a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection.

Dasabuvir in hepatitis C: Indication of added benefit in certain patients
The new drug combination showed an advantage in three of a total of 10 patient groups, particularly regarding virologic response.

Arctic ducks combine nutrients from wintering and breeding grounds to grow healthy eggs
It takes a lot of nutrients to build an egg.

UGA study pinpoints the likeliest rodent sources of future human infectious diseases
Researchers have developed a way to predict which species of rodents are likeliest to be sources of new disease outbreaks in humans.

New studies contradict earlier findings on Rett syndrome
Scientists at the University of Iowa, Baylor College of Medicine, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and the University Medical Center Gottingen, in Germany, show that bone marrow transplant does not rescue mouse models of Rett syndrome, a severe neurological disease that affects very young girls.

'Insufficient evidence' on degenerative brain disease in athletes
Available research does not support the contention that athletes are uniquely at risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy or other neurodegenerative disorders, according to a review in the June issue of Neurosurgery, official journal of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

COPD is independent risk factor for cardiovascular death, but not risk of stroke
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, is associated with increased risk of dying from a cardiovascular disease such as heart failure or a heart attack, as well as diseases not associated with the heart.

Amazing microdroplet structures may lead to new technologies
Unexpected shapes of mesoscale atoms -- structures built of microdroplets encapsulated within microdroplets -- have been created at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, Poland.

National designation for USF to turn research into commercial products, launch start-ups
The University of South Florida has been named an I-Corps Site by the National Science Foundation, becoming the second site in Florida and one of only three dozen institutions around the country to earn the prestigious designation.

Online safety: If you want something done right, do it yourself
The end-user is often the 'weakest link' in the Internet safety chain, said Saleem Alhabash, a Michigan State University faculty member who is part of a team that researches ways of making the Web safer for its users.

Public not being informed about dangers of medical overdiagnosis
A national survey reveals that only one in ten Australians report being told about the risk of overdiagnosis by their doctors, according to research published today in the scientific journal PLOS ONE.

People with depression may be more likely to develop Parkinson's disease
People with depression may be more likely to develop Parkinson's disease, according to a large study published in the May 20, 2015, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

New evidence links Arctic warming with severe weather
New evidence has linked Arctic warming with severe weather in countries including the UK and US but further research is needed.

US forest service research team releases bats treated for WNS
USDA Forest Service scientists, collaborators, and supporters gathered at Mark Twain Cave Complex in Hannibal, Mo., on Tuesday evening to express cautious optimism about a possible treatment for White-nose Syndrome (WNS).

Can psychosocial treatments help autistic adults?
Multimillion dollar grant will fund study to assess if nondrug therapies improve the quality of life for adults with autism spectrum disorder.

NASA analyzed the winds of Tropical Storm Ana
In mid-May 2015, Ana became the first named tropical storm of the North Atlantic hurricane season.

Potential new drug target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
Researchers at the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, in collaboration with colleagues the University of California, San Diego, identified a novel drug target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis that focuses on the cells that are directly responsible for the cartilage damage in affected joints.

Newton Research Collaboration award -- University of Huddersfield
When new buildings come into use they can consume up to twice as much energy as their designers expected.

People with metabolic syndrome face higher cardiovascular death risk
People who have metabolic syndrome are more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than people who do not have the condition, and having diabetes or high blood pressure worsens the risk, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Caffeine intake associated with reduced levels of erectile dysfunction
Men who drink the equivalent caffeine level of two to three cups of coffee a day are less likely to have erectile dysfunction, according to researchers from The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.

Defects can 'Hulk-up' materials
A Berkeley Lab study has shown that just as exposure to gamma radiation transforms Bruce Banner into fictional superhero the Hulk, exposure to alpha-particle radiation can transform thermoelectric materials into far more powerful versions of themselves.

Toward 'green' paper-thin, flexible electronics
The rapid evolution of gadgets has brought us an impressive array of 'smart' products from phones to tablets, and now watches and glasses.

