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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 24, 2015


TSRI & Janssen study makes major advance toward more effective, long-lasting flu vaccine
Scientists from The Scripps Research Institute and the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson have found a way to induce antibodies to fight a wide range of influenza subtypes -- work that could one day eliminate the need for repeated seasonal flu shots.
Argonne pushing boundaries of computing in engine simulations
Researchers at the Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory will be testing the limits of computing horsepower this year with a new simulation project from the Virtual Engine Research Institute and Fuels Initiative that will harness 60 million computer core hours to reduce those uncertainties and pave the way to more effective engine simulations.
NASA sees Tropical Depression Danny affecting Leeward Islands
Tropical Depression Danny was already affecting the Leeward Islands when NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead.
CONRAD to receive USAID funding for Project EMOTION
CONRAD is pleased to announce a new funding agreement, in collaboration with the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the US Agency for International Development, in support of a human centered design strategy to increase demand, use and adherence of HIV prevention products for high risk women in Africa.
NASA Goddard announces collaboration with YYESIT LLC
The Innovative Technology Partnerships Office (ITPO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, signed a five-year Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with YYESIT LLC of Baltimore to co-develop a product that will offer an innovative way to provide monitoring, interpreting and reporting activities against safety and quality protocols, with an initial focus in the area of safety and quality compliance.
Blacks hit hardest by public-sector job losses during recession, study finds
A new University of Washington study found that public-sector job cuts during and after the Great Recession disproportionately impacted African-Americans, especially women, and have increased racial disparity in the public sector.
Research may solve lunar fire fountain mystery
Scientists have found traces of carbon in volcanic glass collected from the Apollo missions to the Moon.
Children's hospitals shift from CT scans for common childhood health problems
A study published online Aug. 24 by the journal Pediatrics finds a significant decrease in the use of computed tomography scans at children's hospitals for 10 common childhood diagnoses including seizure, concussion, appendectomy and upper respiratory tract infection.
Optimizing effectiveness of CAR T cell therapy in lymphoma highlighted in special nordic issue
Chimeric antigen receptor T cells, which can specifically recognize and target tumor cells, have resulted in complete responses in patients with leukemia, and although equally promising for treating lymphoma, obstacles remain and individual patient responses CAR T cell therapy have varied.
Cameras delivered for NASA's OSIRIS-REx mission as launch prep continues
The first US mission to return samples of an asteroid to Earth is another step closer to its fall 2016 launch, with the delivery of three cameras that will image and map the giant space rock.
Waterford AD research suggests measuring macular pigment potential biomarker of cognitive health
Ongoing European Research Council-funded research at Waterford Institute of Technology's Macular Pigment Research Group is investigating the potential link between cognitive function and levels of a vital eye pigment linked to diet.
How to stay awake without caffeine
You're tired and you need an energy boost, but you don't want the jitters from caffeine.
Corporate governance expert at the Rotman School of Management honored
An adjunct professor at the University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management, who has been at the forefront of promoting best practices in corporate governance in Canada and around the world, has been honored by the Canadian Society of Corporate Secretaries.
Electronic trigger reduces delays in evaluation for cancer diagnosis
Electronic triggers designed to search for key data, developed by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and Michael E.
NIMBioS receives NSF grant to assess student learning in mathematics
The National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis has been awarded a two-year, $299,990 grant from the National Science Foundation to develop a new tool to assess whether using real-world biology examples in college-level mathematics courses enhances student understanding of quantitative concepts.
Enjoyment motivates people to participate in the sharing economy
People are motivated to participate in the sharing economy because of its ecological sustainability, the enjoyment derived from the activity, the sense of community, and saving money and time.
Study links physical activity to greater mental flexibility in older adults
One day soon, doctors may determine how physically active you are simply by imaging your brain.
Antidepressants fine-tune brain reward pathway to lessen neuropathic pain
Commonly used antidepressant drugs change levels of a key signaling protein in the brain region that processes both pain and mood, according to a study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published Aug.
Penn/Baylor Med study describes underlying cause of diabetes in dogs
In a new effort, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania and Baylor College of Medicine have used advanced imaging technology to fill in details about the underlying cause of canine diabetes, which until now has been little understood.
Scientists show how exposure to brief trauma and sudden sounds form lasting memories
Researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center have found how even brief exposure to sudden sounds or mild trauma can form permanent, long-term brain connections, or memories, in a specific region of the brain.
