Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 06, 2015
Gut microbiota regulates antioxidant metabolism
A recently published study shows that gut microbiota regulates the glutathione and amino acid metabolism of the host.

New look at PrEP study points to efficacy for transgender women
In a new look at the groundbreaking iPrEx trial for people at high risk of HIV infection, UC San Francisco researchers have identified strong evidence of efficacy for transgender women when PrEP, a two-drug antiretroviral used to prevent HIV, is used consistently.

Tsunami early warning: JRC tests new low-cost device to measure sea level
A new, low-cost experimental device for sea level measurement has been developed by JRC scientists.

Cancer survivors less likely to receive callbacks from potential employers
Job applicants who are cancer survivors are less likely to receive callbacks from potential retail employers than those who did not disclose their health history, according to a recent study by Rice University and Penn State University researchers.

Genetic modification shows promise for preventing hereditary hearing loss
A mitochondrial defect is responsible for a type of human hereditary deafness that worsens over time and can lead to profound hearing loss.

Monitoring farmland biodiversity across Europe: It could cost less than you think
How can we monitor Europe-wide farmland biodiversity monitoring scheme so that it makes sense to farmers, is ecologically credible and still is affordable?

Mucus -- the first line of defense
By licking a wound it heals faster -- this is not simply popular belief, but scientifically proven.

Positive emotions more contagious than negative ones on Twitter
New study shows that emotions spread like a virus through Twitter; some people are more susceptible than others to this 'emotional contagion;' positive emotions are much more contagious than negative ones.

New drought atlas maps 2,000 years of climate in Europe
The long history of severe droughts across Europe and the Mediterranean has largely been told through historical documents and ancient journals, each chronicling the impact in a geographically restricted area.

Researchers uncover diverse subtypes of serotonin-producing neurons
It used to be enough to call a serotonergic neuron a serotonergic neuron.

Packaging and unpacking of the genome
Single-cell techniques have been used to investigate histone replacement and chromatin remodeling in developing oocytes.

Cadaveric kidneys from infants and toddlers benefit adults in need of transplants
Adults with kidney failure benefit from cadaveric kidney transplants from infants and toddlers when adult organs are unavailable.

Scottish university scientist behind successful rapid-detection Ebola test
A rapid-detection Ebola test developed by international scientists has been deployed in Senegal and Guinea following a highly effective pilot project.

NASA sees Tropical Cyclone Megh strengthening on approach to Socotra Island, Yemen
Yemen's Socotra Island just endured Cyclone Chapala and just a week later is facing a second tropical cyclone: Megh.

Researchers develop a new tool to guide recovery from disasters
From cyclones that knocked out swaths of the Indian Railways Network to the winter storms that brought the MBTA system to its knees, an urgent need exists for systematic strategies that speed the recovery of critical lifelines in the wake of disasters.

Physics in a mad world
Six decades -- from the 1920s till 1980s -- were the golden age of physics.

TGen will lead international SU2C dream team to tackle deadly pancreatic cancer
The Phoenix-based Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) will lead an international Stand Up To Cancer (SU2C) Dream Team of top cancer researchers in a $12 million effort to double the survival of patients with pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the US.

Neurodermatitis genes influence other allergies
There's a typical 'career' for some allergic people, and it starts very early on the skin: babies develop atopic dermatitis, food allergies may follow, then comes asthma and later on hay fever.

AAO 2015 showcases latest in vision research and and innovation
AAO 2015, the American Academy of Ophthalmology's 119th annual meeting, takes place Nov.

Protein movement of hair bundles in the inner ear may preserve hearing for life
Scientists at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have discovered that the movement of protein within hair cells of the inner ear shows signs of a repair and renewal mechanism.

Targeted treatment produces rapid shrinkage of recurrent, BRAF-mutant brain tumor
Massachusetts General Hospital investigators report the first successful use of a targeted therapy to treat a patient with BRAF-mutant craniopharyngioma, a debilitating, recurrent brain tumor.

First synthetic model of bacteria outer membrane
An international collaboration led by scientists from Newcastle University, UK, and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory has produced the first in vitro model of the outer membrane of the bacteria E. coli providing a tool for developing new antibiotics and other drugs.

People attribute moral obligation and blame, regardless of ability
New research from the University of Waterloo debunks the age-old moral philosophy that if you are unable to do something, then you are not morally obligated to do it.

Complex skeletons evolved earlier than realized, fossils suggest
The first animals to have complex skeletons existed about 550 million years ago, fossils of a tiny marine creature unearthed in Namibia suggest.

Better options for people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia
In real-world settings, patients with schizophrenia whose symptoms do not respond to standard antipsychotic medications have better outcomes if they are switched to clozapine instead of another standard antipsychotic.

School violence prevention project to focus on mobile apps, peer dynamics
In a project funded by the National Institute of Justice, experts on youth violence, bullying and school climate issues in Illinois and Oregon are teaming up to develop a comprehensive school safety intervention that will use mobile apps and high school youths as key change agents in preventing school violence.

New clues to how gatekeeper for the cell nucleus works
Berkeley Lab scientists have uncovered new clues to how a molecular machine inside the cell acts as a gatekeeper, allowing some molecules to enter and exit the nucleus while keeping other molecules out.

New vital sign monitoring system may improve care for hospitalized patients
A recent study indicates that a newly designed vital sign monitoring system can improve patient safety in medical and surgical units without an abundance of unnecessary alarms.

Equations used to place patients on transplant waitlists may create disparities
Three commonly used kidney function equations yielded discordant results for transplant waitlist qualification in a recent analysis.

When less is really more
ETH researchers have found that therapeutic iron supplements may be less effective when given in brief intervals: A peptide molecule blocks iron absorption in the intestine even 24 hours after the iron administation.