American College of Cardiology registry aims to improve cardiovascular care in India
Despite challenges, it is feasible to collect and study the quality of outpatient cardiovascular care in a resource-limited environment like India, according to a pilot study published today in the Journal of the American Heart Association.

UAlberta creates DNA bank to unlock genetic clues about stuttering
Institute for Stuttering Treatment and Research collecting saliva samples to create world's largest DNA repository of people who stutter.

Nanotherapy effective in mice with multiple myeloma
Researchers have designed a nanoparticle-based therapy that is effective in treating mice with multiple myeloma, a cancer of immune cells in the bone marrow.

SPIE Spotlights e-book series launches, offering short tutorials in optics and photonics
SPIE Spotlights, a new peer-reviewed e-book series from SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics, has launched with tutorials on image resolution, fiber optics, and logistics of setting up a laser lab.

Chinese herbal mixture significantly reduces fatigue in cancer patients
Cancer patients suffering from moderate to severe fatigue reported significantly less fatigue within 2-3 weeks of treatment with the traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture Ren Shen Yangrong Tang (RSYRT), a soup containing 12 herbs.

Paleontologists discover the first dinosaur fossil in Washington State
The fossils of the first dinosaur fossil from Washington State were collected along the shores of Sucia Island State Park in the San Juan Islands, and described in a study.

Paracetamol in pregnancy may lower testosterone in unborn boys
Prolonged paracetamol use by pregnant women may reduce testosterone production in unborn baby boys, research from the University of Edinburgh has found.

Resolving a lymphatic riddle
The findings enabled Weizmann Institute researchers to grow, for the first time, lymphatic cells in the lab.

British invasion of the harlequin ladybird threatens other species
The harlequin ladybird, officially known as Harmonia axyridis, was widely introduced across continental Europe as a way to limit the population of small sap-sucking insects called aphids.

Study: Pressure to expand is crucial key to firms' success
A University of Kansas researcher who studies the intersection of economics, evolutionary theory and philosophy has found that strong culture among a business' employees is only important if the business itself faces strong pressure from the outside to be successful.

Geospectrum Spring 2015
The Spring 2015 issue of Geospectrum has been published by the American Geosciences Institute.

Tiny grains of lithium dramatically improve performance of fusion plasma
An injection of small amounts of lithium produces a surprisingly large improvement in fusion plasma.

People tend to locate the self in the brain or the heart
Whether people locate their sense of self in the brain or the heart can have a major influence on people's decision-making, according to a new study by management and business experts at Rice University and Columbia University.

Kent State researcher receives $1.8 million NIH grant for chronic wound healing
The National Institutes of Health has awarded Kent State University's Min-Ho Kim, Ph.D., assistant professor of biological sciences in the College of Arts and Sciences, a $1,842,350 five-year grant.

The dreadful beauty of Medusa
Astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile have captured the most detailed image ever taken of the Medusa Nebula.

Nicotinoid and fungal disease team up to break down termites' tough defenses
Purdue University research shows that a small amount of nicotinoid pesticide substantially weakens termites' ability to fight off fungal diseases, a finding that could lead to more effective methods of pest control.

Strong UV pulse reveals supernova's origin story
Type Ia supernovae are violent stellar explosions that shine as some of the brightest objects in the universe.

Animals' presence may ease social anxiety in kids with autism
When animals are present, children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have lower readings on a device that detects anxiety and other forms of social arousal when interacting with their peers.

Natural gas versus diesel: Examining the climate impacts of natural gas trucks
Some major trucking companies are turning to natural gas to fuel their fleets -- and to earn 'green' credit among customers.

Surviving harsh environments becomes a death-trap for specialist corals
The success of corals that adapt to survive in the world's hottest sea could contribute to their demise through global warming, according to new research.

Scientists tackle mystery of thunderstorms that strike at night
From June 1 through July 15, NCAR researchers and their colleagues from across North America will fan out each evening across the Great Plains to study the mysterious phenomenon of nighttime thunderstorms.

