Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

December 10, 2015
Models overestimate rainfall increases due to climate change
Lawrence Livermore researchers and collaborators have found that most climate models overestimate the increase in global precipitation due to climate change.

New clues to halting nerve degeneration
A discovery into the mechanisms which lead to degeneration and loss of communication among neuron cells -- the cells controlling function in the brain and nervous system -- could potentially lead to future therapies for neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.

The subtle dance of atoms influences enzyme activity
Infinitesimal fluctuations occurring on the milli- and even nano-second time scales within the three-dimensional structure of enzymes may be one of the keys to explaining protein function.

Racial disparities exist in access to home dialysis among us patients with kidney failure
Among US patients initiating dialysis between 2007 and 2011, every racial/ethnic minority group was less likely to be treated with home dialysis compared with whites.

Stanford scientists reveal brain circuit mechanisms underlying arousal regulation
Adjusting a specific deep-brain circuit's firing frequency immediately and dramatically alters rats' forebrain activity and alertness levels, Stanford University School of Medicine investigators have shown.

Preventing spread of deadly salamander disease in North America
An emerging fungal pathogen that has caused recent die-offs of salamanders in Europe, faces a formidable foe in North America: the Amphibian Survival Alliance and its partners, who today published a paper outlining the conservation community's proactive efforts to prevent the introduction and spread of the disease in the United States, Canada and Mexico.

'Ghost Fibers' left by injured muscle cells guide stem cells to regenerate
Ghosts are not your typical cell biology research subjects. But scientists at the Carnegie Institution for Science and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development who developed a technique to observe muscle stem/progenitor cells migrating within injury sites in live mice, report that 'ghost fibers,' remnants of the old extracellular matrix left by dying muscle fibers, guide the cells into position for healing to begin.

PolyU participates in development of microsatellite platform and deployment system
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) contributed to China's successful launch of '20 satellites in one rocket' of 'Long March 6' on Sept.

More kids with autism evaluated as preschoolers -- but more progress needed in early recognition
An increasing proportion of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are undergoing recommended evaluation in the preschool years -- but population rates of ASD remain higher in eight-year-olds compared to four-year-olds, reports a study in the Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, the official journal of the Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics.

Norman Wolmark, M.D., presents memorial award lecture at SABCS
Norman Wolmark, M.D., a world-renowned expert in breast cancer research, presented the William L.

Early stage dementia patients referred to specialists are institutionalized twice as often
A new epidemiologic study showed that patients with early stage dementia, who had been referred to a specialist, have twice the risk of institutionalization compared to those who are not, according to a research study published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease this month.

Winners announced: Stunning images from NERC's student photography competition
An article about the challenges of undertaking geology in Greece and a photograph of a snow-covered hut from the NERC iSTAR programme in Antarctica are this year's winners of NERC's short article writing and student photography competitions.

Functions of global ocean microbiome key to understanding environmental changes
The billions of marine microorganisms present in every liter of seawater represent a structured ecological community that regulates how the Earth functions in practically every way, from energy consumption to respiration.

Mastectomy and reconstruction has higher complication rates, costs than lumpectomy and radiation
Among the various guideline-concordant local therapy options available for women with early-stage breast cancer in the United States, mastectomy plus reconstruction had the highest complication rates and complication-related costs for both younger women with private insurance and older women on Medicare, and it was the most expensive option for younger women, according to data presented at the 2015 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec.

Moffitt Cancer Center researchers discover novel role of TBK1 protein in cell division
Moffitt Cancer Center researchers have found that a protein called TBK1 plays an important role in the process of cell division, especially at a stage called mitosis.

Breast-conserving therapy yielded better outcomes than mastectomy for early-stage patients
Among patients with early-stage breast cancer, those who received breast- conserving surgery plus radiation therapy had improved overall survival after 10 years compared with those who received mastectomy without radiation therapy, according to data presented at the 2015 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec.

Genetics of the African cheetah continues to surprise and excite researchers
A team of researchers mapping the genome of the African cheetah continue to make new and exciting discoveries.

Trees either hunker down or press on in a drying and warming western US climate
Two University of Washington researchers have uncovered details of the radically divergent strategies that two common tree species employ to cope with drought in southwestern Colorado.

