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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | November 25, 2015


Low sugar diet makes foods taste sweeter but does not change preferred level of sweetness
New research from the Monell Center reveals that while foods such as vanilla pudding taste sweeter following three months on a low-sugar diet, the level of sweetness most preferred in foods and beverages does not change.
Normalizing the levels of MeCP2 in a mouse model of MECP2 duplication syndrome restores neurological
Gene duplications are a common cause of intellectual disabilities and autism as well as various other neurological disorders.
At the edge of vision: Struggling to make sense of our cluttered world
Even with 20/20 vision in broad daylight on a clear day, our peripheral vision can be surprisingly poor, particularly when the scene in front of us is cluttered.
Progesterone supplements do not improve outcomes for recurrent miscarriages
New research from the University of Birmingham has shown that progesterone supplements in the first trimester of pregnancy do not improve outcomes in women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages.
NTU smart chip tells you how healthy your battery is
Scientists from Nanyang Technological University have developed a smart chip which can tell you how healthy is your battery and if it is safe for use.
New study on complete response rates for late-stage cancer
The report, 'Chemotherapy for Late-Stage Cancer Patients: Meta-Analysis of Complete Response Rates' by colleagues at Melbourne and Adelaide universities, has passed peer review on F1000Research.
Nature Publishing Group releases landmark white paper -- Turning Point: Chinese Science in Transition
Nature Publishing Group, part of Springer Nature, today releases Turning Point: Chinese Science in Transition, a white paper which takes the pulse of China's scientific research at a critical time in its development.
Nanoparticles simplify DNA identification and quantification
The article was led by ICN2 researchers in colaboration with UAB researchers, within the POC4PETS European Project, aimed to improving the speed and accuracy of current diagnostics for veterinary pathogens.
How a genetic locus protects adult blood-forming stem cells
A particular location in DNA, called the Dlk1-Gtl2 locus, plays a critical role in protecting hematopoietic, or blood-forming, stem cells -- a discovery revealing a critical role of metabolic control in adult stem cells, and providing insight for potentially diagnosing and treating cancer, according to researchers from the Stowers Institute for Medical Research.
Promising drug combination for advanced prostate cancer
A new drug combination may be effective in treating men with metastatic prostate cancer.
Data scientists create world's first therapeutic venom database
What doesn't kill you could cure you. A growing interest in the therapeutic value of animal venom has led a pair of Columbia University data scientists to create the first catalog of known animal toxins and their physiological effects on humans.
All eyes on ions at next LHC run
Rice scientists are in place for the next round of discovery at the Large Hadron Collider, which began its first run of heavy-ion collisions in three years this week.
Antibody-drug compounds and immunotherapy to treat breast cancer
To more efficiently treat breast cancer, scientists have been researching molecules that selectively bind to cancer cells and deliver a substance that can kill the tumor cells, for several years.
The Lancet: No benefit found for use of probiotic Bifidobacterium breve
The results of a phase 3 randomised controlled trial, published today in The Lancet, show that, despite being safe to administer, there is no benefit in using the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve (BBG-001) to prevent late-onset sepsis or necrotising enterocolitis in very preterm children.
Two-thirds of studies on 'psychosocial' treatments fail to declare conflicts of interest
The creators of commercially sold counseling programs increasingly profit from public health services across the world.
Dietary restriction gives fruit flies a rhythm for a long life
Dietary restriction enhances the expression of the circadian clock genes in the peripheral tissue of fruit flies.
A different kind of anesthesia a possible treatment for stress-induced cardiomyopathy
Stress induced cardiomyopathy after cerebral hemorrhage has been shown to increase the risk of further brain damage.
Mosquito-borne virus may lead to severe brain infection
The mosquito-borne virus chikungunya may lead to severe brain infection and even death in infants and people over 65, according to a new study that reviewed a chikungunya outbreak on Reunion Island off the coast of Madagascar in 2005-2006.
CO2 Modeller brings climate change and emissions targets within touching distance
Scientists and computer engineers at the University of Southampton have developed an interactive climate app -- CO2 Modeller -- which can fit in your pocket and help you to gauge the future effects of carbon emissions around key sensitivities of the Earth's climate.
Eggshell porosity can be used to infer the type of nest built by extinct archosaurs
Extinct archosaurs' eggshell porosity may be used as a proxy for predicting covered or exposed nest types, according to a study published Nov.
Breast MRI after mammography may identify additional aggressive cancers
Additional breast cancers found with MRI are sometimes larger and potentially more aggressive than those found on mammography, according to a new study.
Great Barrier Reef protecting against landslides, tsunamis
The world-famous Australian reef is providing an effective barrier against landslide-induced tsunamis, new research shows.
Discovery could open door to frozen preservation of tissues, whole organs
Researchers have discovered a new approach to 'vitrification,' or ice-free cryopreservation, that could ultimately allow a much wider use of extreme cold to preserve tissues and even organs for later use.
