Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 20, 2015
Tiotropium/olodaterol in COPD: Disadvantages in some patients, advantages in others
For most patients, the fixed-dose combination has neither advantages nor disadvantages.

Microevolutionary evidence: The eyes have it
A new study shows that larger eye size is the source of a sizable reproductive advantage for a tiny freshwater crustacean, Daphnia obtusa.

Opioid Overdose Summit brings together experts at University of Michigan
Dozens of experts on the issue of opioid drug abuse and overdose will gather at the University of Michigan on Dec.

Low-oxygen 'dead zones' in North Pacific linked to past ocean warming
A new study has found a link between abrupt ocean warming at the end of the last ice age and the sudden onset of low-oxygen, or hypoxic, conditions that led to vast marine dead zones.

High-frequency stimulation in pain medicine
Due to disease-related changes in their brain, pain patients often suffer from an impaired tactile ability in their hands.

Substantial funding for DFG Transregional CRC on 'Arctic Climate Change'
The German Research Foundation (DFG) supports the new Transregional Collaborative Research Centre TR 172 'Arctic climate change' during the next four years.

ASHG announces results of first-ever Teen Genes Video Challenge
The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) is pleased to announce the first-place winners and honorable mentions of its inaugural Teen Genes Video Challenge.

ORNL, Solid Power sign exclusive license for lithium-sulfur battery tech
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Solid Power Inc. of Louisville, Colo., have signed an exclusive agreement licensing lithium-sulfur materials for next-generation batteries.

European Commission launched ICOS ERIC
Establishment of a long term carbon and greenhouse gas observations across the Europe represents another clear message from the EU about its commitment to the climate targets ahead of the COP21.

Nanomedicine special issue explores integrated role of nanomedical research
Nanomedicine, a leading MEDLINE-indexed journal, has published a special focus issue highlighting the interdisciplinary nature of this emerging field, which explores the medical application of nanotechnology to monitor, repair, and control human biological systems at the molecular level.

Electronic plants developed at Linköping University
Researchers at Linköping University in Sweden have created analog and digital electronics circuits inside living plants.

Review examines the extent of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses
Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is a significant problem for both human and veterinary medicine, but little research has been done on the prevalence or mechanisms of resistance in horses and other companion animals, and how such resistance might impact human health.

Hardened steels for more efficient engines
Scientists of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology are working on a new process for hardening steel: with the help of methylamine, they enrich low-alloy steels with carbon and nitrogen.

Can stem cell technology be harnessed to generate biological pacemakers?
Although today's pacemakers are lifesaving electronic devices, they are limited by their artificial nature.

Neuroscientists, funders launch resource aimed at breaking data barriers in brain research
An alliance of brain researchers and funders has announced a common data format to facilitate the free and open exchange of complex information about the brain -- information that scientists can then use to accelerate progress in understanding the brain and developing new treatments for brain disorders.

Export of wood pellets from US to EU more environmentally friendly than coal
A new study co-written by Madhu Khanna, a professor of agricultural and consumer economics at the University of Illinois, found that harvesting wood pellets in the US and exporting them to the EU was more environmentally friendly than burning coal in the EU to generate electricity.

Supporting life on Earth
Earth scientists from the University of Alberta, University of Waterloo, Arizona State University, University of California Riverside, and Georgia Institute of Technology have found evidence that Earth's transition to a permanently oxygenated atmosphere was anything but smooth.

The cuckoo sheds new light on the scientific mystery of bird migration
The cuckoo is not only capable of finding its way from unknown locations; it does this through a highly complex individual decision making process.

Ground-breaking research could challenge underlying principles of physics
An international team of physicists has published ground-breaking research on the decay of subatomic particles called kaons -- which could change how scientists understand the formation of the universe.

Research ushers in new era of boutique chocolate
A team of Belgian researchers has shown that the yeasts used to ferment cocoa during chocolate production can modify the aroma of the resulting chocolate.

Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna to receive the 2016 HFSP Nakasone Award
The Human Frontier Science Program Organization has announced that the 2016 HFSP Nakasone Award has been awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier of the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany and Umeå University, Sweden and Jennifer Doudna of the University of California at Berkeley, USA for their seminal work on gene editing by means of the CRISPR-Cas9 system.