Study shows Colorado's biggest storms can happen any time
In a state known for its dramatic weather and climate, Colorado's history of extreme precipitation varies considerably by season and location, according to a new study led by the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, a partnership between the University of Colorado Boulder and NOAA.

EuroPCR 2015: Stroke risk clarified following routine clot removal after heart attack
Clearing blood clots from arteries during treatment for an acute myocardial infarction was a relatively common practice until a recent, large-scale study showed that the technique, known as thrombectomy, might actually increase the risk of stroke.

With one false tweet, computer-based Hack Crash led to real panic
A false tweet from a hacked account owned by the Associated Press in 2013 sent financial markets into a tailspin.

Inhaled corticosteroids for COPD decrease mortality risk from pneumonia and other causes
Treatment of COPD with inhaled corticosteroids may decrease the risk of dying from pneumonia and from other causes despite being associated with an increase in the occurrence of pneumonia, according to a new meta-analysis presented at the 2015 American Thoracic Society International Conference.

Measuring air quality effects of natural gas extraction in Marcellus Shale region
A team led by environmental engineers from Drexel University are the first independent researchers to take a closer look at the air quality effects of natural gas extraction in the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania.

Cofounder of Wikipedia among 2015 Dan David Prize recipients
Knowledge -- the free access to it and the unhindered dissemination of it -- was in the spotlight at the resplendent Dan David Prize ceremony held on May 17th during Tel Aviv University's 2015 Board of Governors meeting.

New portable device could test how 'squishy' cancerous tumors are
A new device will test a tumor's squishiness (Young's modulus), providing clinicians insight into how best to treat it.

The Lancet: International study reveals that cold weather kills far more people than hot weather
Cold weather kills 20 times as many people as hot weather, according to an international study analyzing over 74 million deaths in 384 locations across 13 countries.

Ultrasonic production of skimmed milk
Recently, scientists from Swinburne University of Technology in Australia and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization have jointly demonstrated cream separation from natural whole milk at liter-scales for the first time using ultrasonic standing waves -- a novel, fast and nondestructive separation technique typically used only in small-scale settings.

Do CEOs deserve all the attention they get? New research from UGA provides answers
Media interest in CEOs has soared to stratospheric heights in recent years, with the likes of Jeff Bezos and Steve Jobs becoming household names.

Scientists discover world's oldest stone tools
Scientists working in the desert of northwestern Kenya have found stone tools dating back 3.3 million years, long before the advent of modern humans, and by far the oldest such artifacts yet discovered.

Metabolic abnormalities may increase cardiovascular risk more in black women than white women
Large waistline, cholesterol disorders and other metabolic abnormalities may increase the relative risk of cardiovascular disease more among black women than among white women.

Family history of breast cancer doesn't mean a poor prognosis for women who develop the disease
A new large study finds that women who are diagnosed with breast cancer and have a family history of the disease face no worse of a prognosis after treatment than other women with breast cancer.

One simple molecule regulates sexual behavior in Drosophila
Until now researchers have failed to identify the specific pheromone in Drosophila melanogaster that leads to mating success.

Sandia researchers first to measure thermoelectric behavior by 'Tinkertoy' materials
Sandia National Laboratories researchers have made the first measurements of thermoelectric behavior by a nanoporous metal-organic framework, a development that could lead to an entirely new class of materials for such applications as cooling computer chips and cameras and energy harvesting.

Common mutation linked to heart disease
A common mutation in a gene that regulates cholesterol levels may raise the risk of heart disease in carriers up to 49 percent, particularly among men and African Americans, according to a new UConn Health study.

Re-engineered antibiotic shows potential for treatment of drug-resistant bacteria
Researchers led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have developed a second-generation antibiotic that shows early effectiveness against common bacterial infections that pose a serious health threat to children and adults.

Seeing without eyes
The skin of the California two-spot octopus can sense light even without input from the central nervous system.

