Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 01, 2015
Collaborative behaviors, traditional practices
IOP Publishing and Research Information Network (RIN) release new report on information practices in the physical sciences.

Stability of surviving communities increases following mass extinction
By using fossil data, researchers have found that the structure of ecological communities leading up to the Permian-Triassic Extinction, one of the largest drivers of biodiversity loss in history, is a key predictor of the ecological communities that would demonstrate stability through the event.

The golden anniversary of black-hole singularity
When a star collapses forming a black hole, a space-time singularity is created wherein the laws of Physics no longer work.

Blueprints for limbs encoded in the snake genome
When researchers at the University of Georgia examined the genome of several different snake species, they found something surprising.

Languages less arbitrary than long assumed
A new review in Trends in Cognitive Sciences presents a comprehensive case for supplementing the cherished principle of arbitrariness with other types of associations between form and meaning.

Tweets from mobile devices are more likely to be egocentric
A recent study published in the Journal of Communication by researchers at Goldsmiths, Bowdoin College and the University of Maine found that tweets from mobile devices are more likely to employ egocentric language as opposed to non-mobile device Tweets.

SIR 2016 Registration open: Innovation, research, technology merge to improve patient care
Online registration is open for the Society of Interventional Radiology's (SIR) 2016 Annual Scientific Meeting.

New DNA stain lights up living cells
EPFL scientists have developed a new DNA stain that can be used to image living cells.

USC Viterbi School of Engineering Center funded under White House initiative
The US Department of Energy has awarded an $8 million grant to USC Viterbi to create a center to pioneer discoveries in nanomaterials.

Rising cancer rates in low and middle income countries threaten economic stability
The rising cost of treating and caring for a growing number of cancer patients threatens economic development in low and middle income countries, making prevention key.

Known from flower stalls as 'Big Pink' orchid proved to be an undescribed wild species
As easy as it might seem, seeking new species among cultivated plants could be actually quite tricky.

University of Montana student, professor discover earliest Jurassic corals
Five times in Earth's history mass extinction events have wiped out up to 90 percent of global life.

Researchers at Maryland play key role in unprecedented effort to analyze human genome
After eight years of analysis, scientists from around the world have completed an unprecedented project to delineate a wide spectrum of human genetic variation.

Study shows importance of universities in producing entrepreneurs, boosting economy
The number of college graduates willing to start new businesses -- the largest producer of private sector jobs over the past 25 years -- could depend heavily on the entrepreneurial focus and structure of the universities from which they graduate.

Silicon 'plant stones' for strong rice: Fertilizing & recycling Si in Vietnamese fields
Recent research showed that silicon (Si) is an important nutrient enhancing the endurability of rice plants, however, what controls on Si availability in soils still remain poorly studied.

Screening for mental health issues in a pediatric ED
In a study to be published on Oct. 1 by the journal Pediatric Emergency Care, investigators at Children's Hospital Los Angeles piloted a brief mental health screening tool to be used with patients accessing the emergency department for medical complaints who might be at risk for mental health problems.

Rescuing intestinal stem cells from attack in type 1 diabetes
Research at Boston Children's Hospital now reveals the cause of diabetic enteropathy, and a possible prevention and treatment strategy.

Sensory feedback shapes individuality to provide equal space for behavioral excellence
New research at Case Western Reserve University suggests that variability, such as that seen in movement, is essential both for normal behavior and for longer-term evolution.Their animal study shows sensory feedback increases the range of responses -- variability -- within individuals, but decreases the range across a group.

Is beauty really in the 'eye of the beholder'? Yes, and here's why
Many of us have had the experience of disagreeing with friends or family about which celebrity is more attractive.

Molecular switch keeps the circadian clock running on time
Circadian rhythms help everything from plants to humans coordinate with the daily light-dark cycle, but how this natural clock keeps accurate time, or why it goes awry in people with sleep disorders, is still under investigation.

The Optical Society launches solution to enable public access of research
By partnering with CHORUS (Clearinghouse for the Open Research of the United States), OSA enables an option for readers and agencies to easily discover federally funded articles published by OSA and to then access the full-text of these articles directly on OSA's platform, OSA Publishing.