Pigeons must feel the need for speed if they want to lead
Many birds travel in flocks, sometimes migrating over thousands of miles.
Next-generation fuel cells are ready for low-emission electricity production
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, under the INNO-SOFC project and in collaboration with Convion Ltd and Elcogen Ltd, is developing a new-generation, long-life fuel cell system offering efficiency higher than that of competing technologies.
Liver cell therapies closer as study reveals key to mass production
Stem cell scientists have made a key find that aids the quest to produce therapies for patients with liver damage.
As 2nd anniversary nears of Ebola breakout in West Africa, nurse provides firsthand account of combating Ebola
International nurse volunteers responding to the Ebola outbreak in West African encountered death on nearly every shift and worked under conditions that challenged their ingenuity in providing even basic care.
Immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes deemed safe in first US trial
San Francisco scientists and physicians, patients experienced no serious adverse reactions after receiving infusions of as many as 2.6 billion cells that had been specially selected to protect the body's ability to produce insulin.
A changing season means a changing diet for bison
North American bison adjust their diet seasonally in order to take full advantage of the growing season when grasses become less nutritious, a new study led by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder has discovered.
Ultrasound examinations can identify patients at risk of stroke
Ultrasound, a non-invasive technique commonly used to study the presence of atherosclerosis disease in blood vessels, can be used to identify patients at increased risk of future stroke who could benefit from surgery.
The United Arab Emirates University holds the First UAEU Annual Research and Innovation Conference
Under the patronage of His Excellency Sheikh Hamdan Bin Mubarak Al Nahyan, Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research and Chancellor of UAEU, the UAEU Annual Research and Innovation Conference (2015) opened under the 'UAE Innovates' banner on Tuesday, Nov.
Can physical exercise enhance long-term memory?
Exercise can enhance the development of new brain cells in the adult brain, a process called adult neurogenesis.
Drowned starlings puzzle scientists
Drowning has emerged as a mysterious cause of death among groups of young common starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), according to research by a team of scientists led by international conservation charity the Zoological Society of London.
Penn researchers discover why E. coli move faster in syrup-like fluids than in water
Swimming in a pool of syrup would be difficult for most people, but for bacteria like E. coli, it's easier than swimming in water.
Cichlid fish view unfamiliar faces longer, from further distance than familiar faces
Fish viewed digital models with unfamiliar fish faces longer and from a further distance than models with familiar faces, according to a study published Nov.
Changes in retail prices for prescription dermatologic drugs from 2009-2015
Prices among 19 brand-name prescription dermatologic drugs increased rapidly between 2009 and 2015, with prices for topical antineoplastic drugs to prevent the spread of cancer cells increasing an average of 1,240 percent, according to an article published online by JAMA Dermatology
New study suggests angler education can benefit sharks
A new study finds fisher education can help protect vulnerable shark populations.
Massive 'development corridors' in Africa could spell environmental disaster
In sub-Saharan Africa, dozens of major 'development corridors,' including roads, railroads, and pipelines, are in the works to increase agricultural production, mineral exports, and economic integration.
Landmark clinical trial of a novel combination treatment for type 1 diabetes
Investigators at Montreal's Lady Davis Institute at the Jewish General Hospital and McGill University Health Centre have announced the start of a landmark clinical study aimed at restoring normal insulin secretion in people with longstanding type 1 diabetes.
Queen's researchers study willingness to adopt children with special needs
Queen's University researchers Philip Burge and Dianne Groll and two co-authors have just published a study regarding the attitudes and preferences of prospective adoptive parents.
Hospital records key to preventing child injuries: QUT study
Almost 50 per cent of child injures requiring treatment in emergency departments are linked to consumer products, but a lack of detailed hospital records is restricting child safety experts from identifying if a product fault or misuse is the cause, a QUT study has found.
Proteome analysis for detection of diabetic nephropathy: Benefit remains unclear
As no study relevant for the research question was identified, the benefit or harm for patients, as well as the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy, remain unclear.
A new form of real gold, almost as light as air
Researchers at ETH Zurich have created a new type of foam made of real gold.
Dimensionality transition in a newly created material
Iron oxides occur in nature in many forms, often significantly different from each other in terms of structure and physical properties.
Peering into cell structures where neurodiseases emerge
In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a Univeristy of Delaware-led research team reveals for the first time -- atom by atom -- the structure of CAP-Gly, a protein that binds to the latticework of microtubules in your cells.
For pigeons, follow the leader is a matter of speed
Many birds travel in flocks, sometimes migrating over thousands of miles.
Women with diabetes exposed to air pollution at higher risk for heart disease
Women with diabetes who are exposed to air pollution for long periods may have a much higher risk for heart disease.
Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: Increased risk for women with diabetes
Air pollution is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and some people may be more susceptible to its effects than others.
