Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 01, 2015
Creating a stopwatch for volcanic eruptions
According to new research at Arizona State University, there may be a way to predict when Yellowstone volcano will erupt again.

Men with 'low testosterone' have higher rates of depression
Researchers at the George Washington University, led by Michael S.

Dagger-like canines of saber-toothed cats took years to grow
The fearsome teeth of the saber-toothed cat Smilodon fatalis fully emerged at a later age than those of modern big cats, but grew at a rate about double that of their living relatives.

Sleep deprivation could reduce intrusive memories of traumatic scenes
A good night's sleep has long been recommended to those who have experienced a traumatic event.

New epigenetic mechanism revealed in brain cells
Researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have discovered that histones are steadily replaced in brain cells throughout life.

'Spectacular discovery' of how memories are formed and learning takes place
Jennifer Aniston, Clint Eastwood and Halle Berry images used in 'mind game' to establish for the first time how new memories are formed.

Researcher discovers groundwater modeling breakthrough
A newly discovered equation is expected to greatly improve the reliability and functionality for hundreds of important water models used by everyone from irrigators and city planners to climate scientists and botanists -- and trigger a new surge in data collection.

Make no bones about it: The female athlete triad can lead to problems with bone health
Participation in sports by women and girls has increased from 310,000 individuals in 1971 to 3.37 million in 2010.

The public's political views are strongly linked to attitudes on environmental issues
This report examines the general public's views on a range of science-related topics and explores the degree to which political views, educational attainment, religion and demographic factors are connected to those views.

Treatment reduces symptoms in syndrome that causes extreme light sensitivity
A novel synthetic hormone that makes certain skin cells produce more melanin significantly increases pain-free sun exposure in people with erythropoietic protoporphyria, a rare, genetic disorder resulting in excruciating pain within minutes of sun exposure.

Emergence of a 'devil's staircase' in a spin-valve system
A Japanese-German team observes at BESSY II how spins form unusual magnetic structures in a complex cobalt oxide single crystal.

Stanford study: Immune response to a flu protein yields new insights into narcolepsy
An international team of researchers has found some of the first solid evidence that narcolepsy may be a so-called 'hit-and-run' autoimmune disease.

Virtual training helps vets with PTSD, mentally ill nab more jobs
Finding a job is difficult for veterans with PTSD and individuals with severe mental illness, who have high unemployment rates though many want to work.

The bizarre mating habits of flatworms
Failing to find a mating partner is a dent to the reproductive prospects of any animal, but in the flatworm species Macrostomum hystrix it might involve a real headache.

Revised view of brain circuit reveals how we avoid being overwhelmed by powerful odors
Today in Neuron, scientists at CSHL report discovery of a neural circuit in the mouse olfactory bulb that explains how our mammalian cousins (and by extension, we) are able to dial down powerful odor signals sampled from the environment, for the simple reason that they would otherwise overpower the nerve cells that receive and process them.

Single-celled predator evolves tiny, human-like 'eye'
A single-celled marine plankton evolved a miniature version of a multi-cellular eye, possibly to help see its prey better, according to University of British Columbia research published today in Nature.

Observing the birth of a planet
Astronomers at ETH Zurich have confirmed the existence of a young giant gas planet still embedded in the midst of the disk of gas and dust surrounding its parent star.

Could your smartphone one day tell you you're pregnant?
Researchers at the Hanover Centre for Optical Technologies, University of Hanover, Germany, have developed a self-contained fiber optic sensor for smartphones with the potential for use in a wide variety of biomolecular tests, including those for detecting pregnancy or monitoring diabetes.

EARTH: Bigger is better in the sea
Analyzing thousands of records, researchers have reinforced the claim that for marine life, bigger has been better for the last 542 million years.

Humans evolved to be taller and faster-thinking, study suggests
People have evolved to be smarter and taller than their predecessors, a University of Edinburgh study of populations around the world suggests.

New Adis platform connects the world of drug development
Adis, a leading global provider of drug information, has taken a major step forward in its quest to make expertly written drug information more accessible, with the launch of a new platform AdisInsight.