Unexplained chronic cough treatment subject of updated evidence-based guideline
Persistent, unexplained cough is a significant health issue that occurs in up to 5-10 percent of patients seeking medical assistance for chronic cough.

Scientists present, discuss latest data from experiments smashing nuclei
Scientists intent on unraveling the mystery of the force that binds the building blocks of visible matter are gathered in Kobe, Japan, this week to present and discuss the latest results from smashups of nuclei at the world's premier particle colliders -- the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider.

Coincidence or conspiracy? Studies investigate conspiracist thinking
In pop culture, conspiracy believers -- like FBI agent Fox Mulder on The X Files or professor Robert Langdon in The Da Vinci Code -- tend to reject the notion of coincidence or chance; even the most random-seeming events are thought to result from some sort of intention or design.

Study shows new 'driver' to assess cancer patient survival and drug sensitivity
Cancer specialists have long looked at genetic mutations and DNA copy changes to help predict patient survival and drug sensitivity.

ASA issues statement on role of statistics in data science
In a policy statement issued today, the ASA stated statistics is 'foundational to data science' -- along with database management and distributed and parallel systems -- and its use in this emerging field empowers researchers to extract knowledge and obtain better results from Big Data and other analytics projects.

New dietary guidelines must be sustainable, regardless of politics
The new iteration of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans must incorporate sustainability considerations -- both for the health and wellbeing of Americans and the world in which we live, urges a new piece appearing in Science Express on Oct.

The media love men... bad news for women
Five out of every six names that appear in the media today are those of men, a McGill-led research team has discovered.

Research shows a cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in Type 1 diabetes
Research published today provides a molecular basis for why 80 percent of patients with longstanding Type 1 diabetes have chronic gastrointestinal symptoms including gastroparesis (delayed emptying of food), irritable bowel syndrome, abdominal distension and fecal incontinence, significantly reducing their quality of life.

More-flexible machine learning
At the Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems in December, MIT researchers will present a new way of doing machine learning that enables semantically related concepts to reinforce each other.

How much radioactivity is in infant formula?
Based on measurements of radioactivity in samples of infant formula manufactured and sold around the world, researchers estimate that infants 1 year of age or younger who consume these formulas would ingest a significantly higher radioactivity dose than reported levels, but lower than internationally recommended limits.

Genes of colon cancer recurrence differs among blacks, whites and Asians, Mayo Clinic study finds
The genetic makeup of colon cancer tumors and survival rates for patients with the disease differ by race, according to a study from researchers at the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, published in the Oct.

Heavier patients require less blood transfusions in hip, knee replacement surgery
Blood transfusion rates in hip and knee replacement surgery were dramatically lower in overweight or obese patients than patients of normal weight, according to a study at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit.

Researchers profile 4 types of non-vaccinators
While scientists are continuously improving vaccinations to stop the spread of disease, many people continue to opt out.

A natural history of neurons
Our brain cells have different genomes from one another. The study shows for the first time that mutations in somatic cells -- that is, any cell in the body except sperm and eggs -- are present in significant numbers in the brains of healthy people.

National awards success for Plymouth dental researchers
Dental researchers from Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry have come away with a raft of awards following this year's general meeting of the British Society of Oral and Dental Research.

Hibernating bats mount a partial immune response against white nose fungus
White-nose syndrome, an invasive skin infection caused by the Pseudogymnoascus destructans fungus has killed millions of bats since it was first seen in North America in 2007.

Researchers measure how specific atoms move in dielectric materials
Researchers have measured the behavior of specific atoms in dielectric materials when exposed to an electric field.

The Kavli Foundation and university partners commit $100 million to brain research
The Kavli Foundation and its university partners announced today the commitment of more than $100 million in new funds to enable research aimed at deepening our understanding of the brain and brain-related disorders, such as traumatic brain injuries (TBI), Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

What is the cost of lung cancer in Germany?
With more than 50,000 newly diagnosed cases each year, lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in Germany.

New study removes cancer doubt for multiple sclerosis drug
Researchers from Queen Mary University of London are calling on the medical community to reconsider developing a known drug to treat people with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) after new evidence shows it does not increase the risk of cancer as previously thought.

Cancer: Not a death sentence
Cervical, uterine and ovarian cancers are among the most common cancers affecting women, with a total of 1,087,000 new cases diagnosed worldwide in 2012.

