Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 04, 2015
Increasing awareness of the deaf experience: The SAGE Deaf Studies Encyclopedia
Since its start in the 1960s, deaf studies has been impacted by the political activism of deaf communities, significant advancements in technologies and medicine, and broadened knowledge in interdisciplinary disciplines such as deaf culture, signed languages and deaf bilingual education.

CK5 marks cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer
A University of Colorado Cancer Center study recently published in the International Journal of Gynecological Cancer shows that protein cytokeratin 5 (CK5), known to be a marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer, also marks ovarian cancers likely to be resistant to the common chemotherapy cisplatin.

Engineer receives $2.2 million DOE grant to develop electric vehicle battery technology
The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy recently awarded a grant to a University of Missouri engineering researcher to develop manufacturing technology that will help produce materials necessary for lithium ion batteries used in electric vehicles.

Teenage exposure to pesticides may lead to abnormal sperm, new study says
Adolescent exposure to environmental pollutants known as organochlorines may lead to defective sperm, according to a study published today by researchers at Milken Institute School of Public Health at the George Washington University and co-authors.

System automatically converts 2-D video to 3-D
By exploiting the graphics-rendering software that powers sports video games, researchers at MIT and the Qatar Computing Research Institute have developed a system that automatically converts 2-D video of soccer games into 3-D.

Graphene could take night-vision technology beyond 'Predator'
Movies such as 1987's 'Predator,' in which an alien who sees in the infrared hunts down Arnold Schwarzenegger and his team, introduced a generation of sci-fi fans to thermal imaging.

OU collaborating in NSF South Big Data Regional Innovation Hub
The University of Oklahoma will play an active role in the South Big Data Regional Innovation Hub -- a new National Science Foundation initiative to build innovative public-private partnerships that address regional challenges with big data analysis.

Illegal marijuana farms continue to threaten fishers in California
The relatively rare, forest-dwelling fisher is increasingly becoming the innocent victim of illegal marijuana farms in forested lands in California.

Study rejects biologic age as limiting factor for stem cell transplants
More than 40 percent of older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can remain in long-term cancer remission through a modified, less aggressive approach to donor stem cell transplantation, according to the results of a phase 2 study led by oncologists at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center -- Arthur G.

Math anxiety doesn't equal poor math performance
Experiencing math anxiety -- nervousness and discomfort in relation to math -- impairs math performance for some students, but new research shows that it's linked with improved performance for others, at least to a degree.

Warning over online access to sleeping tablets
The prescription only sleeping tablet zopiclone, that can become addictive if used for more than a few weeks, is easily available online, warn experts in The BMJ today.

Scarlet fever making a comeback
An international study led by University of Queensland researchers has tracked the re-emergence of a childhood disease which had largely disappeared over the past 100 years.

Researchers discover size gene for salmon
The size of returning Atlantic salmon is largely dependent on the number of years that the salmon remains at sea before returning to spawn in the river.

GME squeeze for US med school graduates unlikely, commentary says
Will US medical students have trouble securing residency positions in the future as they have been warned by media and groups representing organized medicine?

Who's the 'enviest' of them all?
A UC San Diego paper finds young adults are more envious than older adults.

Blood test picks out prostate cancer drug resistance
Scientists have developed a blood test that can identify key mutations driving resistance to a widely used prostate cancer drug, and identify in advance patients who will not respond to treatment.

'JEDI' technology awakens new understanding of how immune system works
Scientists at Mount Sinai create immune cells that visibly kill cancer and pathogen infected cells

Backswimmers use buoyancy aid like a gill
Few backswimmers are capable of swimming at depth and those that do use small bubbles as buoyancy aids.

Adult ADHD has become epidemic -- experts explain why
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is growing up. Stephen Hinshaw and Katherine Ellison authors of the newly published book, 'ADHD: What Everyone Needs to Know,' confirm that adults -- and particularly women -- are reporting to clinics in record numbers, becoming the fastest-growing part of the population receiving diagnoses and prescriptions for stimulant medications.