New antibody insecticide targets malaria mosquito
Malaria is a cruel and disabling disease that targets all ages and is particularly threatening for under-5s.

Supernova hunting with supercomputers
Type Ia supernovae are famous for their consistency. Ironically, new observations suggest that their origins may not be uniform.

Supernova hits star, results shocking
The origin of type Ia supernovae, the standard candles used to reveal the presence of dark energy in the universe, is one of astronomy's most beguiling mysteries.

Uncovering the mysteries of cosmic explosions
An automated software system developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory played a key role in the discovery of supernova iPTF 14atg and could provide insight, a virtual Rosetta stone, into future supernovae and their underlying physics.

Natural plant chemicals could help fight tooth decay, study shows
Oral-care products containing a natural chemical that stops bacteria harming teeth could help prevent decay, a study suggests.

Deepwater Horizon oil spill contributed to high number of Gulf dolphin deaths
As part of an unusual mortality event investigation, a team of scientists has discovered that dead bottlenose dolphins stranded in the northern Gulf of Mexico since the start of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill have lung and adrenal lesions consistent with petroleum product exposure according to a paper published today in the peer-reviewed online journal PLOS ONE.

Mountain gorilla mamas sidestep having inbred offspring
Some mountain gorilla females linger into adulthood in the group into which they were born.

BMJ investigation reveals how big tobacco is able to woo parliamentarians
An investigation by The BMJ today asks to what extent is the tobacco industry able to reach out and influence parliamentarians?

Study finds biomarker may boost ovarian cancer chemotherapy response
A molecule that helps control gene expression may play a role in controlling chemotherapy resistance among patients with the most common form of ovarian cancer.

Support group, home exercise improves mobility for PAD patients
Group therapy that encourages walking at home improves and prevents mobility loss among patients with clogged arteries in the legs.

Drinking chamomile decreases risk of death in older Mexican American women
Researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have found that drinking chamomile tea was associated with a decreased risk of death from all causes in Mexican-American American women over 65.

EuroPCR 2015: Dr. Shigeru Saito and Dr. Ferdinand Kiemeneij receive Ethica Award
EuroPCR, the annual meeting of the European Association for Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions and the world-leading course in interventional medicine, honored Dr.

EMBO announces new members for 2015
EMBO today announced that 58 outstanding researchers in the life sciences were elected to its membership.

The Protein Society selects 8 winners of Hans Neurath Outstanding Promise Travel Awards
Sponsored by the Hans Neurath Foundation, the aim of the awards is to showcase future leaders of the field by recognizing graduate student and postdoctoral researchers who have demonstrated exceptional potential through the quality of their research and to enable them to present their abstracts at the 29th Annual Symposium of the Protein Society in Barcelona, Spain, July 22-25, 2015.

Research aims to increase mental health awareness in Black faith-based communities
Research on mental health and resilience among people of diverse races and faiths earns multiple grants and recognition for a UT Arlington School of Social Work associate professor working with The Potter's House of Dallas and Dallas City Temple Seventh-day Adventist Church.

Study findings linking ovulation, racial bias questioned
In four studies, documented in their paper 'In Search of an Association Between Conception Risk and Prejudice,' Carlee Beth Hawkins, a Chicago Booth doctoral student, and her co-authors were unable to find any evidence that there is an increase in racial bias related to conception risk.

Wistar receives $5.6 million grant renewal from Wellcome Trust
The Wistar Institute and London-based global charity Wellcome Trust announce that they have signed a follow-on funding agreement of $5.6 over the next three years in support of ongoing research and development of a new class of drugs useful for treating cancers associated with Epstein-Barr virus.

Burke Museum paleontologists discover the first dinosaur fossil in Washington state
Burke Museum paleontologists have published a description of the first dinosaur fossil from Washington state.

Robotic sonar system inspired by bats
Engineers at Virginia Tech have taken the first steps toward building a novel dynamic sonar system inspired by horseshoe bats that could be more efficient and take up less space than current man-made sonar arrays.