Semiconductor nanoparticles show high luminescence in a polymer matrix
Toyohashi Tech researchers in cooperation with researchers at the National Institute of Technology, Kurume College have demonstrated the formation of composite nanoparticles of luminescent ZnO quantum dots and polymer by dispersion polymerization in supercritical CO2.

NASA provides various views of Hurricane Joaquin
Hurricane Joaquin continued to intensify in the Bahamas on October 1 and NASA and NOAA satellites have been providing valuable data on the storm.

Nectar thieves are damaging rare orchids in North Dakota
Robbers and thieves are flying in the fields of southeastern North Dakota, but these larcenists aren't your typical criminals, prowling around in masks and disguises.

Local habitat conditions can safeguard cutthroat trout against harvest, climate change
Local habitat variability in northwest streams can help shield coastal cutthroat trout from the effects of forest harvest and climate change, a new US Forest Service-led study has found.

NASA sees new tropical storm affecting the Philippines
Tropical Storm 22W formed quickly just east of the Philippines as NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed overhead on Oct.

Extending a battery's lifetime with heat
Over time, the electrodes inside a rechargeable battery cell can grow tiny, branch-like filaments called dendrites, causing short circuits that kill the battery or even ignite it in flames.

Tissue-engineered colon from human cells develop different types of neurons
A study by scientists at Children's Hospital Los Angeles has shown that tissue-engineered colon derived from human cells is able to develop the many specialized nerves required for function, mimicking the neuronal population found in native colon.

Satellites show Joaquin becoming a Category 4 hurricane
Hurricane Joaquin had become a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Wind Scale by 2 p.m.

Later bedtimes may lead to an increase in body mass index over time
A new study suggests that going to bed late during the workweek from adolescence to adulthood is associated with an increase in body mass index over time.

Study examines scale of gene mutations in human neurons
A single neuron in a normal adult brain likely has more than a thousand genetic mutations that are not present in the cells that surround it, according to new research from Howard Hughes Medical Institute scientists.

International OB-GYN group urges greater efforts to prevent toxic chemical exposure
Dramatic increases in exposure to toxic chemicals in the last four decades are threatening human reproduction and health, according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

Smart rollators with VTT technology
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a smart rollator prototype that supports independent living among the elderly.

The ecology of microbial invasions
University of Groningen scientists have described how microbial invasions follow the same general pattern as invasions by plant or animal species.

Investigational KW-0761 efficiently depletes immune system-suppressing Treg cells
In a phase Ia clinical trial, immune cells called Tregs, which can inhibit anticancer immune responses, were efficiently eliminated from the blood of patients with lung or esophageal cancer by treatment with the investigational therapeutic antibody KW-0761.

Hurricane Joaquin: Millions could lose power
Power outage forecasts by researchers at the University of Michigan and Texas A&M University show that depending on where hurricane Joaquin makes landfall in the US, the lights could go out for as many as 7 million people.

Infrared thermography can detect joint inflammation and help improving work ergonomics
Infrared thermography can help detect joint inflammation and help improving work ergonomics, according to a recent study from the University of Eastern Finland.

Boeing establishes analytics lab for aerospace data at Carnegie Mellon
Carnegie Mellon University has joined with The Boeing Company to establish the Boeing/Carnegie Mellon Aerospace Data Analytics Lab, a new academic research initiative that will leverage the university's leadership in machine learning, language technologies and data analytics.

Improved fuel structure reduces explosive qualities
The dangers of explosive fuel could soon be reduced with the development of a new material that is comprised of extremely long polymer chains that can reduce fuel misting and consequential explosiveness.

Eco project takes center stage at World Forestry Congress, Durban
When the World Forestry Congress held its 2015 meeting in Durban, South Africa, one of the papers presented to delegates described the Wild Coffee Conservation project in South West Ethiopia.

What types of video games improve brain function?
From 'brain games' designed to enhance mental fitness, to games used to improve real-world problems, to games created purely to entertain, today's video games can have a variety of potential impacts on the brain.

Ram earns GSA's 2015 Baltes Foundation Award
The Gerontological Society of America (GSA) -- the nation's largest interdisciplinary organization devoted to the field of aging -- has chosen Nilam Ram, PhD, of The Pennsylvania State University as the 2015 recipient of the Margret M. and Paul B.