Estrogen drug may not benefit women with Alzheimer's dementia
An estrogen-like drug, raloxifene, has no demonstrated benefit on memory and thinking skills for women with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease, according to a study published in the Nov.

A slim by design breakfast
Time and again we've been told: breakfast is the most important meal of the day.

Study shows effectiveness of switching antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected children
A Columbia University study evaluated whether HIV-infected children in South Africa who had achieved viral suppression with one antiretroviral treatment could transition to efavirenz-based therapy, the recommended drug for children older than three years, without risk of viral failure.

Sound waves levitate cells to detect stiffness changes that could signal disease
Utah Valley University physicists are literally applying rocket science to the field of medical diagnostics.

Exploring current state of knowledge about mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease
The current issue of Neurodegenerative Disease Management explores evolving viewpoints on the role of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease, a medical issue which currently lacks consensus.

Trampolining water droplets
Materials that actively repel water and ice very strongly are sought after by the aviation industry and for many other technical applications.

Physicists measure force that makes antimatter stick together
Peering at the debris from particle collisions that recreate the conditions of the very early universe, scientists have for the first time measured the force of interaction between pairs of antiprotons.

Second harmonic generation in a high-Q crystal microresonator fabricated by femtosecond laser
Second harmonic generation (SHG) in on-chip high-Q (>106) lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) microresonators fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining was demonstrated.

Bottle-brush design enhances cellular imaging
The bottle brush, with its long stalk and dense spray of plastic bristles, is the unsung hero of kitchens everywhere, fitting through the narrow necks of water bottles and vases and into the hard-to-reach interiors of mugs and tumblers.

'Odometer neurons' encode distance traveled and elapsed time
Animals navigate by calculating their current position based on how long and how far they have traveled and a new study on treadmill-running rats reveals how: neurons called grid cells integrate information about time and distance to support memory and spatial navigation, even in the absence of visual landmarks.

Should psychiatric hospitals ban smoking completely?
In The BMJ this week, experts discuss whether hospitals should ban smoking for psychiatric patients outside as well as indoors.

The Lancet: Adding ultrasound to breast screening results in higher rate of detection for women in Japan
Adding ultrasound to standard mammography tests in breast screening could result in improved rates of detection for breast cancer in women in Japan, according to a new study, published in The Lancet.

How plant cell compartments 'chat' with each other
A team of researchers led by scientists from the University of Bonn has discovered a basis of communication in plant cells: The 'MICU' protein controls the calcium ion concentration in the cellular power stations.

Strong marketing department drives firm performance, Iowa State researcher finds
New research from Iowa State University's College of Business underscores the importance of a strong marketing department.

Can virtual reality body-swapping technique improve body image?
In a new study using a body-swapping illusion, women shown images of themselves in virtual reality with a skinny belly estimated their body size more accurately compared to their estimates of various body parts made before the virtual body was substituted for their own.

Genomic project gets $7.3 million to breed Canadian winter-hardy honeybees
Canada's honeybees, imported mostly from warm southern climes, are dying in the Canadian cold.

Spending more on patients lowers doctors' malpractice risk, study finds
Physicians who spend more health care dollars on procedures for patients reduce their malpractice claim risk.

The Greenland ice sheet contains nutrients from precipitation
New research shows that the ice sheet on Greenland contains the nutrient phosphorus, which was carried by the atmosphere and fell with precipitation.

Supervolcanoes likely triggered externally, study finds
Supervolcanoes, massive eruptions with potential global consequences, appear not to follow the conventional volcano mechanics of internal pressure building until the volcano blows.

Antimatter not so different after all
Rice University researchers share the first measurements of the attractive force between antiprotons.

Does defensive medicine work?
In six out of seven specialties, higher-spending physicians faced fewer malpractice claims, accounting for differences in patient case-mix across physicians.