Cheerleading among safest high school sports, say Colorado School of Public Health experts
Despite popular perceptions, cheerleading is one of the safest high school sports, yet the relatively few injuries sustained are often some of the most severe, according to a new study from the Colorado School of Public Health at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.

Researchers discover new aspect of gene regulation and possible target for cancer drugs
The expression of about three-quarters of active genes in a cell is controlled by a process in which the DNA-transcribing enzyme hesitates before going to work.

Surgeon-in-training report cards can help reduce blood clots in hospitalized patients
A study of general surgery residents at The Johns Hopkins Hospital suggests that in the efforts to prevent dangerous blood clots among hospitalized patients, regular, one-on-one feedback and written report cards work a lot better than the usual group lectures that newly minted surgeons receive as part of their training.

Safer, faster heart scans in view
T1 mapping technique provides clearer imagery and could be used with a wider range of patients than current techniques as it does not require the rare earth heavy metal Gadolinium.

Contraceptive implants and injections associated with repeat abortions
Women who used contraceptive implants or injections after an initial termination were among those with an increased likelihood of a repeat abortion in the long term, finds a study published online in the Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care.

Do you really need that MRI?
Too many tests at the doctor's office could cost you more than just dollars.

Safe, inexpensive chemical found to reverse symptoms of progeria in human cells
New work from the University of Maryland suggests that a common, inexpensive and safe chemical called methylene blue could be used to treat progeria -- and possibly the symptoms of normal aging as well.

US Pacific Northwest's extreme rainfall tallied by NASA's IMERG
As moisture from the tropics has been streaming into the Pacific Northwest by the 'Pineapple Express' NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement mission and a cadre of other satellites have been gathering data on the extreme rainfall.

Cloudy with a chance of warming
Clouds can increase warming in the changing Arctic region more than scientists expected, by delivering an unexpected double-whammy to the climate system, according to a new study by researchers at NOAA, the University of Colorado Boulder and colleagues.

Why does tamoxifen work better in some women?
New studies add to questions about predicting whether tamoxifen will be effective in an individual breast cancer patient.

Signaling from dysfunctional mitochondria induces a distinct type of senescence
Buck Institute faculty Judith Campisi says age researchers need to stop thinking of cellular senescence, now accepted as an important driver of aging, as a single phenotype stemming from genotoxic stress.

When machines learn like humans
Researchers have created a computer model that captures humans' unique ability to learn new concepts from a single example.

Study finds simple ways to increase participation in EITC
To shed new insight into why so many people fail to sign up for valuable government benefits, and to identify strategies to improve participation, Carnegie Mellon University's Saurabh Bhargava led a first-of-its kind field experiment with the Internal Revenue Service.

Scientists identify effective and novel mechanisms to block chikungunya virus
Blood Systems Research Institute scientists looking at the antiviral mechanisms of two previously identified human monoclonal antibodies have found they potently inhibit chikungunya virus (CHIKV) at multiple stages of infection.

Effective, selective tweets can advance research from lab to policymakers
With more than 300 million monthly users, Twitter's success has piqued the interests of many science researchers as a possible tool to publicize new research findings.

What is your memory style?
Why is it that some people have richly detailed recollection of past experiences (episodic memory), while others tend to remember just the facts without details (semantic memory)?

NASA's Aqua satellite sees birth of Tropical Cyclone 5S in Southern Indian Ocean
NASA's Aqua satellite flew over Tropical Cyclone 05S and captured a visible and infrared image of the depression as it formed in the Southern Indian Ocean.

Quick clean-up: New process turns decades into hours for mining-water purification
Cleaning up the water left over from mining operations can literally take generations -- 25 to 50 years on average -- leaving billions of gallons of the precious resource locked up and useless.

UTHeath study: Children with specific birth defects at increased risk for abuse
Children born with cleft lip or palate and spina bifida are at an increased risk for abuse before the age of 2, according to researchers from The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).

CRISPR-Cas9 helps uncover genetics of exotic organisms
A revolutionary gene-editing tool is transforming the study of standard lab animals like the fruit fly, but could have even greater impact in genetic studies of more exotic animals, like the octopus or sea anemone.

Bacteria engineered with synthetic circadian clocks
Many of the body's processes follow a natural daily rhythm or so-called circadian clock, so there are certain times of the day when a person is most alert, when the heart is most efficient, and when the body prefers sleep.

How 1 gene contributes to 2 diseases
MIT neuroscientists unravel Shank3 gene's role in autism and schizophrenia.