Researchers in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands finds highest rates of unique marine species
Scientists returned from a 28-day research expedition aboard NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai exploring the deep coral reefs within Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

New method to predict increased risk of non-familial breast cancer
By detecting cancer at an early stage, or even predicting who has an increased risk of being affected, the possibilities to treat the disease can be radically improved.

More students earning statistics degrees; not enough to meet surging demand
Statistics is one of the fastest-growing degrees in the US, but the growth may not be enough to satisfy the high demand for -- statisticians in technology, consumer products, health care, government, manufacturing and other areas of the economy, an analysis conducted by the American Statistical Association finds.

Oregon researchers tap fruit flies for insights on the symmetry of movement
How do our brains allow us to smile and breathe?

OU School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering recognized for diversity and inclusion
The School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering in the Gallogly College of Engineering at the University of Oklahoma was recently selected as one of only five universities in the nation to participate in a special Transforming Engineering Culture to Advance Inclusion and Diversity program.

Tallness linked to increased risk of premature death for patients on dialysis
In contrast to studies in the general population, tallness was associated with higher premature mortality risk and shorter life spans in patients on dialysis.

International team of researchers co-led by Penn aims to revolutionize understanding of how gene variants affect organ transplant outcomes
Nearly 30,000 organ transplants are performed in the United States annually.

Keeping the body ticking
A team of scientists from Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore and the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor have discovered a molecular switch that regulates the body's circadian clock and allows it to keep time.

Preclinical drug developed to prevent gastrointestinal side effects of type 1 diabetes
Up to 80 percent of individuals living with long-term type 1 diabetes experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal distension, irritable bowel syndrome, and fecal incontinence.

Research links built characteristics of environment with health of persons with SCI
Scientists in disability outcomes research have determined that differences in the built characteristics of communities may influence the health and wellbeing of residents with chronic spinal cord injury. communities with more heterogeneous land use was less beneficial to their perceived health.

SU2C Canada -- Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation dream team is announced
A Stand Up To Cancer Canada Dream Team researching new approaches to treating triple-negative breast cancer and other aggressive types of breast cancer has been formed thanks to a CA$9 million investment from a coalition of funders.

Researchers make 5 recommendations for standardized test designers
Can standardized tests, such as those created in response to the Common Core, enhance education instead of just assessing it?

University of Chicago team receives $3.5 million from NIMH to transform diagnosis of psychotic disorders
Researchers from the University of Chicago have received $3.5 million from the NIMH as part of the second phase of the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP2) -- a multi-university consortium that aims to establish a new system of diagnosis for psychotic diseases based on biomarkers, and guide the development of novel therapies.

Brain networking
Researchers use brain scans to determine the mechanism behind cognitive control of thoughts.

Inouye earns GSA's 2015 M. Powell Lawton Award
The Gerontological Society of America (GSA) -- the nation's largest interdisciplinary organization devoted to the field of aging -- has chosen Sharon K.

Neuroscientific evidence that motivation promotes recovery after spinal cord injury
The research team led by Associate Professor Yukio Nishimura, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Natural Institutes of Natural Sciences, found that the nucleus accumbens, that control motivation in the brain, activates the activity of the motor cortex of the brain, and then promotes recovery of motor function during the early stage of recovery after spinal cord injury.

Pitt bioengineer receives NIH grant to study regeneration of diseased aortas
Abdominal aortic aneurysm, caused by the loss of elastin, a critical protein for blood vessel function, is responsible for approximately 10,000 American deaths every year.

Cell marker enables prognosis about the course of infections
When a pathogen invades the body, specific cells in the human immune system are ready to take immediate action in order to destroy it.

Major study finds 5 new genetic variants linked to brain cancer
The biggest ever study of DNA from people with glioma -- the most common form of brain cancer -- has discovered five new genetic variants associated with the disease.

Link between height and cancer
Cancer risk has been found to increase with height in both Swedish men and women, according to research presented today at the 54th Annual European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Meeting.

Hotel 'greenwashing' dirties eco-friendly reputation
Hotels across the globe are increasingly encouraging guests to embrace green practices.