West Antarctic coastal snow accumulation rose 30 percent during 20th century, study finds
Annual snow accumulation on West Antarctica's coastal ice sheet increased dramatically during the 20th century, according to a new study published in the American Geophysical Union journal Geophysical Research Letters.

Relapsing infections could challenge malaria eradication
Eliminating malaria in the Asia-Pacific could prove more challenging than previously thought, with new research showing that most childhood malaria infections in endemic areas are the result of relapsed, not new, infections.

This week from AGU: 3-D magma images, funding research, & 5 new research papers
A new conceptual model of the magma system below Mono Lake and Mono Craters in eastern California gives scientists a more detailed understanding of volcanic processes at depth and a better model for forecasting volcanic unrest according to a new paper in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth.

Kangaroos are not super low gas producers
Kangaroos have been proposed as a low-methane alternative to cattle, however, it now turns out that kangaroos produce as much methane as many other herbivores that digest food by fermentation, so there is nothing special about kangaroo methane production.

Novel 'crumpling' of hybrid nanostructures increases SERS sensitivity
By 'crumpling' to increase the surface area of graphene-gold nanostructures, researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have improved the sensitivity of these materials, opening the door to novel opportunities in electronics and optical sensing applications.

Book describes efforts to help communities reduce climate vulnerabilities
Perhaps you have heard the adage 'think globally, act locally.' An MIT-led project taking that idea to heart has demonstrated a new method for getting local citizens and leaders to agree on the best ways of managing the immediate and long-term effects of climate change.

Growing pains in a cluster of protostars
A Yale-led study has found a cluster of young stars that develop in distinct, episodic spurts.

New solutions to persisting infant and child malnutrition on offer at DOHaD Congress
Over 600 experts from around the world will meet to address the many challenges that currently impact the health of mothers, babies in the womb, infants, children and adolescents at the Society for the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease congress, held in Cape Town from Nov.

GVSU nursing faculty member to present findings on 2 older adult studies
A Grand Valley State University nursing faculty member will present research at a national conference about text messaging to promote medication adherence trials and an interprofessional approach to helping vulnerable older adults remain at home and out of nursing homes.

Rat poison at marijuana farms is killing increased numbers of rare forest mammal
Increasing numbers of fishers, a mid-sized weasel proposed for federal listing as a threatened species, are being exposed to and dying from greater varieties of rodenticides found at trespass pot farms.

'Liquid biopsy' promotes precision medicine by tracking patient's cancer
A team of researchers, including scientists from the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), has reported that analyzing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can track how a patient's cancer evolves and responds to treatment.

Urban environments boost pathogen pressure on honey bees
Entomology researchers have found that urban environments increase pathogen abundance in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and reduce honey bee survival.

Expressive writing shows some benefits for returning vets
In a study of nearly 1,300 returning veterans reporting reintegration problems, those who completed online expressive-writing sessions showed more improvements than peers who had not written at all or who had engaged only in factual writing.

Connections discovered between masculinity, energy drink use, and sleep problems
Energy drinks have grown in popularity for many Americans, but there is growing concern about the health risks of consuming them in large quantities.

Therapies against biowarfare subject of $7.6 million Defense grant to Pitt vaccine scientists
The US Department of Defense has awarded a $7.6 million grant to a collaborative group of scientists in the University of Pittsburgh Center for Vaccine Research for groundbreaking work that could lead to countermeasures against bioterrorism attacks.

A new framework for assessing potentially reduced risk tobacco and nicotine products
A renaissance in tobacco and nicotine has seen the advent of high-tech gadgetry and technology that requires fresh eyes to help ensure that these products deliver reduced-risk potential.

Institute for Study of Human Flourishing fosters human well-being and development
At the heart of the newly-created University of Oklahoma Institute for the Study of Human Flourishing is the belief that humans flourish when they develop their fullest potential as rational and moral creatures living in healthy communities.

First observations from SEPIA
A new instrument attached to the 12-meter Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope at 5,000 meters above sea level in the Chilean Andes is opening up a previously unexplored window on the Universe.