Prolific authors raise concerns about industry dominance in diabetes research
Diabetes research is dominated by a small group of prolific authors, raising questions about the imbalance of power and conflict of interests in this field, argue experts in The BMJ this week.

Stunting remains a challenge in SA
Stunting remains stubbornly persistent in South Africa, despite economic growth, political and social transitions, and national nutritional programs, says a Wits-led research team.

Benefits of vitamin B12 supplements for older people questioned
Research has shown for the first time that taking vitamin B12 supplements does not benefit neurological or cognitive function in older people with moderate deficiency of vitamin B12, according to a new study led by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.

Drexel's microscale 'Transformers' are joining forces to break through blocked arteries
Swarms of microscopic, magnetic, robotic beads could be scrubbing in next to the world's top vascular surgeons -- all taking aim at blocked arteries.

Europe, Siberia and in between: Caucasian populations of non-biting midges
Russian scientists revealed intermediate distribution of Caucasian populations of non-biting midges between Europe and Siberia.

FASEB 2016 Excellence in Science Award recipient announced
The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) is pleased to announce that Bonnie L.

Subcutaneous administration of multispecific antibody improves tumor treatment
Tumor treatment with multispecific antibodies is significantly more tolerable if administered subcutaneously rather than via the bloodstream, which was the standard procedure until now.

Live imaging reveals how wound healing influences cancer
Researchers in the United Kingdom and Denmark have studied the 'see-through' larvae of zebrafish to reveal how wound healing leads to melanoma.

Implantable 'artificial pancreas' could help diabetes patients control their blood sugar
Living with type 1 diabetes requires constant monitoring of blood sugar levels and injecting insulin daily.

Lifelong learning is made possible by recycling of histones, study says
Research conducted at the Rockefeller University and collaborating institutions has uncovered a new mechanism that makes neuronal plasticity and, as a result, learning possible.

Health information causing new mums anxiety
Pregnancy and motherhood are both wonderful and worrisome times -- could public health campaigns and social stereotypes be contributing to anxiety for mothers?

'Smaller is smarter' in superspreading of influence in social networks -- CCNY physicists
A study by City College of New York physicists Flaviano Morone and Hernán A.

Regenerative medicine biologists discover a cellular structure that explains fate of stem cells
UT Southwestern Medical Center scientists collaborating with University of Michigan researchers have found a previously unidentified mechanism that helps explain why stem cells undergo self-renewing divisions but their offspring do not.

Mandatory targets to cut salt would reduce excess heart disease deaths in deprived areas
Mandatory targets to reduce salt in processed food would help tackle inequalities in coronary heart disease that lead to excess deaths in deprived areas of England, according to research by the University of Liverpool.

We're not alone -- but the universe may be less crowded than we think
There may be far fewer galaxies further out in the universe then might be expected, according to a new study led by Michigan State University.

Effective conversion of methane by a new copper zeolite
A new bio-inspired zeolite catalyst, developed by an international team with researchers from Technische Universität München, Eindhoven University of Technology and University of Amsterdam, might pave the way to small scale 'gas-to-liquid' technologies converting natural gas to fuels and starting materials for the chemical industry.

A tale of 2 (soil) cities
Recent work showed that long-term differences in soil use and management influence not only the sizes and numbers of soil aggregates, but also what the pores inside them will look like.

Simple classroom measures may reduce the impact of ADHD
A systematic review has concluded that non-drug interventions in schools may be effective in improving outcomes such as performance in standardized tests for children with ADHD.

Improved survival in adult patients with low-grade brain tumors
Using clinical data collected over the past decade through a US cancer registry, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine demonstrated that significant strides have been made in improving the survival of adult patients with low-grade gliomas, a slow-growing yet deadly form of primary brain cancer.

New insights into how the brain forms memories
Neurons in a brain region called the medial temporal lobe play a key role in our ability to quickly form memories about real-life events and experiences, according to a study published July 1 in Neuron.