Lightness/darkness of skin affects male immigrants' likelihood of gaining employment
Skin color is a significant factor in the probability of employment for male immigrants to the United States, according to a new study.
NASA is laser-focused on deep space communication
By analyzing pre- and post-flight interviews, video recordings and questionnaires, investigators were able to determine that high-quality communication (no delay) resulted in high performance and mood.
Fertility concerns impact breast cancer treatment decisions
Concerns about fertility kept a third of young women with breast cancer from taking tamoxifen, despite its known benefit in reducing the risk of breast cancer coming back.
Influenza vaccines provide moderate protection throughout the entire flu season
Individuals who received the flu vaccine were protected for up to 6 months post-vaccination, the duration of most flu seasons, according to a study presented at the 2015 International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases.
Genetic overlapping in multiple autoimmune diseases may suggest common therapies
Scientists who analyzed the genes involved in 10 autoimmune diseases that begin in childhood have discovered 22 genome-wide signals shared by two or more diseases.
Young adults, women experience only slight declines in heart disease deaths
Heart disease deaths have declined dramatically over the past three decades in people over age 65.
Similar outcomes for mothers and babies at low risk delivered by FPs and obstetricians
For pregnant women who are at low risk of complications giving birth, the risk of newborn death and maternal complications is similar for obstetric deliveries by family physicians and obstetricians, according to a large study published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
Smooth robot movements reduce energy consumption by up to 40 percent
By minimizing the acceleration of industrial robots, energy consumption can be reduced by up to 40 percent -- while retaining the given production time.
Low awareness of services, perceptions of support continue in UO campus sex climate
A new survey on sexual victimization issues at the University of Oregon reaffirms previous findings that there is a need to increase awareness about available services, while decreasing negative perceptions of institutional support.
Tiny antibodies point to vulnerability in disease-causing parasites
By teasing apart the structure of an enzyme vital to the parasites that cause toxoplasmosis and malaria, Whitehead Institute scientists have identified a potentially 'druggable' target that could prevent parasites from entering and exiting host cells.
The mending tissue -- Cellular instructions for tissue repair
A collaborative study led by scientists at the Mechanobiology Institute at the National University of Singapore has described a universal mechanism that regulates forces during epithelial tissue repair.
Association between transient newborn hypoglycemia, 4th grade achievement
A study matching newborn glucose concentration screening results with fourth-grade achievement test scores suggests that early transient newborn hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) was associated with lower test scores at age 10, according to an article published online by JAMA Pediatrics.
Compound found in red wine causes conflicting changes in dogs' immune systems
Researchers at the University of Missouri have found that resveratrol does affect the immune systems of dogs in different ways when introduced to dogs' blood.
UMD-led study identifies the off switch for biofilm formation
When disease-causing bacteria establish a biofilm on hospital equipment, it can be impossible to sterilize the devices, raising infection rates and necessitating expensive replacements.
UI and WSU to help communities prepare for, recover from wildfires
More than 6,000 fires have burned more than a million acres in the Northwest so far in 2015, with experts predicting continuing severe wildfires in coming years.
New data changes ideas about sea level and coastal uplift along Pacific Coast
A new GSA Bulletin study shows that uplift rates across the Pacific Coast of the USA and northern Mexico have been overestimated by an average of more than 40 percent.
Personal clothing may spread respiratory infections within the NICU
Respiratory syncytial virus, which is the leading cause of childhood respiratory hospitalizations among premature babies, can be detected from the clothes worn by caregivers/visitors who are visiting infants in the neonatal intensive care unit, according to research being presented at the International Conference on Emerging and Infectious Diseases in Atlanta, Georgia.
Climate impacts on marine biodiversity
New research into the impact of climate change has found that warming oceans will cause profound changes in the global distribution of marine biodiversity.
NASA sees Typhoon Goni moving through East China Sea
Typhoon Goni continued on its northern track and NASA's Terra satellite captured an image of the storm moving through the East China Sea early on August 24.
Future ScienceOA explores nitric oxide in medicine: Where are we, and where are we headed?
Future Science Group today announced the publication of a special issue in Future Science OA, covering the rapidly evolving field of nitric oxide in human medicine.