New mood disorders program aims to advance treatments, erase stigma
A gift of $20 million from the Ray and Dagmar Dolby Family Fund to the Department of Psychiatry at UC San Francisco will support research on mood disorders.

Insufficient evidence for the use of omega 3 supplements in treating depression
New research out today concludes that there is insufficient evidence for the use of taking an omega 3 fatty acid supplement in treating major depressive disorder.

Requiring drug makers to take back unused pharmaceuticals
About $5 billion worth of unused prescription drugs get flushed down toilets, tossed in the trash or left in medicine cabinets across the US each year.

Racial anxiety may alter time perception for some white Americans, research finds
Time may appear to slow down for white Americans who feel threatened by an approaching black person, raising questions about the pervasive effects of racial bias or anxiety in the United States, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.

As menopause approaches, fluctuating estrogen increases sensitivity to stress, depression
If you're feeling a little blue during the transition to menopause, there's good reason.

The Ministry of Silly Walks? In each of your cells!
Inside mammalian cells, kinesin plays the same role as do trucks and locomotives within our countries: it is the main driving force behind the transport of manufactured goods.

INFORMS Wagner Prize: Vaccine and gene match, vaccine effectiveness to CDC, GA Tech, Emory
The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences, the leading professional association in analytics and operations research, today announced that the winner of the Daniel H.

Used alone, weight loss apps might not help overweight young adults
Used alone, a cell phone app that tracks exercise, calories and weight loss goals is, on average, not enough to create meaningful weight loss in young adults, according to new research from Duke Medicine.

Gulls follow ducks to find dinner
Gulls have learned to follow diving ducks and take the bottom-dwelling mussels that the ducks bring to the surface, a food source that would otherwise be inaccessible to them.

Virtual selves can help boost better real world health and exercise habits
Customizing an avatar to better resemble its human user may lead to improved health and exercise behaviors, according to a team of researchers.

NASA measures Cyclone Chapala's heavy rains across Arabian Sea to Yemen
The Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite added up the totals as Cyclone Chapala dropped a lot of rain moving across the Arabian Sea to landfall in Yemen.

KIT is granted Humboldt Professorship for excellent physicist
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology makes an internationally renowned experimental physicist move to Germany: Wolfgang Wernsdorfer was chosen for a Humboldt professorship.

NIH grant helps SMU, U-Maryland combat pediatric asthma
A pair of SMU psychology professors working with University of Maryland engineers have been awarded a National Institutes of Health grant in October that will bring nearly $2 million to their joint project to create a wearable device for pediatric asthma patients that helps them avoid asthma triggers.

Vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus shows promise in early trial
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health researchers say a new candidate vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) made with a weakened version of the virus shows great promise at fighting the disease, the leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of one in the US.

Mississippi entomologists report on benefits of neonicotinoid seed treatments on rice
According to researchers from Mississippi State University, rice seeds that are pre-treated with neonicotinoid pesticides yield better than untreated crops and suffer less damage from rice water weevil, the most widely distributed and destructive early-season insect pest of rice in the United States.

Native field-foraging bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides and other pesticides
The first-ever study of pesticide residues on field-caught bees shows that native bees are exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides and other pesticides.

A way to target the Achilles heel of neuroblastoma
Australian scientists have identified a critical molecular 'feedback loop' that helps initiate and drive neuroblastoma, a cancer of the nervous system in children that is triggered in embryonal nerve cells.

Stop the damaging messages about advanced breast cancer and include us in your discussions
Organizations that issue 'damaging messages' about advanced breast cancer need to be identified and educated to change the way they talk about the disease, a patient will tell the Advanced Breast Cancer Third International Consensus Conference.

Evidence-based practice model can help hospitals deliver best care, cut costs
Amid continued pressures to minimize errors and cut costs, hospitals are continuing to scramble to find solutions to problems plaguing health systems nationwide.

Study of cloud cover in tropical Pacific reveals future climate changes
A new analysis using changes in cloud cover over the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean showed that a weakening of a major atmospheric circulation system over the last century is due, in part, to increased greenhouse gas emissions.