Buried in the heart of a giant
This rich view of an array of colorful stars and gas was captured by the Wide Field Imager camera, on the MPG/ESO 2.2-meter telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile.

Boys more likely to have antipsychotics prescribed, regardless of age
Boys are more likely than girls to receive a prescription for antipsychotic medication regardless of age, researchers have found.

Patient access to cardiovascular devices delayed by bureaucracy
Patients are experiencing significant delays in access to approved cardiovascular devices due to bureaucratic inefficiencies, reveals a Devices White Paper from the Cardiovascular Round Table published today in European Heart Journal.

Monitoring seawater reveals ocean acidification risks to Alaskan shellfish hatchery
New collaborative research between NOAA, University of Alaska and an Alaskan shellfish hatchery shows that ocean acidification may make it difficult for Alaskan coastal waters to support shellfish hatcheries by 2040 unless costly mitigation efforts are installed to modify seawater used in the hatcheries.

Study of gene mutations in aplastic anemia may help optimize treament
Scientists have identified a group of genetic mutations in patients with aplastic anemia, which likely will help doctors optimize treatment for this rare and deadly blood condition.

Penn team identifies gene responsible for some cases of male infertility
Oftentimes men with a type of infertility called azoospermia don't know the underlying cause of their condition.

Traffic-related air pollution risk is greater for minority and low-income populations
Low-income and minority populations disproportionately reside near roadways with high traffic volumes and consequently face increased exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) and their associated health effects.

Discovery of nanotubes offers new clues about cell-to-cell communication
When it comes to communicating with each other, some cells may be more 'old school' than was previously thought.

Newly discovered 48-million-year-old lizard walked on water in Wyoming
A newly discovered, 48-million-year-old fossil, known as a 'Jesus lizard' for its ability to walk on water, may provide insight into how climate change may affect tropical species.

Insect legs give clues to improving aircraft design
Insect legs could help engineers improve the safety of long tubular structures used in aircraft to reduce weight and in hospital equipment, such as catheters.

Study: Targeted LEDs could provide efficient lighting for plants grown in space
A Purdue University study shows that targeting plants with red and blue LEDs provides energy-efficient lighting in contained environments, a finding that could advance the development of crop-growth modules for space exploration.

The BMJ's data sharing policy now applies to all clinical trials
From today, July 1, 2015, The BMJ requires sharing of individual patient data for all clinical trials.

Hydroelectric dams drastically reduce tropical forest biodiversity
Widely hailed as 'green' sources of renewable energy, hydroelectric dams have been built worldwide at an unprecedented scale.

Improving insulation materials, down to wetting crossed fibers
Sandcastles are a good example of how adding a small amount of liquid to a granular material changes its characteristics.

Evaluation of NK1 antagonists for emesis prevention in oxaliplatin chemo: SENRI trial
The SENRI trial has opened the window to evaluate NK1 antagonists for emesis prevention in patients taking oxaliplatin chemotherapy, results of a Japanese study presented today at the ESMO 17th World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer 2015 in Barcelona reveal.

Flying without wings: Losing feathers has a detrimental effect on migrating birds
Birds that molt at the wrong time of the year could be disadvantaged, according to a study by scientists at Lund University, Sweden.

How cortisol reinforces traumatic memories
The stress hormone cortisol strengthens memories of scary experiences. However, it is effective not only while the memory is being formed for the first time, but also later when people look back at an experience while the memory reconsolidates.

First patient ever receives successful transplant after using 50cc Total Artificial Heart
A California woman became the first patient in the world to receive a successful heart transplant at Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center thanks to an experimental Total Artificial Heart designed for smaller patients.

UT Arlington team develops new storage cell for solar energy storage, nighttime conversion
A University of Texas at Arlington materials science and engineering team has developed a new energy cell that can store large-scale solar energy even when it's dark.

Extreme heat and precipitation are increasing Salmonella infections, UMD study shows
Extreme heat and precipitation events, which are expected to increase in frequency and intensity due to climate change, are associated with increased risk of salmonella infections, according to a study led by researchers from the University of Maryland School of Public Health.