Men who feel they fall short of 'masculine' gender norms may be prone to violence
Men whose image of themselves falls short of the traditional masculine gender norms, and who feel that others think this about them too, may be more prone to violence than men who feel comfortable in their own skin, suggests research published online in the journal Injury Prevention.
Company R&D expenditures in US increased 6.7 percent in 2013
Companies spent $323 billion on research and development performed in the United States during 2013, 6.7 percent more than the $302 billion they spent the previous year.
Study finds black bears in Yosemite forage primarily on plants and nuts
Black bears in Yosemite National Park that don't seek out human foods subsist primarily on plants and nuts, according to a study conducted by biologists at UC San Diego who also found that ants and other sources of animal protein, such as mule deer, make up only a small fraction of the bears' annual diet.
Berkeley Lab releases most comprehensive analysis of electricity reliability trends
In the most comprehensive analysis of electricity reliability trends in the United States, researchers at Berkeley Lab and Stanford University have found that, while, on average, the frequency of power outages has not changed in recent years, the total number of minutes customers are without power each year has been increasing over time.
Another milestone in hybrid artificial photosynthesis
Berkeley Lab researchers using a bioinorganic hybrid approach to artificial photosynthesis have combined semiconducting nanowires with select microbes to create a system that produces renewable molecular hydrogen and uses it to synthesize carbon dioxide into methane, the primary constituent of natural gas.
Stopping antihypertensive therapy in older patients did not improve functioning
Discontinuing antihypertensive therapy for patients 75 or older with mild cognitive deficits did not improve short-term cognitive, psychological or general daily functioning, according to an article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.
Use of tamoxifen by young women is influenced by fertility concerns
The risk of breast cancer recurrence and mortality is decreased by endocrine therapy such as tamoxifen, but younger patients may decline it or discontinue treatment early if they are concerned about fertility, according to a study published Aug.
Medical terms lead to divide between parents and doctors
Few things are more stressful than dealing with a sick child.
Brains of abused teenagers show 'encouraging' ability to regulate emotions
Children who have been abused typically experience more intense emotions than their peers who have not been abused.
New blood test for colon cancer improves colonoscopy screening results
Thanks in part to screening technologies like colonoscopy; colon cancer is often detected in its earliest stages.
Researcher documents gender, class bias in enforcement of quarantine law
A University of Kansas researcher has documented examples of how quarantine of individuals infected with venereal diseases continued well after World War I and how these laws were generally enforced along lines of gender and class, especially punishing poor women.
Giving pharmacists the power to combat opioid overdoses
In response to the growing opioid crisis, several states, including Massachusetts and Rhode Island, have granted pharmacists the authority to provide naloxone rescue kits without a prescription to at-risk patients.
Why do so many children born with heart defects have trouble in school?
As advances in medicine are giving rise to growing numbers of children who survive severe heart defects, it's emerging that over half have behavioral problems and difficulty keeping up academically.
Bacterial infection makes farmers out of amoebae
A bacterial infection turns non-farming social amoebae into farmers Washington University evolutionary biologists report in the Aug.
Men, people over 65 sleep better when they have access to nature
Men and persons age 65 and older who have access to natural surroundings, whether it's the green space of a nearby park or a sandy beach and an ocean view, report sleeping better, according to a new University of Illinois study published in Preventive Medicine.
Generic heart medication shown to prolong ovarian cancer patients' survival
In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers demonstrate a benefit in overall survival among epithelial ovarian cancer patients receiving generic heart medications known as beta-blockers.
FSU researcher identifies protein with promise for cancer therapy
In the second part of his lab's recent one-two punch, Florida State University researcher Daniel Kaplan said he has solved a cell division mystery in a way that will intrigue the makers of cancer-fighting drugs.
Entomologists sniff out new stink bug to help soybean farmers control damage
Entomologists in Texas got a whiff of a new stink bug doing economic damage to soybeans in Texas and are developing ways to help farmers combat it, according to a report in the journal Environmental Entomology.
Study backs flu vaccinations for elderly
Amid debate about whether flu vaccination really helps the elderly, a new study provides fresh evidence that it does.
Is MERS another SARS: The facts behind Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
Experts show that while Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, a viral respiratory illness, is infecting less people, it has a higher mortality rate and affects a specific target population when compared to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.
Mayo Clinic researchers find new code that makes reprogramming of cancer cells possible
Cancer researchers dream of the day they can force tumor cells to morph back to the normal cells they once were.