Researchers want to turn acid-loving microbes into safe drug-carriers
Usually the microbe S. islandicus is found in hot and acidic volcanic springs, but now the microbe has also found its way to the labs of University of Southern Denmark.

Housing boom hurt college enrollment as young people chose jobs over school
The decision to go to work instead of school during the last housing boom turned out to be costly to students, and quite possibly a drag on the economic recovery according to a study from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.

Study points to more individualized treatment options for youth with onset type 2 diabetes
New results from the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Youth study (TODAY), examined predictors of the outcomes in youth with onset type 2 diabetes based on early characteristics at diagnosis, and suggests the need for specific criteria for adolescents that are different from those in adults.

Study: Brain's immune system could be harnessed to fight Alzheimer's
A new study appearing in the Journal of Neuroinflammation suggests that the brain's immune system could potentially be harnessed to help clear the amyloid plaques that are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease.

Mammography screening: Only 1 in 3 women is well-informed
Only one in three women participating in Germany's mammography screening program is well-informed about it: the higher the level of education, the greater the chance of women making an informed decision.

NSF-funded research reveals new discoveries on a bug with bifocals
Researchers announce findings from the first-of-its-kind analysis on an invertebrate sight system.

Image release: Protostar growth spurts
Astronomers using ALMA have discovered an adolescent protostar that is undergoing a rapid-fire succession of growth spurts.

Study shows some 3-D printed objects are toxic
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside have found parts produced by some commercial 3-D printers are toxic to certain fish embryos.

Why is osteoarthritis more common among athletes?
Osteoarthritis and reduced range of motion in the hip and groin are more common among athletes and other people who engage in strenuous physical activity.

New low-cost battery could help store renewable energy
Wind and solar energy projects are growing at a respectable clip.

Royal College of Surgeons appoints BMJ as international sales partner
The Royal College of Surgeons has appointed global healthcare knowledge provider, BMJ, as its international sales partner for institutional customers.

Faster digestion in kangaroos reduces methane emissions
Why does a kangaroo expel less methane than a cow?

Electrochemical etching down to one-monolayer towards high-Tc superconductivity
A team of researchers at Tohoku University's Institute for Materials Research, has realized layer-by-layer etching in superconducting FeSe films down to approximately one-monolayer about 0.6 nm using classical electrochemical reaction in electric-double-layer transistor configuration.

Scientists uncover mechanism that propels liver development after birth
Internal organs continue to develop for months and years after birth.

More than skin deep
Most products on the market today that are used to treat skin problems target the effects of the disease or wound such as inflammation, which can prolong the healing process and result in scarring.

Research suggests business leaders should re-think how they treat team members
New findings from an international team of researchers suggest business leaders who oversee teams need to find a middle ground in how they treat team members -- or risk hurting team performance.

Formation of new blood vessels may explain intractable symptoms of Parkinson's disease
Unwanted formation of blood vessels (angiogenesis) in the brain is likely to be the cause of intractable walking and balance difficulties for people who suffer from Parkinson's disease.

Environment and climate helped shape varied evolution of human languages
Researchers have conducted an extensive study of the relationship between the sound structures of a worldwide sample of human languages and climatic and ecological factors.

Student scientists, dusty data, and dirty discoveries
Students participating in a revolutionary virtual class leveraged previously unanalyzed pilot data from the National Ecological Observation Network.

Over 900 science leaders from over 100 countries gather at the World Science Forum 2015 Budapest calling for a more responsible and ethical use of science to address pressing global challenges in environment and health
At the Opening Ceremony of World Science Forum 2015 under the theme of 'The Enabling Power of Science' a panel of global thought-leaders declared renewed intent to fight poverty and promote just, equitable and inclusive social development based on the restoration, protection and sustainable use of natural resources and ecosystems.