Fine tuning in the brain
From a hodgepodge to well-tuned networks -- Freiburg researchers develop a computer model to explain how nerve cell connections form in the visual cortex.

Support for overdose-reversing drug low, but can be bolstered with right messages
While most Americans do not support policies designed to increase distribution of naloxone -- a medication that reverses the effects of a drug overdose -- certain types of educational messages about its lifesaving benefits may bolster support for its use, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research suggests.

Human brain may contain a map for social navigation
A study reveals how the hippocampus contributes to social behavior.

Experimental drug combined with standard chemo may shrink ovarian cancers
Working in cell cultures and mice, researchers at Johns Hopkins have found that an experimental drug called fostamatinib combined with the chemotherapy drug paclitaxel may overcome ovarian cancer cells' resistance to paclitaxel.

UTHealth's Robert Hunter honored with 2 awards
Robert Hunter Jr., M.D., Ph.D., Distinguished Chair in Molecular Pathology and chair of the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Medical School, has received two prestigious awards.

Unraveling iridescence
Perhaps not the brightest of cephalopods, the California market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) has amazing light-manipulating abilities.

Consumers understand supplements help fill nutrient gaps, new survey shows
The vast majority of consumers recognize that multivitamins, calcium and/or vitamin D supplements can help fill nutrient gaps but should not be viewed as replacements for a healthy diet, according to a new survey conducted on behalf of the Council for Responsible Nutrition.

New chronic lung disease guidelines over-diagnose older men and under-diagnose younger women
New guidelines for diagnosing chronic lung disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD), should be modified because they over-diagnose COPD in older men and under-diagnose COPD in young women.

Extracurricular sports produce disciplined preteens
Regular, structured extracurricular sports seem to help kids develop the discipline they need in order to engage effectively in the classroom, according to a new study led by Linda Pagani of the University of Montreal and its affiliated CHU Sainte-Justine children's hospital.

Study details use of antipsychotic medication in young people
The use of antipsychotic medication increased among adolescents and young adults from 2006 to 2010 but not among children 12 years or younger, according to an article published online by JAMA Psychiatry.

Institute for Biomedical Sciences researcher gets $1.6 million to develop anti-inflammatory drug
Dr. Jian-Dong Li, a professor and director of the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University and a Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Inflammation and Immunity, has received a five-year, $1.6 million federal grant to develop novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics against middle-ear infections.

Mitochondria, plastids evolved together into this single-celled plankton's 'eye'
Scientists have peered into the eye-like structure of single-celled marine plankton called warnowiids and found it contains many of the components of a complex eye.

Doing good deeds helps socially anxious people relax
Being busy with acts of kindness can help people who suffer from social anxiety to mingle more easily.

Avian flu: $1.35 million grant to fund effort to better predict deadly outbreaks
An international research team led by Lukas Tamm of the University of Virginia School of Medicine will receive $1.35 million from the Human Frontier Science Program Organization to better understand how the influenza virus passes from birds to humans.

Spectrum Health Innovations signs licensing agreement with Min-Bio for surgical basin
Spectrum Health Innovations recently signed a licensing agreement with Min-Bio, LLC, of Lowell, Mich., to manufacture a new trauma surgery basin that is a cut above existing designs.

NIST 'how-to' website documents procedures for nano-EHS research and testing
As engineered nanomaterials increasingly find their way into commercial products, researchers who study the potential environmental or health impacts of those materials face a growing challenge to accurately measure and characterize them.

Obese teens in study less likely to use contraception
A study of nearly 1,000 teens found that sexually active obese adolescents were significantly less likely to use contraception than normal weight peers, putting them at higher risk of unintended pregnancy.

Liquids on fibers -- slipping or flowing?
Thin fibers play a tremendous role in many areas of daily life, from the use of glass fibers in ultra-fast data transmission to textile fibers.

Baby seals that practice in pools make better divers
Being able to dive is what matters most for seal pups, but how do they learn to do it?