Heart disease patients who sit a lot have worse health even if they exercise
Patients with heart disease who sit a lot have worse health even if they exercise, reveals research from the University of Ottawa Heart Institute, and published today in the European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention.
New strategy discovered for treating arthritis
Arthritis patients could one day benefit from a novel form of medicine, according to researchers at Queen Mary University of London.
Overweight, obesity early in life increase risk of cardiac death
Overweight and obesity throughout adulthood, and especially elevated weight in early adulthood, were associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death in a 32-year study of more than 72,000 women published today in JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology.
Postoperative Clostridium difficile infection in the Veterans Health Administration
The overall postoperative rate of Clostridium difficile infection, a bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and life-threatening intestinal conditions, was 0.4 percent per year among more than 468,386 surgical procedures at the Veterans Health Administration, according to a study published online by JAMA Surgery.
'Material universe' yields surprising new particle
An international team of researchers has predicted the existence of a new type of particle called the type-II Weyl fermion in metallic materials.
New technology promises fast, accurate stroke diagnosis
A new approach to identifying biomarkers in blood has proven successful in helping diagnose stroke, and the technology could be expanded to diagnose such conditions as concussion, some forms of dementia, and some types of cancer and heart disease.
Lidar scanning can help identify structurally heterogeneous forest areas
The inequality of tree sizes in a forest is an important factor affecting its structure and ecology.
Population Council's MZC outperforms TFV 1 percent gel in microbicide candidate preclinical study
New data from a preclinical safety and efficacy study of the candidate microbicide gel MZC, which targets HIV, herpes simplex virus and human papillomavirus, shows that the gel performs as well as, or in many cases, better than, tenofovir 1 percent gel, a leading microbicide candidate.
Sex determination in ants
OIST researchers discover what makes ants male or female.
Aging star's weight loss secret revealed
A team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope has captured the most detailed images ever of the hypergiant star VY Canis Majoris.
The United Arab Emirates University organizes a symposium on intellectual property and the transfer of technology
As part of the United Arab Emirates University's ambitious vision and in response to the directives of His Excellency Sheikh Hamdan Bin Mubarak Al Nahyan, Chancellor of UAEU, the Intellectual Property and Transfer of Technology Office from the Department of the Deputy Vice Chancellor for Research and Graduate Studies, organized a symposium on Intellectual Property and the Transfer of Technology on Monday, Nov.
Estimate the growth of vines using a system that measures infrared radiation emision
The Basque Institute of Agricultural Research and Development Neiker Tecnalia has tested the effectiveness of an innovative system to estimate vegetative growth in vines by measuring the infrared radiation emission of the plants.
Patient deaths do not increase during doctor strikes
As doctors in England prepare for strike action next month, researchers at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital (Boston, USA) show that, in high-income countries, 'patients do not come to serious harm during industrial action provided that provisions are made for emergency care.'
New therapy for itch
Professor Kakigi and his group focused on the phenomenon whereby the sensation of pain is inhibited by noninvasive stimulation of the sensorimotor area of the cerebral cortex, and evaluated the possibility of similar inhibitory effects of this method on an itching sensation.
Halteres, essential for flight in all flies, are needed by some to climb walls
Research from Case Western Reserve University indicates sensory organs called halteres may play multiple roles in how flies behave, providing clues to how brains absorb and use multiple streams of information.
Contact with nature may mean more social cohesion, less crime
In a first-of-its-kind study, an international team tested social correlates of both objective and subjective contact with nature in a systematic way, revealing complex linkages between nature, social cohesion, and a variety of other factors.
This week from AGU: Religious fire, managing the carbon cycle
This week from AGU: Religious Fire, Managing the Carbon Cycle, and one new research paper are included.
York research points to enhanced detection of Parkinson's
New research by biologists at the University of York could lead to improved methods of detection for early-onset Parkinson's disease.
Closing the loop on an HIV escape mechanism
A collaborative six-university research team finds that the motion of a specific protein in a human cell regulates whether HIV will infect other cells.
Why bartenders have to ignore some signals
A robotic bartender has to do something unusual for a machine: It has to learn to ignore some data and focus on social signals.
NASA sees small Tropical Storm In-fa becoming extra-tropical
Tropical Storm In-fa was becoming an extra-tropical storm as it tracked toward the island of Iwo To, Japan in the western North Pacific Ocean.
NTDs disproportionately found in areas of poverty in Islamic Nations
The Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation is an inter-governmental organization of 57 Muslim-majority countries with a mission to promote human rights and advance science and technology development.
Heart disease patients who sit a lot have worse health even if they exercise
Patients with heart disease who sit a lot have worse health even if they exercise, reveals research published today in the European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention.