Shape of bird wings depends on ancestors more than flight style
In a finding that could change the way scientists think about bird evolution, researchers have found that the shape of bird wings is influenced more by how closely related species are to one another than by flight style.

O'Neill Institute, WOLA to examine public health approaches to legalizing marijuana
The O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown Law, in collaboration with the Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA), has received a grant from Open Philanthropy Project to help develop guidelines on how states, countries, and other jurisdictions that opt to legalize cannabis for medical or recreational purposes can create regulatory frameworks, consistent with the goals of legalization, that will work effectively to protect and promote the public health.

Study identifies patients most likely to have joint pain reduction after bariatric surgery
In the three years following bariatric surgery, the majority of patients experience an improvement in pain and walking ability.

A step toward understanding how hibernation protects hearts
Wintry weather means hats and scarves for some mammals, and hibernation for others.

PNNL chemist elected president-elect of American Chemical Society
Allison Campbell, a chemist and director of a large research directorate at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, has been voted 2016 president-elect of the American Chemical Society -- the world's largest scientific society.

Resistance exercise during pregnancy has perceived positive effects
Resistance exercise during pregnancy has perceived positive effects. Swimming, walking and other mild physical activities, along with avoidance of resistance exercise, are often recommended for pregnant women.

Home remediation in low-income housing shows significant effect on childhood asthma
Children with asthma living in low-income, urban public housing had significantly fewer visits to the emergency department (ED), less use of rescue medication, and less disrupted sleep with a program that combines home repairs to reduce asthma triggers, training, and comprehensive care, called Controlling Asthma Through Home Remediation.

Nest cavity competition may threaten an endangered Tasmanian songbird
The Forty-spotted Pardalote, an endangered Tasmanian songbird, has been experiencing unexplained declines in its remaining habitat, and a new study describes how competition with a related species for nest cavities may be putting extra pressure on these vulnerable birds.

Can scientists agree on a definition of curiosity?
Philosopher Thomas Hobbes called it 'the lust of the mind.' Former first lady Eleanor Roosevelt said it was 'the most useful gift.' And, yes, we all know what killed the cat.

Patent push: US Navy received nearly 400 patents in fiscal year 2015
The Department of the Navy received 393 patents from the US Patent and Trademark Office in fiscal year 2015 -- the largest number of patents the Navy has received since fiscal year 1977.

Newly discovered fossil sea urchin is the oldest of its kind
A fossil sea urchin found in the Smithsonian's collections is the oldest of its kind, pushing back a fork in the sea urchin family tree by 10 million years.

DNA in blood can track cancer development and response in real time
Scientists have shown for the first time that tumor DNA shed into the bloodstream can be used to track cancers in real time as they evolve and respond to treatment.

Early proto-porcelain from China likely made from local materials
Early Chinese proto-porcelain was likely made from materials gathered locally, according to a study published Nov.

Higher physician spending linked with fewer malpractice claims, finds US study
A higher use of resources by US physicians is associated with a reduced risk of malpractice claims, finds a study published by The BMJ this week.

UTA leads technology to create SMART bandage tool to help monitor, heal wounds
The University of Texas at Arlington is developing a sensing and therapeutic tool that will help doctors and other healthcare workers better monitor and heal patients' complex wounds more quickly.

Earliest embryonic lethality gene identified
A new study, published in the open-access journal Genome Biology, has identified a single gene (TLE6) which, when mutated, is responsible for human embryonic lethality at an earlier stage of development than has ever previously been documented.

New global cybersecurity center planned by German and Israeli research leaders
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel, and the Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Information Technology SIT in Germany, have agreed to create a Fraunhofer Project Center for Cybersecurity in Jerusalem.

Pennsylvania researchers and innovators granted $4.34 million by American Heart Association
The AHA is proud to award outstanding achievements and innovation in the Southeastern Pennsylvania and Delaware region with $4.34 million in research grants.

Mooving manure beyond drug-resistant bacteria
Manure management is serious business for a meat-hungry world. A single cow, depending on its size, can generate between 43 and 120 pounds of manure a day.
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