Tomatoes get boost in growth, antioxidants from nano-sized nutrients
Researchers at Washington University in St. Louis are using nano-sized nutrients to boost production of food without straining natural resources.

Transplant tourism increases health-related risks for organ recipients
Compared with recipients of living related kidney donor transplants, recipients who purchased organs internationally were more likely to develop hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and cytomegalovirus, and they were more likely to experience acute and recurrent rejections and surgical complications.

MRI-based screening improves assignment of stroke patients to endovascular treatment
A Massachusetts General Hospital-developed system for determining which patients with severe strokes are most likely to benefit from catheter-based systems for blood clot removal led to a greater percentage of screened patients receiving treatment and to outcomes similar to recent studies that found significant treatment benefits.

Unlocking the mysteries of 'little starlets'
For the first time a powerful laser has been used to further our understanding of some of the most mysterious celestial objects just beyond the solar system -- brown dwarfs.

Kidney transplantation prolongs survival compared with home hemodialysis
Among kidney failure patients who were followed for five years, home hemodialysis patients were four times more likely to die than kidney transplant recipients.

Studies assess racial disparities associated with living kidney donation
Increasing median income levels of transplant candidates' zip codes were associated with higher rates of living donation, but African American candidates living in the wealthiest neighborhoods had only slightly higher rates than rates seen among the lowest median income areas for Caucasians.

Drug protects fertility and may prolong life in chemo-treated mice
A University of Wisconsin-Madison physician and her research team have shown that a heart medication can prevent ovarian damage and improve survival in adolescent mice after chemotherapy.

Bang for the buck in stroke prevention: U-M study compares new & old drugs
When it comes to preventing stroke, millions of Americans with irregular heartbeats face a choice: Take one of the powerful but pricey new pills they see advertised on TV, or a much cheaper 60-year-old drug can be a hassle to take, and doesn't prevent stroke as well.

Moffitt's Physical Sciences -- Oncology Center receives $10.4 million grant
Moffitt Cancer Center was awarded a $10.4 million grant from the National Cancer Institute for its Physical Science -- Oncology Centers.

NASA's Swift spots its thousandth gamma-ray burst
NASA's Swift spacecraft has detected its 1,000th gamma-ray burst (GRB).

PharmaMar's novel ADC demonstrates anticancer activity in HER2-expressing
PharmaMar announced that its novel Antibody-Drug Conjugate (ADC) demonstrates strong anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo against tumors expressing HER2 derived from breast, gastric and ovarian cancers.

How did the stonefly cross the lake? The mystery of stoneflies recolonising a USA island
Millennia ago, glaciers scraped all life from a large island in the USA.

Dream team selected to tackle one of cancer's deadliest forms: Pancreatic cancer
The Stand Up To Cancer-Cancer Research UK-Lustgarten Foundation Dream Team of top cancer researchers from the United States and the United Kingdom was named here today to launch a fresh attack on pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest forms of cancer on both sides of the Atlantic.

Thiazide may pose some risk for congestive heart failure patients
Thiazide, a popular diuretic for lowering high blood pressure, may not excrete salt as expected in patients with congestive heart failure and or dehydration and should be taken with caution, say researchers at the University of Cincinnati.

UGA researchers identify essential component of antiviral defense
Infectious disease researchers at the University of Georgia have identified a signaling protein critical for host defense against influenza infection.

From starving chicks come fat birds
A Newcastle University, UK, study has shown that baby birds that have a difficult start in life grow to be fatter and greedier than their more fortunate siblings.

What makes a leader? Clues from the animal kingdom
As the American media continues to buzz over who is more or less likely to secure the Republican and Democratic nominations for US President, researchers in the journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution review some interesting perspectives on the nature of leadership.

GMRT discovers a dying, giant radio galaxy 9 billion light years away!
An international team of astronomers has discovered an extremely rare radio galaxy -- a giant, with an extent of 4 million light years caught in its dying phase at an incredible distance of 9 billion light years.

Queen's University professor to unveil self-levitating displays
Queen's professor Roel Vertegaal and his students are unveiling the BitDrones system on Monday, Nov.

Marine invasive species benefiting from rising carbon dioxide levels
Ocean acidification may well be helping invasive species of algae, jellyfish, crabs and shellfish to move to new areas of the planet with damaging consequences, according to the findings of a new report.

Amplifying -- or removing -- visual variation
At the Siggraph Asia conference this week, MIT researchers presented a pair of papers describing techniques for either magnifying or smoothing out small variations in digital images.

New ORNL device combines power of mass spectrometry, microscopy
ORNL device is a potentially huge help for studying chemical interactions, disease, drugs.

New way to find DNA damage
University of Utah chemists devised a new way to detect chemical damage to DNA that sometimes leads to genetic mutations responsible for many diseases, including various cancers and neurological disorders.

BMJ partners with Chinese Stroke Association on new open-access journal
Global health-care knowledge provider BMJ has partnered with the Chinese Stroke Association to produce a new open-access journal, Stroke and Vascular Neurology, the company has announced.

New book explores global reach of British royal family brand
Cele Otnes, Investors in Business Education Professor in the College of Business at the University of Illinois, is the co-author of the recently published book 'Royal Fever: The British Monarchy in Consumer Culture.'

Cellular stress process identified in cardiovascular disease
Combining the investigative tools of genetics, transcriptomics, epigenetics and metabolomics, a Duke Medicine research team has identified a new molecular pathway involved in heart attacks and death from heart disease.

Samumed begins Phase II clinical trial for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee
Samumed, LLC, a leader in tissue regeneration, announced today that it has started enrolling patients in a Phase II study evaluating the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of SM04690 injected in the target knee joint of moderately to severely symptomatic OA patients.
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