New gene map reveals cancer's Achilles heel
Scientists have mapped out the genes that keep our cells alive, creating a long-awaited foothold for understanding how our genome works and which genes are crucial in disease like cancer.
Satellite video shows Hurricane Sandra moving north along Mexico's west coast
Tropical Storm Sandra formed on Nov. 24 and by the morning of Nov.
Peak-end pizza
How does price impact your evaluation of a restaurant meal?
Stanford technology makes metal wires on solar cells nearly invisible to light
Stanford University scientists have discovered how to make the electrical wiring on top of solar cells nearly invisible to incoming light.
New insights on how cocaine changes the brain
The burst of energy and hyperactivity that comes with a cocaine high is a rather accurate reflection of what's going on in the brain of its users, finds a study published Nov.
CERN collides heavy nuclei at new record high energy
The world's most powerful accelerator, the 27 km long Large Hadron Collider operating at CERN in Geneva established collisions between lead nuclei, this morning, at the highest energies ever.
The harmful use of topical steroids in India is out of control, says expert
The widespread misuse of skin creams and lotions that contain steroids in India is harmful and out of control, argues an expert in The BMJ this week.
New 'party pill' test could help authorities keep up with trends in drug (ab)use
A new test for club drugs like ketamine can detect low levels of drugs in urine and plasma, making it faster, easier and cheaper to identify them.
Optimal care for older cancer patients should target relevant HRQOL domains according to EORTC study
'It was a huge benefit for us to be able to pool data from 25 closed EORTC trials and make the most of the data we had collected from over 6,000 patients.'
Certain factors may help identify patients for surgical procedure for obstructive sleep apnea
Patients with more severe obstructive sleep apnea are more likely to receive greater benefit from the surgical procedure known as maxillomandibular advancement, according to a study published online by JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery.
Dartmouth expert available to discuss dire state of ocean fisheries
Dartmouth scholar D.G. Webster, an expert in marine policy and environmental governance and economics, is available to discuss the perilous state of the world's ocean fisheries.
MECP2 duplication syndrome is reversible
Research led by Huda Zoghbi, M.D., at Baylor College of Medicine and HHMI and published today in the journal Nature reveals that the MECP2 Duplication Syndrome is reversible.
Five MU faculty members named as Fellows of the AAAS
Five faculty members from the University of Missouri have been named Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
How cells 'climb' to build fruit fly tracheas
Fruit fly windpipes are much more like human blood vessels than the entryway to human lungs.
Breast cancer -- improved diagnostic accuracy and treatment targeting
Following a kick-off meeting, the TransLUMINAL-B project, which is being led by Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin, is now officially underway.
Seasonal monarch butterfly migrations may help lower infection levels
Seasonal migrations may help lower infection levels in wild North American monarch butterfly populations, according to a study published Nov.
Global growth in CO2 emissions stagnates
After a decade of rapid growth in global CO2 emissions, which increased at an average annual rate of 4 percent, much smaller increases were registered in 2012 (0.8 percent), 2013 (1.5 percent) and 2014 (0.5 percent).
Structural brain connectivity as a genetic marker for schizophrenia
Schizophrenia has been considered an illness of disrupted brain connectivity since its earliest descriptions.
Better blood pressure control -- by mobile phone
An interactive web system with the help of your mobile phone can be an effective tool for better blood pressure control.
Researchers assess use of drug-susceptible parasites to fight drug resistance
Researchers at the University of Georgia have developed a model for evaluating a potential new strategy in the fight against drug-resistant diseases.
Shedding light on oil behaviors before the next spill
A comprehensive scientific report released today by The Royal Society of Canada has concluded that there are still critical research gaps hampering efforts to both assess the environmental impacts of crude oil spills and to effectively remediate them.
Queen's University Belfast leads bid to save lives of people suffering respiratory failure
A potentially revolutionary new technology -- that could saves thousands of lives in intensive care units around the world -- is being trialed in a UK study co-led by Queen's University Belfast.
Insect DNA extracted, sequenced from black widow spider web
Scientists extracted DNA from spider webs to identify the web's spider architect and the prey that crossed it, according to this proof-of-concept study published Nov.
Southampton to play major role in £138m project to transform UK infrastructure
The University of Southampton is to play a major role in a new national center that will grow and transform the UK's major infrastructure sectors including transport, energy systems, clean water supplies, waste management and flood defenses.
Argonne researcher awarded for leadership in energy and global security
Crain's Chicago Business named Leah Guzowski, director for strategy and research programs at the US Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, to its annual 40 under 40 list.
How cells in the developing ear 'practice' hearing
Before the fluid of the middle ear drains and sound waves penetrate for the first time, the inner ear cells of newborn rodents practice for their big debut.
Osteoarthritis finding sheds new light on HA injection controversy
A discovery by Cornell University bioengineers is shedding new light on the controversy surrounding a common treatment for osteoarthritis that has divided the medical community over its effectiveness.

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