Study: Include men in osteoporosis screening guidelines
In a large study of smokers, men were more likely than women to have osteoporosis and fractures of their vertebrae.

Growing up with smokers doubles risk for adult smoking among Hispanics
For Hispanics/Latinos living in the United States, growing up in a home with a regular smoker nearly doubled their chances of becoming an adult smoker.

Pilot clinical trial finds injected immune cells safe in multiple myeloma patients
In a report on what is believed to be the first small clinical trial of its kind, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say they have safely used immune cells grown from patients' own bone marrow to treat multiple myeloma, a cancer of white blood cells.

New class of swelling magnets have the potential to energize the world
A new class of magnets that expand their volume when placed in a magnetic field and generate negligible amounts of wasteful heat during energy harvesting, has been discovered.

New survey on academic diversity shows little progress
Despite efforts over decades to diversify the ranks of university faculty, only 4 percent of chemistry professorships at 50 leading US colleges and universities are held by underrepresented minorities.

Scripps reports results at first all pencil-beam proton center in US
The nation's first and only proton therapy center to treat patients exclusively with pencil-beam scanning is reporting exceptional results in delivering cancer treatment since opening for patient care just more than a year ago.

Physicians can play key role in preventing foodborne illness
Food safety awareness is key to understanding the food safety issues on the horizon, and clinicians at hospitals and doctors' offices play a key role in ensuring consumers are aware of the threats of foodborne illness, said the University of Georgia's Michael Doyle.

Analysis compares stent expansion achieved with guidance from OCT versus IVUS
Data from the ILUMIEN II trial found that guidance from optimal coherence tomography was associated with comparable stent expansion as guidance from intravascular ultrasound in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

NASA sees Extra-Tropical Storm Dolphin moving toward Sea of Okhotsk
Tropical Storm Dolphin transitioned into an extra-tropical storm and NASA's Aqua satellite captured an image of the storm on its way toward the Sea of Okhotsk.

Supernova ignition surprises scientists
Scientists have captured the early death throes of supernovae for the first time and found that the universe's benchmark explosions are much more varied than expected.

Hospital admissions strongly linked to disability for older adults in last year of life
Yale researchers found a close association between acute hospitalizations and the development and progression of disability among older adults at the end of life.

Study examines occupational sun-safety policies for local government workers in Colorado
Few local government organizations in Colorado had policies on environmental controls, such as the provision of outdoor shade, or administrative procedures, including training and resource allocation, to improve sun protection for their workers and most policies addressed employees' use of personal protection practices, according to an article published online by JAMA Dermatology.

New music strategy shows 70 percent increase in exercise adherence
The use of personalized music playlists with tempo-pace synchronization increases adherence to cardiac rehab by almost 70 percent -- according to a study published in Sports Medicine -Open.

Bat-inspired sonar system unveiled at Acoustical Society meeting
Virginia Tech researchers have developed a prototype of a dynamic sonar system inspired by horseshoe bats.

Mothers of sons more likely to develop diabetes during pregnancy
An unborn child's gender can affect the mother's risk of developing gestational diabetes or Type 2 diabetes later in life, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

American energy use up slightly, carbon emissions almost unchanged
Americans' energy use continued to grow slowly in 2014, fueled by increases in the use of natural gas, wind and solar, according to the most recent energy flow charts released by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

A statistical study of first-year college rape
A survey of more than 480 female freshmen students conducted in 2010 at a university in upstate New York found that 18.6 percent said they experienced at least one attempted or completed rape in the year after they started college.

Researchers develop new way to manufacture nanofibers
Researchers at the University of Georgia have developed an inexpensive way to manufacture nanofibers.

Surgery followed by ipilimumab in melanoma patients improves survival, say Moffitt researchers
Moffitt Cancer Center researchers participated in an international phase 3 study that demonstrated that a drug called ipilimumab improves the relapse-free survival of advanced stage melanoma patients rendered free of disease surgically but at high risk for relapse.