Sea traffic pollutes our lungs more than previously thought
New data presented by researchers at Lund University and others in the journal Oceanologia show that the air along the coasts is full of hazardous nanoparticles from sea traffic.

New detector perfect for asteroid mining, planetary research
A team of scientists from Vanderbilt and Fisk Universities, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Planetary Science Institute have proposed a new type of gamma-ray spectroscope that has ideal properties for planetary exploration and asteroid mining.

Half of Amazonian tree species may be threatened
A James Cook University scientist says a new study shows more than half of all tree species in the world's most diverse forest -- the Amazon -- may be globally threatened.

Technology meets society: New app helps seniors live better
A new technological solution developed by researchers from the University of Notre Dame is aimed at enhancing the physical health, vitality and brain fitness of seniors residing in independent living communities.

Michigan's URC wins $2.5 million to improve interactions between parents, teachers, toddlers
Researchers from Wayne State University, Michigan State University and the University of Michigan will receive $2.5 million over five years in a cooperative agreement with the Administration for Children and Families, a division of the US Department of Health & Human Services.

NASA's Aqua satellite eyes Tropical Storm Rick in Eastern Pacific
NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Rick and captured a visible light image that showed the storm far off the coast of western Mexico.

Half of all Amazonian tree species may be globally threatened
The study also suggests that Amazonian parks, reserves, and indigenous territories, if properly managed, will protect most of the threatened species.

ADHD meds may be a prescription for bullying
Kids and teens who take medications like Ritalin to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are twice as likely to be physically or emotionally bullied by peers than those who don't have ADHD, a new University of Michigan study found.

Surprising signal to control male fertility
Sperm cells mature during their transit in the epididymis and thus acquire their ability to fertilize ova.

Supercomputing the strange difference between matter and antimatter
An international team of physicists including theorists from the US Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory has published the first calculation of direct 'CP' symmetry violation -- how the behavior of subatomic particles (in this case, the decay of kaons) differs when matter is swapped out for antimatter.

Eye exams using lighted, hand-held instruments now done infrequently, study finds
An eye exam called that direct funduscopy, which can detect eye problems and neurological conditions, is being performed infrequently, a Loyola study has found.

NASA sees In-Fa get better organized, re-strengthen
When the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission of GPM core satellite analyzed Tropical Storm In-fa, data showed the storm had become better organized over the previous 24 hours.

The search for happiness: Using MRI to find where happiness happens
Japanese researchers have mapped out using MRI where happiness emerges in the brain.

Study shows marked decline in retailer compliance after enactment of NYC's Tobacco 21 law
In a study examining compliance with NYC's law increasing legal age for purchasing cigarettes from 18 to 21, NYU and UCLA researchers found retailer compliance with ID checks significantly decreased since the law became effective.

Polarization vision gives fiddler crabs the edge in detecting rivals
Fiddler crabs use polarization vision to sense the approach of rivals, scientists at the University of Bristol have found.

MD Anderson receives $22.2 million in CPRIT research funding
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center was awarded more than $22 million in research grants this week from the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas.

Strange quantum phenomenon achieved at room temperature in semiconductor wafers
Researchers at the University of Chicago have demonstrated that macroscopic entanglement can be generated at room temperature and in a small magnetic field.

Arizona Regents recognize TGen with award for Outstanding Service to Higher Education
The Arizona Board of Regents presented the Translational Genomics Research Institute with its 2015 Regents' Award for Outstanding Service to Higher Education, recognizing the extensive research TGen has conducted in association with Northern Arizona University.

A whiff from blue-green algae likely responsible for Earth's oxygen: Study
Earth's oxygen-rich atmosphere emerged in whiffs from a kind of blue-green algae in shallow oceans around 2.5 billion years ago, according to new research from Canadian and US scientists.

The route to high temperature superconductivity goes through the flat land
Researchers at Aalto University have discovered that energy saving superconductors may be possible if the counterintuitive properties of electrons moving in 'flat bands' are exploited.

