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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | October 23, 2015


Job opportunities, after-school activities, cleaner city top urban teens' priorities
When researchers in New Haven, Conn., asked teens to identify solutions to reduce violence in their community, the adolescents had clear recommendations: better employment opportunities, more after-school activities and a cleaner city environment.
Sigma Xi awards David R. Williams the William Procter Prize for Scientific Achievement
David R. Williams, widely regarded as one of the world's leading experts on human vision, has been named the recipient of Sigma Xi's 2015 William Procter Prize for Scientific Achievement.
Carnegie Mellon researchers hack off-the-shelf 3-D printer towards rebuilding the heart
A group of Carnegie Mellon researchers has used a new 3-D bioprinting method to bioprint models of hearts, arteries, bones and brains out of biological materials.
Japanese sea defense guidelines could assist other tsunami-prone nations, study suggests
Japan's lead in implementing sea defense improvements is an important reference point for other tsunami-prone nations to help guard against future disasters, a study led by Plymouth University has suggested.
Internet misfires as source of accurate information on storing firearms
The vast majority of Internet pages visited by people searching for firearms storage guidance prove to be duds when it comes to giving accurate and complete information on how to keep children safe around guns.
Failing to account for climate change in mining land reclamation may cost billions: Study
Researchers at the University of Waterloo are warning that plans to reclaim mined land risk failure and could cost industry and government billions in future cleanup costs if they do not take into account the affects of climate change.
Study finds injuries from nonpowder guns severe among children
Researchers at a Dallas children's hospital aim to show that nonpowder firearms such as airsoft, BB, and paintball guns should not be viewed as toys, but rather powerful weapons causing increasingly severe and sometimes life-threatening injuries in pediatric patients.
NASA sees Hurricane Olaf still a major hurricane
NASA's Aqua satellite saw Central Pacific Ocean Hurricane Olaf maintained its eye and remained a major hurricane on Oct.
New rule that limits tackling during football practices knocks down concussions
New research shows that limiting the amount of full-contact tackling during high school football practices can have a big impact on reducing the number of concussions among players.
Skin-to-skin contact with baby in neonatal unit decreases maternal stress levels
Research shows that stable parent-child bonds are fundamental to healthy child development.
Researchers catch Comet Lovejoy giving away alcohol
Comet Lovejoy lived up to its name by releasing large amounts of alcohol as well as a type of sugar into space, according to new observations by an international team.
Toxins remain in your clothes
Thousands of chemicals are used in clothes manufacturing. Researchers at Stockholm University have examined if there are chemicals in the clothes we buy as well.
Health food stores recommend teens try performance supplement not recommended under 18
Posing as a 15-year-old athlete wanting to bulk up during strength training, a researcher asked more than 200 health food stores whether he should take a sports performance supplement containing creatine.
New study characterizes pediatric ED visits attributed to contact with law enforcement
In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers at University Hospitals Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital found injuries related to legal interventions, or contact with law enforcement, involving male teenagers is not an uncommon occurrence in the United States.
Research suggests canine companionship helps calm children undergoing cancer treatment
Although survival rates for children diagnosed with cancer have increased dramatically over the past 40 years, hard evidence of proven psychosocial benefits to improve quality of life among patients and families during treatment has remained elusive.
ACL injuries increase among school-aged children and adolescents
A new study confirms what doctors working with young athletes already suspected: the number anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears among youths, particularly high school students, has risen during the past 20 years.
Focus on treatment decisions: Doctor and patient should decide together
This edition of Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, which focuses on patient involvement, contains two original articles investigating the following questions: do patients benefit from shared decision making?
UT Dallas researcher receives NSF grant to update conflict database
The National Science Foundation has awarded a grant to a UT Dallas political science researcher to update a widely used database documenting uses of military force and threats of force among nations.
Photons open the gateway for quantum networks
There is tremendous potential for new information technology based on light (photons).
TUM scientists identify molecular mechanism behind early flowering
Plants adapt their flowering time to the temperature. But what exactly triggers their flowering at the molecular level?
Steaming out some of luminol's wrinkles
A potential rival to the storied forensics tool luminol has emerged.
University of Arizona receives $1.5 million for firefighter safety research
The University of Arizona College of Public Health and College of Engineering have received $1.5 million from FEMA to measure firefighters' exposure to carcinogens and test the effectiveness of risk reduction efforts.
A new algorithm to predict the dynamic language of proteins
Researchers have developed the first computational method based on evolutionary principles to predict the changes in shape that proteins experience to carry out their functions.