New HOLODEC study in Science on using holography to better understand clouds
Michigan Tech researchers use a real life HOLODEC (yes, said like the Star Trek holodeck).

Ballistics imaging systems effective with good management
During a homicide epidemic in Trinidad and Tobago driven mainly by guns, the developing country had forensic ballistics imaging technology, but faced problems effectively using it to solve crimes, according to a study at Sam Houston State University.

Asteroid impact, volcanism were one-two punch for dinosaurs
The debate whether an asteroid impact or volcanic eruptions in India led to the mass extinction 66 million years ago is becoming increasingly irrelevant, as new dates for the eruptions show that the two catastrophes were nearly simultaneous.

Fatty liver disease and scarring have strong genetic component
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine say that hepatic fibrosis, which involves scarring of the liver that can result in dysfunction and, in severe cases, cirrhosis and cancer, may be as much a consequence of genetics as environmental factors.

AIC and Tecnalia present the electric vehicle motor incorporated into the 4 wheels
AIC-Automotive Intelligence Center and Tecnalia present the latest technological innovation they have developed in the field of the electric vehicle: the in-wheel motor.

AACR-NCI-EORTC to host international conference on molecular targets and cancer therapeutics
The American Association for Cancer Research, the National Cancer Institute, and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer will host their annual International Conference on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics from Nov.

A balanced diet is good for corals too, study finds
A new study found that a nutrient-rich, balanced diet is beneficial to corals during stressful thermal events.

Simulating path of 'magma mush' inside an active volcano
The first simulation of the individual crystals in volcanic mush, a mix of liquid magma and solid crystals, shows mixing to help understand the buildup of pressure deep inside a volcano.

Opioid misuse continues to dominate for treatment use, spread of disease & drug-related deaths
The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) produces an annual report of the latest data available on drug demand and drug supply in all 28 EU Member States plus Norway and Turkey, available online.

Glutamate, an essential food for the brain
Glutamate is an amino acid with very different functions: in the pancreas, it modulates the activity of the pancreatic ß-cells responsible for insulin production, whereas in the brain it is the main excitatory neurotransmitter.

Study finds gaps in clinical genetic counseling services for women undergoing BRCA testing
A University of South Florida-led research collaboration with Aetna, the American Cancer Society and the national non-profit Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered today published results from a national study identifying factors and outcomes associated with the use of genetic counseling and testing services for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in the community setting.

Brain chemical aids tic control in Tourette Syndrome, say researchers
A chemical in the brain could potentially be harnessed to help young people with Tourette Syndrome (TS) to overcome the physical and vocal tics associated with the neurological disorder, say researchers.

Babies with drug withdrawal syndrome more likely to be readmitted
Infants diagnosed with drug withdrawal symptoms at birth, also known as neonatal abstinence syndrome, are nearly two and a half times as likely to be readmitted to the hospital in the first month after being discharged compared with full-term infants born without complications, according to new Vanderbilt research released today in the journal Hospital Pediatrics.

MD Anderson's Allison wins American Cancer Society medal of honor
A career-long fascination with discovering the ins and outs of T cells, our immune system's tailor-made destroyers of infections and dysfunctional cells, has earned Jim Allison, Ph.D., the American Cancer Society's 2015 Medal of Honor for Basic Research.

Many young fish moving north with adults as climate changes
Numerous studies in the Northeast US have shown that adult marine fish distributions are changing, but few studies have looked at the early life stages of those adult fish to see what is happening to them over time.

How to avoid kidney stones (video)
They're a medical malady you wouldn't wish on your worst enemy: kidney stones.

Kobe University to investigate submarine supervolcano
Kobe University has established the Kobe Ocean-Bottom Exploration Center (KOBEC) on Oct.

Gene therapy doubles survival in recurrent glioblastoma
An experimental gene therapy essentially doubled the overall survival of patients with recurrent glioblastoma compared to the current standard of care, a researcher said Oct.

Lung cancer screening programs do not increase rates of unnecessary surgeries
Lung cancer screening programs that utilize standardized reporting and include cardiothoracic surgeons as part of a multidisciplinary team can successfully be adopted into clinical practice without an increase in surgical intervention for non-cancerous disease, according to an article in the October 2015 issue of The Annals of Thoracic Surgery.