Tumor-suppressor p53 regulates protein that stifles immune attack on cancer
A crucial tumor-thwarting gene protects an immune attack against lung cancer by blocking the key to an off switch on T cells, the customized warriors of the immune system, a team led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reports in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

The economic significance of cities increases while that of countries falls
Lucía Sáez, co-author of the article Benchmarking urban competitiveness in Europe to attract investment, stresses that globalization has been accompanied by a parallel locating process, plus an increase in the economic and political power of cities and of the regions to which they belong.

New EU project designed to link diagnosis and treatment of diseases over the long term
An international team from four EU countries plans to use an innovative concept to improve the use of companion diagnostics in disease and develop new approaches to therapy in the long term.

Half of all Amazonian tree species may be globally threatened
Scientists at Chicago's Field Museum, along with a team of 158 researchers from around the world, report that more than half the tree species in the Amazonian rainforest may be globally threatened.

Climate change: Warm water is mixing up life in the Arctic
The warming of arctic waters in the wake of climate change is likely to produce radical changes in the marine habitats of the High North.

WIC program usage reviewed in new interim report
Women and children who participate in the WIC program have low or inadequate intakes of several key nutrients that could be addressed with changes to the program's food packages, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Hospitals overlook every other person with HIV
A new study reveals that many European hospitals fail to routinely test people who may be at risk of an HIV-infection.

U of T research sheds new light on mysterious fungus that has major health consequences
Researchers at the University of Toronto examined fungi in the mucus of patients with cystic fibrosis and discovered how one particularly cunning fungal species has evolved to defend itself against neighbouring bacteria.

Shaping contraction
Researchers at EMBL Heidelberg have identified a particular group of cells which are crucial for tissue in a fruit fly embryo to fold inwards to form the animal's gut.

Grow your own way
A new study co-authored by an MIT economist suggests that international trade will do little to alleviate climate-induced farming problems.

First-in-man use of virtual reality imaging in cardiac cath lab to treat blocked coronary artery
Virtual reality has potential to revolutionize some aspects of medicine and healthcare.

New UTA research will automatically check for bugs in cyber-physical systems
The development environments in which cyber-physical systems are created must be correct if they are to work safely and reliably.

Addition of sugars plays a key developmental role in distantly related plants
Researchers from CSHL found that deleting the genes for sugar-adding enzymes from the flowering mustard plant Arabidopsis and the moss Physcomitrella resulted in similar defects in both species, which are widely separated in evolutionary time.

UK awarded $6 million to further develop treatment for cocaine abuse
University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy Professor Chang-Guo Zhan, along with fellow UK Professors Fang Zheng and Sharon Walsh, and Professor Mei-Chuan Ko from Wake Forest University, recently received $6 million in funding over five years to further develop a potential treatment for cocaine abuse.

Fernando Codá Marques and André Neves to receive the 2016 AMS Oswald Veblen Prize
Fernando Codá Marques (Princeton University) and André Neves (Imperial College London) will receive the 2016 AMS Oswald Veblen Prize in Geometry for 'their remarkable work on variational problems in differential geometry [including] the proof of the Willmore conjecture.'

Inflammation linked to weakened reward circuits in depression
New research indicates that persistent inflammation affects the brain in ways that are connected with stubborn symptoms of depression, such as anhedonia, the inability to experience pleasure.

Artificial pancreas therapy performs well in pilot study
Researchers are reporting a breakthrough toward developing an artificial pancreas as a treatment for diabetes and other conditions by combining mechanical artificial pancreas technology with transplantation of islet cells, which produce insulin.

New patent paves way for breast cancer prevention
GMU researchers have patented a new breast cancer treatment that uses a common malaria drug to stop cancer in its beginning stages.

Improving the chances of recovery for intensive care patients
What can be done to actively support the recovery of patients in intensive care?

How fast you move can predict how healthy you'll be
Instead of focusing on drawing out the length of life, South Korea's IBS Center for Plant Aging Research and the research group led by Coleen Murphy, a professor at Princeton University have created a tool that can be used for accurately predicting lifespan as well as assessing the current health state, and discovered the regulatory mechanism that extends 'healthspan,' the time in which an organism is at its optimal health.

Army supports research at WPI that could help keep aircraft in service longer, more safely
A team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute is expanding our understanding of how stress and fatigue cause microscopic damage in metal components.
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