Capacitor breakthrough
In the movie 'Back to the Future,' Doc Brown and Marty McFly landed in the future in their DeLorean, with time travel made possible by a 'flux capacitor.' Today, capacitors are key components of portable electronics to electric cars, providing fast delivery of energy but poor storage capacity.
OSIRIS-REx spacecraft completes assembly stage, begins environmental testing
NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft has begun environmental testing at Lockheed Martin Space Systems facilities, near Denver, Colorado.
Alzheimer risk impairs 'satnav' function of the brain
Young adults with genetically increased Alzheimer's risk have altered activation patterns in a brain region that is crucial for spatial navigation.
Springer Theses celebrates 5 years of success
Springer Theses, a book series comprising a selection of the very best Ph.D. theses from around the world, celebrates five years and a total of 500 published books.
Breastfeeding difficulties may increase risk of postnatal depression
In a recent study, stopping breastfeeding due to pain or physical difficulties predicted an increased risk of postnatal depression, but stopping for other reasons, such as social reasons or embarrassment, did not.
Sensing small molecules may revolutionize drug design
Nongjian (NJ) Tao and his colleagues at Arizona State University's Biodesign Institute describe a new method for examining small molecules and their communication with membrane proteins.
Canadian researchers find geothermal heat pumps most feasible in Halifax
Researchers at the Université du Québec have recently conducted a survey of four Canadian cities to determine the economic feasibility of installing geothermal heating systems in homes in Montreal, Halifax, Vancouver and Toronto.
More than 25 percent of women giving birth who test positive for marijuana also using other drugs
As an increasing number of states legalize marijuana for medical or recreational use, health officials expect consumption of tetrahydrocanabis during pregnancy to increase.
NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite sees record-breaking Hurricane Patricia
At 8 a.m. EDT on Oct. 23, 2015, the National Hurricane Center said that Hurricane Patricia had grown into a monster hurricane.
Archives of Atlantic philanthropies given to Cornell Library
The archives of The Atlantic Philanthropies, among the world's largest and most influential foundations, will be housed permanently at Cornell.
Drs. Beatrix and David Hamburg awarded 2015 Pardes Humanitarian Prize in Mental Health
The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation will honor Beatrix (Betty) A.
Study finds gap in awareness of return-to-play practices following youth sport head hits
Coaches and parents need more training on concussions to avoid making bad calls about when to let a young athlete back in the game, according to a study to be presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference & Exhibition in Washington, D.C., on Saturday, Oct.
Online gambling to get safer through better prediction of addiction
A new 'early warning' system that automatically informs gamblers as soon as their behaviour shows signs of turning into an addiction is helping people engage in the pastime responsibly.
Deadly fish virus still present in Wisconsin lake
In May 2007, hundreds of freshwater drum -- also known as sheepshead -- turned up dead in Lake Winnebago and nearby Little Lake Butte des Morts, both inland lakes near Oshkosh, Wis.
Mini-kidney organoids re-create disease in lab dishes
Using kidney organoids grown from stem cells and gene editing, scientists have re-created human kidney disease in lab petri dishes.
Scientists urge policymakers to plant more trees to save Britain's rivers from climate change
New research has prompted scientists to call on policymakers to plant more trees alongside upland rivers and streams, in an effort to save their habitats from the future harm of climate change.
Upgrading the quantum computer
Theoretical physicists in Innsbruck have proposed a scalable quantum computer architecture.
Depression too often reduced to a checklist of symptoms
How can you tell if someone is depressed? The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) -- the 'bible' of psychiatry -- diagnoses depression when patients tick off a certain number of symptoms on the DSM checklist.
Children in foster care three times more likely to have ADHD diagnosis
Researchers already knew that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was the most common behavioral health diagnosis among children enrolled in Medicaid.
Sarcoidosis: Surface marker allows new diagnostic approaches
A team of scientists at the Helmholtz Zentrum München together with colleagues of the Ludwig Maximilians University Munich recently developed a new strategy to determine monocyte subsets involved in diseases.
Halloysite: Finally a promising natural nanomaterial?
Halloysite is a natural biocompatible nanomaterial available in thousands of tons at low price, which makes it a good candidate for nanoarchitectural composites.
Hands-only CPR in high school class pumps up likelihood of bystander response to cardiac arrest
Freshmen at eight Florida high schools who learned how to provide circulatory support to someone in sudden cardiac arrest using chest compressions without mouth-to-mouth ventilations said they would be significantly more comfortable performing the skill in a real-life situation when their training included a hands-on component, according to a new study.