New infrared camera detects gas leaks in industry
A spin-off of the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Sensia Solutions, has developed a new low-cost infrared camera that makes it possible to quickly and efficiently detect gas leaks that can occur in different industrial facilities.

Women getting BRCA testing not receiving counseling by trained genetics professionals
Most women who underwent BRCA genetic testing did not receive genetic counseling by trained genetics professionals and the lack of clinician recommendation was the most commonly reported reason in a study of commercially insured women, according to an article published online by JAMA Oncology.

Grant supports research on most common tumor in women
Northwestern Medicine scientists have received a five-year, $7.4 million program project grant from the National Institutes of Health for a second phase of research to identify novel targets for treating uterine fibroids.

A snapshot of stem cell expression
Research from the Wellcome Genome Campus demonstrates the power of single-cell genomics: Study reveals new genes involved in pluripotency, new subpopulations of cells and new methods to find meaning in the data.

CWRU researcher to transform clot makers into clot busters
A Case Western Reserve University researcher has been awarded a five-year, $1.9 million grant from National Institutes of Health (NIH) to transform synthetic platelet technology designed to help form blood clots into devices that dissolve clots to prevent strokes and heart attacks.

Late bedtimes could lead to weight gain
Teenagers and adults who go to bed late on weeknights are more likely to gain weight than their peers who hit the hay earlier, according to a UC Berkeley study that has found a correlation between sleep and body mass index.

Larger percentage of bioactive forms of S-equol appear to play role in managing menopausal symptoms
A study of how the body processes a nutritional supplement containing S-equol, a novel soy germ-based ingredient, shows that metabolism yields two forms that are biologically active.

Panel identifies most-effective methods for protecting western snowy plovers from raptors
Wildlife managers in the West now have a technical report that can help them address raptors in their existing western snowy plover predation management plans.

Anti-aging treatment for smart windows presented in a new study
Electrochromic windows, so-called 'smart windows', share a well-known problem with rechargeable batteries -- their limited lifespan.

PlantingScience awarded $2.9M grant from the National Science Foundation
The Botanical Society of America, the American Society of Plant Biologists and the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study have been awarded a $2.9 million grant from the National Science Foundation for further development and support for the middle and high school science education program PlantingScience.

Study reveals why men receive much more media coverage than women
For years social scientists have grappled with the question of why men receive far more media coverage than women, and now a new study reveals the answer.

Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays significant role in type 2 diabetes
A new research report published in the October 2015 issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology, suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum plays a more important role in type 2 diabetes and its complications than previously believed.

New formula for life-satisfaction
In a new study, mathematical economist Prof. Dr. Christian Bayer, from the Hausdorff Center for Mathematics at the University of Bonn, has demonstrated a connection between long-term income increases and personal satisfaction.

Disease free water, a global health challenge, commands an international team effort
Peter Vikesland, an expert in the optimization of drinking water disinfection practices and a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Virginia Tech, is the principal investigator for a new five-year $3.6 million Partnerships in International Research and Education grant from the National Science Foundation that is aimed at mitigating the global public health threat of antibiotic resistance that affects drinking water.

The solution to a 50-year-old riddle: Why certain cells repel one another
When cells from the connective tissue collide, they repel one another -- this phenomenon was discovered more than 50 years ago.

Study explores ancient ecosystem response to a 'big 5' mass extinction
This study explores one of the 'big five' mass extinctions, the Permian-Triassic event, revealing unexpected results about the types of animals that were most vulnerable to extinction, and the factors that might best predict community stability during times of great change.

Deworming shows growth similar to placebo in pre-school children in Peru
The three intestinal worms roundworm (Ascaris), whipworm (Trichuris) and hookworm, cause infections and diseases that are among the most common neglected tropical diseases in the developing world.

Observed latitudinal variations in erosion as a function of glacier dynamics
Climate change is causing more than just warmer oceans and erratic weather.

Language about climate change differs between proponents and skeptics
Proponents of climate change tend to use more conservative, tentative language to report on the science behind it, while skeptics use more emotional and assertive language when reinterpreting scientific studies, says research from the University of Waterloo.

New science redefines remote -- even pandas global
This just in from the pandas nestled in a remote corner of China: Their influence spans the globe.