Heart medications that target stress may help prolong survival in women with ovarian cancer
A new analysis of patient records indicates that certain drugs taken to improve heart health may also have anti-cancer properties.
Female guppies become better swimmers to escape male sexual harassment
Animal sexual reproduction can involve males attempting to entice or force females to mate with them, even if they are not initially interested.
Under the wing of science: Two methods for aging nestling Carnaby's cockatoo species
Two methods for aging the endangered Carnaby's cockatoo nestlings have been researched and assessed by an Australian team of scientists.
Patient born with insensitivity to pain acquires neuropathic pain following childbirth
A medical case report of a female patient who had felt no pain since childhood but who, following childbirth, was left with a variety of pain symptoms, has given insights into the manifestation of neuropathic pain.
EARTH -- Geology for everyone: Making the field accessible
At the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America, a couple of researchers put on the first fully accessible field trip, and it was a success!
New NSF award will expand scope and impact of ASU water research
In the grips of long-term drought, the Colorado River Basin and the cities that rely on its water face unprecedented challenges with a warming climate and large-scale land use change.
Chimpanzees found to survive in degraded and human-dominated habitats
A chimpanzee population in Uganda has been found to be three times larger than previously estimated, according to research published in the open-access journal BMC Ecology.
New study provides links between inflammation and colon cancer metastasis
A new Arizona State University research study led by Biodesign Institute executive director Raymond DuBois, M.D., Ph.D., has identified for the first time the details of how inflammation triggers colon cancer cells to spread to other organs, or metastasize.
Sexual-minority men more empathic towards fellow minorities
White sexual-minority men may be more empathic toward other minority groups compared to their heterosexual white peers.
Scientists from NTU Singapore find electrifying solution to sticky problem
Scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have invented a glue that will harden when a voltage is applied to it.
Louisiana Tech University researchers discover synthesis of a new nanomaterial
Faculty at Louisiana Tech University have discovered, for the first time, a new nanocomposite formed by the self-assembly of copper and a biological component that occurs under physiological conditions, which are similar those found in the human body and could be used in targeted drug delivery for fighting diseases such as cancer.
Blood vessel cells help tumours evade the immune system
A new study by researchers at Sweden's Karolinska Institutet is the first to suggest that cells in the tumour blood vessels contribute to a local environment that protects the cancer cells from tumour-killing immune cells.
Smoke from western fires wafts eastward
On August 21, 2015 the Aqua satellite captured this image of the smoke from the fires on the west coast of the United States wafting eastward on the jet stream.
Catastrophic landslides post-earthquake
In the last few months, it has once more become clear that large earthquakes can solicit catastrophic landsliding.
Reducing pain during vaccination: New guideline to help manage pain in children and adults
A new Canadian guideline aims to ensure that pain during vaccination is minimized in both children and adults.
NSF grant enables University of Akron polymer scientist to engineer noses, jaws and ears
Imagine an infantry solder with a gunshot wound that shattered his jaw, or a person born with a birth defect such as a missing nose.
ESMO honors exceptional oncologists
The European Society for Medical Oncology, the leading European professional organization for advancing medical oncology, announced today the three exceptional medical oncologists who will receive its acclaimed awards.
NASA sees Tropical Storm Loke strengthening
NASA's Terra satellite analyzed Tropical Storm Loke in infrared light as it continued strengthening in the Central Pacific.
Young adults believe hookah, e-cigs are safer than cigarettes
Many college students are making their way back to campus this month, and back to the habits -- good or bad -- that dorm-life promotes.
NASA SDO: Images of a mid-level solar flare
The sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 3:33 a.m EDT on Aug.
Better maternal diet linked to lower risk of heart abnormalities in babies at birth
A relatively healthy diet before pregnancy is linked to a lower rate of certain heart abnormalities in babies at birth, finds research published in the Archives of Disease in Childhood (Fetal & Neonatal Edition).
MouthLab: Patients' vital signs are just a breath away
Engineers and physicians at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have developed a hand-held, battery-powered device that quickly picks up vital signs from a patient's lips and fingertip.
NASA and university researchers find link between Amazon fires and devastating hurricanes
Researchers from the University of California, Irvine and NASA have uncovered a remarkably strong link between high wildfire risk in the Amazon basin and the devastating hurricanes that ravage North Atlantic shorelines.