A longer look at treatments for leg length discrepancies
When balancing treatment options for a child with a significant difference in leg length, doctors typically advise families about the risks and benefits of surgeries to either shorten or elongate one of the limbs.
Basketball, soccer, lacrosse lead to most ACL injuries among high school female athletes
A new study finds the overall rate of anterior cruciate ligament injuries among high school athletes is significantly higher among females, who are especially likely to experience ACL tears while playing basketball, soccer and lacrosse.
NASA satellite sees Typhoon Champi elongating
Typhoon Champi appeared to be the victim of vertical wind shear in infrared imagery from NASA's Terra satellite.
Faster optimization
This week, at the IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, a trio of present and past MIT graduate students won a best-student-paper award for a new 'cutting-plane' algorithm, a general-purpose algorithm for solving optimization problems.
Research Council-funded partnerships for 'low carbon cities' in the UK and China
Researchers from UK and Chinese universities are collaborating on four new projects to work towards achieving low carbon cities in the UK and China.
NASA analyzes record-breaking Hurricane Patricia
NASA satellites and instruments have been monitoring the record-breaking Hurricane Patricia as it rapidly intensified off the southwestern coast of Mexico on Oct.
New AAP report targets lack of adequate food as ongoing health risk to US children
For the first time, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is recommending that pediatricians screen all children for food insecurity.
Tropical Depression 26W moving faster than spinning
Tropical Depression 26W was spinning down and speeding up as it was becoming an extra-tropical storm.
People can raise their pain threshold by altering brain chemistry, arthritis study shows
Scientists at the University of Manchester have shown for the first time that the numbers of opiate receptors in the brain increases to combat severe pain in arthritis sufferers.
Blocking enzymes in hair follicles promotes hair growth
Inhibiting a family of enzymes inside hair follicles that are suspended in a resting state restores hair growth, a new study from researchers at Columbia University Medical Center has found.
More than 1 in 5 anaphylactic reactions occur in students with no known allergies
More than 1 in 10 schools in the United States responding to a survey reported at least one severe allergic reaction during the 2013-14 school year, and 22 percent of those events occurred in individuals with no previously known allergies.
NSF awards $2 milion to UT Dallas for international conflict projects
UT Dallas political and computer scientists have received nearly $2 million from the National Science Foundation to collaborate on two projects focused on international conflict.
New methane organisms discovered
Textbooks on methane-metabolising organisms might have to be rewritten after researchers in a University of Queensland-led international project today announced discovery of two new organisms.
Birth tourism in the United States delivers complex medical cases in neonatal units
Expectant mothers traveling to the United States with the expressed purpose of giving birth before returning home are presenting more complex medical, social and financial challenges at a large metropolitan children's hospital.
Manipulating wrinkles could lead to graphene semiconductors
RIKEN scientists have used the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope to manipulate the formation of wrinkles in graphene, opening the way to the construction of graphene semiconductors not through chemical means--by adding other elements -- but by manipulating the carbon structure itself in a form of 'graphene engineering.'
Potato harvest reduced by half
On the way from field to fork, more than half of the potato harvest is lost.
New DNA research reveals undiscovered white dots on the map
Researchers at the University of Copenhagen have located a previously unknown function in the so-called histones, which allows for an improved understanding of how cells protect and repair DNA damages.
Bacteriophage treatment decontaminates infant formula
A phage showed strong anti-microbial activity against a type of food-borne bacterium that often kills infants after infecting them via infant formula.
Most parents form vaccination preferences before becoming pregnant
Efforts to educate parents about the importance of vaccinations for their children might be more effective if they begin prior to pregnancy, according to findings of a new study to be presented at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) National Conference & Exhibition in Washington, D.C.
Active body, active mind: The secret to a younger brain may lie in exercising your body
It is widely recognized that our physical fitness is reflected in our mental fitness, especially as we get older.
Signs of faster ageing process identified through gene research
New research has shed light on the molecular changes that occur in our bodies as we age.
Do as I say, not as I show: Ads in parenting magazines don't always illustrate safe practices
Readers with young children frequently turn to parenting magazines for tips on raising healthy kids.
The New York Stem Cell Foundation 10th Annual Conference
The New York Stem Cell Foundation 10th Annual Translational Stem Cell Research Conference convenes global leaders in translational stem cell and neuroscience research to present their latest work towards new treatments and cures for the most devastating diseases and injuries currently facing the world.
Study identifies roadblocks to mental health services for adolescents affected by bullying
Nearly one in three US adolescents are affected by bullying, placing them at risk for health problems including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression and self-harm.

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