Research connects specific variations in RNA splicing with breast cancer causation
Researchers have identified cellular changes traceable to an RNA splicing factor that's also an oncoprotein that may play a role in converting normal breast cells into tumors.

Preventing cancer: Study finds dramatic benefits of weight-loss surgery
A study evaluating the effects of bariatric surgery on obese women most at risk for cancer has found that the weight-loss surgery slashed participants' weight by one-third and eliminated precancerous uterine growths in those that had them.

Maslow earns GSA's 2015 Maxwell A. Pollack Award for Productive Aging
The Gerontological Society of America (GSA) -- the nation's largest interdisciplinary organization devoted to the field of aging -- has chosen Katie Maslow, MSW, of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) as the 2015 recipient of the Maxwell A.

Accurate timing of migration prolongs life expectancy in pike
Animal migration is a spectacular phenomenon that has fascinated humans for long.

NIH invests $85 million for BRAIN Initiative research
The National Institutes of Health announced its second wave of grants to support the goals of the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative, bringing the NIH investment to $85 million in fiscal year 2015.

An accessible approach to making a mini-brain
In a new paper in Tissue Engineering: Part C, Brown University researchers describe a relatively accessible method for making a working -- though not thinking -- sphere of central nervous system tissue.

Volcanic activity may have contributed to Cretaceous extinction
While there is general consensus that a massive asteroid colliding with Earth 66 million years ago contributed to the ensuing mass extinction, including that of dinosaurs, new evidence suggests that this impact triggered more intense volcanic activity, further compounding the extermination.

Access to palliative care in US hospitals still not universal
Despite rapid expansion in hospital palliative care programs in the US, access to these programs nationwide varies across geographic regions and depends on factors such as hospital size and tax status, according to a new study published in Journal of Palliative Medicine.

Enzyme malfunction may be why binge drinking can lead to alcoholism, Stanford study finds
A malfunctioning enzyme may be a reason that binge drinking increases the odds of alcoholism, according to a study by scientists at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Two NIH grants boost bioinformatics research and development of precision medicine
A pair of major NIH grants will bolster bioinformatics research and strengthen scientists' ability to analyze massive amounts of data.

Are the blueprints for limbs encoded in the snake genome?
The shared patterns of gene expression in the limbs and phallus are generated in part by a common set of noncoding DNA, also called 'elements' or 'enhancers,' which act to control gene expression in both of these structures, argues a study published Oct.

UCL professor wins Klaus J. Jacobs Research Prize 2015
Professor Sarah-Jayne Blakemore (UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience) has today been announced as the recipient of the 2015 Klaus J.

FAU develops guide on hospital transfers for nursing home residents and their families
Nearly one in four people admitted to a nursing home from acute care are rehospitalized within 30 days at a cost of $14.3 billion annually.

Mission impossible?
Researchers from UCSB and NASA team up to study monitoring failures in the cockpit -- even among experienced pilots.

New, ultra-detailed maps of Great Lakes recreational use will inform restoration priorities
University of Michigan researchers and their colleagues have created exceptionally detailed maps of five Great Lakes recreational activities and say the information can be used to help prioritize restoration projects.

Gene suppression helps form memories
A new study has identified a number of genes that are repressed at various time points after memory formation, providing important clues as to how long-term memories are formed.

New polymer creates safer fuels
A new fuel additive developed by Caltech and JPL researchers could reduce the risk of postcrash fuel explosions.

Penn Vet-Temple team characterizes genetic mutations linked to a form of blindness
A collaboration between University of Pennsylvania and Temple University scientists has identified two naturally occurring genetic mutations in dogs that result in achromatopsia, a form of blindness.

Water problem hotspots demand effective new approaches to international cooperation: UN University
The importance of international cooperation in freshwater management is growing with world population and changes to global climate and weather patterns, warns a new report from UN University.

NASA sees Tropical Depression Marty meets its end
Tropical Depression Marty degenerated into a remnant low pressure area early on Oct.

Federal funding secured for Barrow-TGen advanced technology study of ALS
The National Institutes of Health has awarded a $687,087, one-year grant to Barrow Neurological Institute and the Translational Genomics Research Institute to identify peptide, protein, and RNA biomarkers as indicators of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis progression.
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