UH Health leader inducted into National Optometry Hall of Fame
Longtime College of Optometry faculty member and University of Houston administrator Earl L.

We're not alone -- but the universe may be less crowded than we think
There may be far fewer galaxies further out in the Universe then might be expected, suggests a new study based on simulations conducted using the Blue Waters supercomputer at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, with resulting data transferred to SDSC Cloud at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California, San Diego, for future analysis.

Producing spin-entangled electrons
A team from the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, along with collaborators from several Japanese institutions, have successfully produced pairs of spin-entangled electrons and demonstrated, for the first time, that these electrons remain entangled even when they are separated from one another on a chip.

This week from AGU: Quadrupling Beijing, seismic hazards and 4 new research papers
This week from AGU are articles on quadrupling Beijing, seismic hazards and four new research papers.

Human brain study by UCLA and UK researchers sheds light on how new memories are formed
In the first study of its kind, UCLA and United Kingdom researchers found that neurons in a specific brain region play a key role in rapidly forming memories about every day events, a finding that may result in a better understanding of memory loss and new methods to fight it in Alzheimer's and other neurological diseases.

Clinical investigation reviews approaches and outcomes of Africa-based HIV trials
A new article in Clinical Investigation highlights the learnings gleaned from monitoring several complex HIV clinical trials in Africa over a 15 year period.

Thin colorectal cancer patients have shorter survival than obese patients
Although being overweight with a high body-mass index has long been associated with a higher risk for colorectal cancer, thinner patients might not fare as well after treatment for advanced cancer, according to a new study from Duke Medicine.

What's in your landscape? Plants can alter West Nile virus risk
A new study looks at how leaf litter in water influences the abundance of Culex pipiens mosquitoes, which can transmit West Nile virus to humans, domestic animals, birds and other wildlife.

Temperature reproduces good and bad effects in mammals
Contradictory temperature effects on reproductive success in mammals pose a dilemma, with cooler temperatures causing increased milk output, but slower development in young and higher temperatures having the opposite effect.

A sharper look: ONR researcher wins prize for satellite imaging work
For research that could provide warfighters with extremely accurate digital images of future combat zones and potential enemies, a French mathematician sponsored by the Office of Naval Research recently won the prestigious Longuet-Higgins Prize from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' Computer Society.

Congressional briefing to explore biological sex differences' impact on medical research
The Endocrine Society and Society for Women's Health Research are co-sponsoring a Congressional briefing on July 10 to examine the need to include more female subjects in preclinical and clinical biomedical research -- a move that could revolutionize medical research and scientific discovery.

EU open source software project receives green light
An open source software project involving the University of Southampton to extend the capacity of computational mathematics and interactive computing environments has received over seven million euros in EU funding.

Rising fossil fuel energy costs spell trouble for global food security
In an analysis of food preservation and transportation trends published in this week's issue of the journal BioScience, scientists warn that new sustainable technologies will be needed for humanity just to stay even in the arms race against the microorganisms that can rapidly spoil the outputs of the modern food system.

70 percent of college students stressed about finances
Seven out of 10 college students feel stressed about their personal finances, according to a new national survey.

NASA sees heavy rain in Tropical Cyclone Chan-Hom
The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite passed over Tropical Cyclone Chan-Hom and found heavy rainfall in the newborn storm.

New health evidence gives women informed choice in the stress urinary incontinence surgery debate
A new Cochrane systematic review published today of surgery for stress urinary incontinence makes an important contribution to an ongoing debate and will help women to make more informed choices about treatment.

ASHG honors R. Rodney Howell with Advocacy Award
ASHG has named R. Rodney Howell, M.D., Professor in the Department of Pediatrics, Chairman Emeritus of Pediatrics, and Member of the Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, at the University of Miami Leonard M.

Statins linked to lower aggression in men, but higher in women
In the first randomized trial to look at statin effects on behavior, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that aggressive behavior typically declined among men placed on statins (compared to placebo), but typically increased among women placed on statins.