Offshore wind turbine construction could be putting seals' hearing at risk
Noise from pile driving during offshore wind turbine construction could be damaging the hearing of harbour seals around the UK, according to ecologists who attached GPS data loggers to 24 harbor seals while offshore wind turbines were being installed in 2012.

Taking control of light emission
Researchers take control of light emission using paired 2-D materials.

Experimental Ebola treatment boosts survival in mice
The number of new Ebola cases is tapering off, but the search for new treatments continues.

Metal pollutants in earthworms may threaten forest predators, Dartmouth-led study finds
Invasive earthworms in New England's forests are absorbing toxic metal pollutants in potentially hazardous levels that may be contributing to a decline in birds, amphibians and mammals that feed on them, a Dartmouth-led study finds.

Researchers focus on potential tool for predicting survival, staging prostate cancer
Researchers with the Indiana University School of Medicine have identified a molecule that promotes metastasis of advanced prostate cancer to the bone, an incurable condition that significantly decreases quality of life.

Regrets? Opting out of clinical trials may prompt more than a few
Women who choose not to participate in a clinical trial may be significantly more likely to later regret that decision than women who choose to participate in the study, according to a team of Penn State researchers.

EST energy conference: Research for the transformation of the energy system
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology will present its energy research activities at the international conference 'EST 2015 - Energy, Science, and Technology.' KIT's research focuses on renewable energies, energy efficiency as well as on energy and storage systems.

Caltech astronomers observe a supernova colliding with its companion star
On May 3, 2014, Caltech astronomers working on a robotic observing system known as the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory discovered a Type Ia supernova -- supernova known as 'standardizable candles' because they allow astronomers to gauge cosmic distances -- located 300 million light-years away.

UT Health Science Center San Antonio doctor plays key role in FDA expediting hep C drugs
The US Food and Drug Administration has granted amended Breakthrough Therapy Designation for a promising drug combination to treat the sickest hepatitis C patients -- those with advanced cirrhosis or who have had a liver transplant but the virus returned.

New technology could fundamentally change future wireless communications
New technology is being developed that could fundamentally change radio design and could increase data rates and network capacity, reduce power consumption, create cheaper devices and enable global roaming.

Einstein and Hitler, the hero and the villain of world history
What do Einstein, Mother Teresa, Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., Newton, Jesus, Mandela, Edison, Lincoln and the Buddha all have in common?

New era of astronomy as gravitational wave hunt begins
Australian scientists are in the hunt for the last missing piece of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, gravitational waves, as the Advanced LIGO Project in the United States comes online.

Study reveals how eastern US forests came to be
Spring visitors to Great Smoky Mountains or the Blue Ridge Parkway will see ridges and valleys covered in flowering mountain laurels, rhododendrons, tulip poplars, dogwoods, black locusts and silverbell trees.

Gun violence restraining orders: A promising strategy to reduce gun violence in the US
Gun violence restraining orders are a promising strategy for reducing firearm homicide and suicide in the United States, and should be considered by states seeking to address gun violence, researchers from the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the University of California, Davis, argue in a new report.

What happens inside a membrane
Little is known about how the proteins forming ion channels -- the 'pores' on the cell membrane -- change when they open and close, especially the portion that is 'embedded' in the membrane.

Researchers help video gamers play in the cloud without guzzling gigabytes
Gamers might one day be able to enjoy the same graphics-intensive fast-action video games they play on their gaming consoles or personal computers from mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets without guzzling gigabytes, thanks to a new tool developed by researchers at Duke University and Microsoft Research.

Ancient connection between the Americas enhanced extreme biodiversity
The exchange of species between North and South America created one of the most biologically diverse regions on Earth.

Male Java sparrows may 'drum' to their songs
Male Java sparrows may coordinate their bill-clicking sounds with the notes of their song.

Performance-enhancing sensor ready for commercialization
A wearable device being developed by the University of Strathclyde will provide real-time data analysis of fluid loss during exercise to enhance the performance of fitness enthusiasts and elite athletes. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to