Humans carry more antibiotic-resistant bacteria than animals they work with
One of the most common and costly diseases faced by the dairy industry is bovine mastitis, a potentially fatal bacterial inflammation of the mammary gland.
Record high pressure squeezes secrets out of osmium
An international team of scientists has created the highest static pressure ever achieved in a lab: Using a special high pressure device, the researchers investigated the behavior of the metal osmium at pressures of up to 770 Gigapascals -- more than twice the pressure in the inner core of the Earth.
WSU researchers find inaccuracies in head impact sensors
With increasing concern about concussions from sports, some players have started wearing electronic sensors to measure head impacts.
A little light interaction leaves quantum physicists beaming
A team of physicists at the University of Toronto have taken a step toward making the essential building block of quantum computers out of pure light.
Voter ID law effects hard to pinpoint
Indiana's strict voter identification law may have prevented some elderly citizens from voting in the last two presidential elections, but there's little evidence it kept large numbers of voters from the polls, according to research by Indiana University Bloomington doctoral student Adam Nicholson.
NASA's Terra satellite sees Tropical Storm Atsani stretching out
Tropical Storm Atsani appeared elongated when NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead.
Diversity in graduate medical education; women majority in 7 specialties in 2012
Women accounted for the majority of graduate medical education trainees in seven specialties in 2012 but in no specialties were the percentages of black or Hispanic trainees comparable with the representation of these groups in the US population, according to a research letter published online by JAMA Internal Medicine
Women in mostly male workplaces exhibit psychological stress response
Today's workforce is highly sex-segregated -- for example, most elementary school teachers are women, while most chemistry professors are men.
Researchers tackle issues surrounding security tools for software developers
For software programmers, security tools are analytic software that can scan or run their code to expose vulnerabilities long before the software goes to market.
Crying has its perks
Yes, a good cry indeed might go a long way to make you feel better, says Asmir Gračanin of the University of Tilburg in the Netherlands, lead author of a study in Springer's journal Motivation and Emotion.
Scientists discover electrical control of cancer cell growth
The molecular switches regulating human cell growth do a great job of replacing cells that die during the course of a lifetime.
Kazan microbiologists on how to fight antibiotic-resistant pathogens
The Department of Microbiology at Kazan Federal University is investigating factors which allow bacteria to persist in human body when exposed to high-strength antibiotics.
Danny the 'degenerate' followed by 2 lows
Danny has become a degenerate, that is, the tropical depression weakened.
UTHealth's Gerard Francisco to be honored by physical medicine academy
Gerard E. Francisco, M.D., chairman of physical medicine and rehabilitation at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) Medical School and chief medical officer at TIRR Memorial Hermann, will be recognized at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Oct.
New research sheds light on end of Snowball Earth period
The second ice age during the Cryogenian period was not followed by the sudden and chaotic melting-back of the ice as previously thought, but ended with regular advances and retreats of the ice, according to research published by scientists from the University of Birmingham in the journal Nature Geoscience today.
GPM sees rainfall in Tropical Depression Kilo nearing Johnston Island
The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite gathered rainfall data on Tropical Depression Kilo as it heads toward Johnston Island in the Central Pacific Ocean.
Promising class of new cancer drugs might cause memory loss in mice
New research shows that a family of cancer drugs currently tested in patient trials can induce neurological changes in mice.
How zebrafish rebuild the skeleton of amputated fins
Researchers from the University of Bayreuth uncover mechanisms that allow bone-forming cells to regenerate a correctly shaped new fin skeleton.
Long-term NSAID use may reduce CRC risk
Long-term, continuous use of low-dose aspirin and nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk.
Primary prevention use of statins increases among the oldest old
The use of statins for primary prevention in patients without vascular disease older than 79 increased between 1999 and 2012, although there is little randomized evidence to guide the use of these cholesterol-lowering medications in this patient population, according to a research letter published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.
Unlike boys, girls lose friends for having sex, gain friends for making out
Early adolescent girls lose friends for having sex and gain friends for 'making out,' while their male peers lose friends for 'making out' and gain friends for having sex, finds a new study.
Ants do drugs
Ants about to get sick know what to eat in order to medicate themselves.
ESA announces 2015 honorary members
The Entomological Society of America is pleased to announce the selection of the 2015 Honorary Members of the Society.

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