Ultra-stable JILA microscopy technique tracks tiny objects for hours
JILA researchers have designed a microscope instrument so stable that it can accurately measure the 3-D movement of individual molecules over many hours -- hundreds of times longer than the current limit measured in seconds.

Should scientists be allowed to genetically alter human embryos?
Scientists have at their disposal a way to explore the possible prevention of genetic diseases before birth.

'Map of life' predicts ET. (So where is he?)
The author of a new study of evolutionary convergence argues that the development of life on Earth is predictable, meaning that similar organisms should therefore have appeared on other, Earth-like planets.

Many patients with advanced form of larynx cancer not receiving recommended treatment
Despite findings of previous studies and published guidelines, nearly two-thirds of patients with T4a larynx ('voice box') cancer are not receiving a total laryngectomy (surgical removal of the larynx), the recommended form of treatment, and as a result, have significantly worse survival rates versus those treated with a total laryngectomy, a new study published in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics by experts at Penn Medicine found.

Brain activity predicts promiscuity and problem drinking
A new pair of brain-imaging studies suggest that researchers may be able to predict how likely young adults are to develop problem drinking or risky sexual behavior in response to stress.

Me and my world: The human factor in space -- NASA 1-year mission video miniseries
Learn about the human factors in NASA's One-Year Mission.

New drug for neuroblastoma shows promise in phase I study
Researchers at Spectrum Health Helen DeVos Children's Hospital have completed the first clinical trial of a new treatment for children suffering from neuroblastoma.

Clues to inner atomic life from subtle light-emission shifts
Atoms absorb and emit light of various wavelengths. Physicists have long known that there are some tiny changes, or shifts, in the light that gets absorbed or emitted, due to the properties of the atomic nucleus.

One in 4 people prescribed opioids progressed to longer-term prescriptions
Opioid painkiller addiction and accidental overdoses have become far too common across the United States.

Preemies at high risk of autism don't show typical signs of disorder in early infancy
Premature babies are at an increased risk for developing autism spectrum disorder.

How removing a protein slows blood vessel growth in tumors
Scientists from the University of Leeds and The Institute of Cancer Research, London, have discovered a new protein which triggers the growth of blood vessels in breast cancer tumors which have spread to the brain, a common location which breast cancer can spread to.

Trends in antipsychotic medication use in children, adolescents, and young adults
Despite concerns that use of antipsychotic medications in treating young people has increased, use actually declined between 2006 and 2010 for children ages 12 and under, and increased for adolescents and young adults.

National Multiple Sclerosis Society funds grant to explore new model of MS pathology
The National Multiple Sclerosis Society has awarded a grant to a Wayne State University School of Medicine professor to explore a new model of MS pathology.

Menopausal women have lower risk of dying from heart attack than men
Menopausal women had a lower risk of dying from heart attack than men.

Why human egg cells don't age well
When egg cells form with an incorrect number of chromosomes -- a problem that increases with age -- the result is usually a miscarriage or a genetic disease such as Down syndrome.

Seeing is believing
Researchers have uncovered key principles about the way vision-neurons work, explaining how the brain uses sensory information to guide the decisions that drive behaviors.

Ian Crozier to be guest speaker at the SLB annual meeting Sept. 27-29
The Society for Leukocyte Biology will hold a session at its annual meeting Sept.

People with epilepsy can benefit from smartphone apps to manage their condition
While many people with epilepsy can control their seizures with medication, those unpredictable and involuntary changes in behavior and consciousness can be limiting for others.

Study: Restaurant meals can be as bad for your waistline as fast food is
When Americans go out to eat, either at a fast-food outlet or a full-service restaurant, they consume, on average, about 200 more calories a day than when they stay home for meals, a new study reports.

Helping students stick with MOOCs
At the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, MIT researchers showed that a dropout-prediction model trained on data from one offering of a course can help predict which students will stop out of the next offering.

New method can make cheaper solar energy storage
Building on a unique idea, EPFL scientists have developed a cost-effective new method for converting and storing solar energy into hydrogen.

Genetic switch detects TNT
Cleaning-up post-war explosive chemicals could get cheaper and easier, using a new genetic 'switch' device, being developed by scientists at the University of Exeter to detect damaging contaminants, such as TNT.

Eliminate emotional harm by focusing on respect and dignity for patients
Hospitals have made significant strides to reduce or eliminate physical harm to patients since the landmark 1999 Institute of Medicine Report 'To Err is Human.' In a new paper published in BMJ, patient care leaders at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center say hospitals must now devote similar attention to eliminating emotional harms that damage a patient's dignity and can be caused by a failure to demonstrate adequate respect for the patient as a person.

Research letter: Indoor tanning rates drop among US adults
Indoor tanning rates dropped among adults from 5.5 percent in 2010 to 4.2 percent in 2013, although an estimated 7.8 million women and 1.9 million men still engage in the practice, which has been linked to increased cancer risk, according to the results of a study published online in a research letter by JAMA Dermatology.

Producing fuel from Canada oil sands emits more carbon than from US crude
The production of petroleum from Canada's oil sands is on the rise with much of it destined for US refineries.

Warts and all: How St. John's Wort can make you sick
St John's Wort can produce the same adverse reactions as antidepressants, and serious side effects can occur when the two are taken together, according to new University of Adelaide research.

Patients with lowest BMI have shortest survival in pooled analysis of bev in mCRC
Patients with the lowest body mass index had the shortest overall survival in an analysis of bevacizumab studies in metastatic colorectal cancer presented for the first time at the ESMO 17th World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer 2015 in Barcelona.

What makes fireflies glow? (video)
As fireflies are delighting children across the country with their nighttime displays, scientists are closing in on a better understanding of how the insects produce their enchanting glow.

Temple doctors provide commentary in New England Journal of Medicine about major weight loss study
Temple Drs. Elias S. Siraj and Kevin J. Williams offered their take on the significance of the randomized, double-blind clinical trial that showed a daily injection of the drug liraglutide, when given as an adjunct to diet and exercise in non-diabetics with obesity or overweight, was associated with reduced body weight and improved metabolic control.

Wayne State to lead Detroit site in new national heart failure study
The Wayne State University School of Medicine and Detroit Receiving Hospital of the Detroit Medical Center will serve as a site for a national study that will develop new guidelines for patients released from the emergency room after treatment for suspected acute heart failure symptoms.

Dagger-like saber-toothed cat canines took years to grow
The fearsome saber-toothed cat teeth may have fully emerged later in life than those of modern big cats, but they grew at a rate about double that of their living relatives.

Charcoaling manure and greening neighborhoods in the Chesapeake Bay watershed
Chesapeake Bay bears a heavy pollution burden from the growing metropolitan centers and vibrant agricultural activity in the watershed.

Tropical Cyclone Raquel triggers warnings in Solomon Islands
NASA's Terra satellite and RapidScat instrument showed a slowly developing Tropical Storm Raquel affecting the Solomon Islands on June 30 and July 1.

Longer-term follow-up shows greater type 2 diabetes remission for bariatric surgery compared to life
Among obese participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus, bariatric surgery with two years of a low-level lifestyle intervention resulted in more disease remission than did lifestyle intervention alone, according to a study published online by JAMA Surgery.

End pharmacists' monopoly on selling certain drugs, argues expert
Evidence is lacking that having a category of drugs that can be sold only by pharmacists or under their supervision ('pharmacy medicines') has benefits, writes a pharmacy professor in The BMJ this week.

Income-tax earnings data give more accurate picture of value of college degree
A new study that is the first to use Social Security Administration's personal income tax data tracking the same individuals over 20 years to measure individual lifetime earnings has confirmed significant long-term economic benefits of college education.

Deuterium substitution improves therapeutic and metabolic profiles of medicines
Substituting deuterium for certain hydrogen atoms in molecules provides a promising approach to discovery and development of innovative drug products, building on the known pharmacology of existing compounds.

Rosetta spacecraft sees sinkholes on comet
The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft first began orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014.
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