Anatomy of a microscopic wood chipper
Biomolecular engineers at Vanderbilt University have obtained the most detailed measurements ever made of the behavior of an individual cellulase enzyme as it decomposes cellulose, the most plentiful polymer on the planet.

Plant compound found in spices and herbs increases brain connections
Brazilian researchers from D'Or Institute for Research and Education, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Federal University of Bahia have demonstrated in laboratory that apigenin, a substance found in parsley, thyme, chamomile and red pepper, improves neuron formation and strengthens the connections between brain cells.

Delaying chemotherapy in breast cancer patients reduces overall survival, especially for those with triple-negative breast cancer
Postponing the start of adjuvant chemotherapy for more than 90 days following surgery may significantly increase risk of death for breast cancer patients, particularly those with triple-negative breast cancer, according to a new study from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

Nurse staffing and work environments affect survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest
Patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest have low survival rates -- but why do some hospitals achieve higher survival than others?

Prime-boost H7N9 influenza vaccine concept promising in clinical trial
With hopes of making one dose of an inactivated H7N9 vaccine fully protective, NIAID scientists successfully tested a prime-boost concept in a small clinical trial.

Research identifies pivotal role of gut bacteria in insect-to-insect communication
German cockroaches gather by acting on colony-specific pheromones produced by specific fecal bacteria.

Spoiler alert: Story spoilers can hurt entertainment
While many rabid fans may have scratched their heads when a 2011 study showed that spoilers could improve story enjoyment, a recent experiment, conducted by researchers Benjamin Johnson (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) and Judith Rosenbaum (Albany State University), shows that narrative spoilers can ruin a story.

Dartmouth-led team discovers new acoustic, vibrational duet in crickets
In a finding that sheds light on the evolution of acoustic communication systems in animals, a Dartmouth-led team has discovered that one group of crickets has a unique communication system that likely evolved from males startling females into revealing their location.

Rice news release: Obstacles not always a hindrance to proteins
Rice University researchers model how proteins deal with obstacles as they seek genetic targets and find that these obstacles sometimes speed the process along.

Save the salamanders
Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is an emerging fungal pathogen that has caused recent die-offs of salamanders in Europe.

Sex differences in brain may underlie neurodevelopmental disorders more common in males
Dr. Rebecca Knickmeyer, from UNC Chapel Hill, reported at the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology annual meeting, that female infants have larger gray-matter volumes than males around the temporal-parietal junction of the brain.

Stimulating vagus nerve prevents blood loss following surgery, battlefield injuries
Stimulating the vagus nerve is a potentially efficacious and safe way to stop the flow of blood and prevent hemorrhagic complications following surgery and other invasive procedures, according to a researcher in the Center for Bioelectronic Medicine at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research.

Scientists teach machines to learn like humans
A team of scientists has developed an algorithm that captures our learning abilities, enabling computers to recognize and draw simple visual concepts that are mostly indistinguishable from those created by humans.

Blood test that could predict arthritis risk
Testing for antibodies that target citrullinated tenascin-C (cTNC) could diagnose RA in around 50 percent of cases, including some cases not identified by current best tests.

Scientists learn how poxviruses defeat the body's host defense
Research shows how smallpox, a feared bioterrorism agent, and other poxviruses overcome the defenses of their hosts.

Computer model could hold key to personalized epilepsy treatment
A computer model that identifies the parts of a person's brain responsible for epileptic seizures could be used to design personalized surgical procedures, researchers say.

Using cycling to explain why physics isn't a drag
Scientists and teachers have combined to develop a simple spreadsheet-based method of teaching aerodynamic drag to 14- and 15-year-olds.

Blood samples analysis finds ESR1 gene mutations prevalent, associated with worse overall survival
Among patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, metastatic breast cancer, those who had a D538G and/or a Y537S mutation in the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene, as detected in cell-free DNA obtained from patient blood samples, had significantly worse median overall survival, according to data presented at the 2015 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec.

Mastectomy plus reconstruction has highest rate of complication, complication-related costs of guideline-concordant therapies for early breast cancer
In a review of guideline-concordant treatment modalities for women with early stage breast cancer, mastectomy and reconstruction had the highest rate of complications and complication-related costs, regardless of age.

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals -- threatening fertility in industrialized countries
The birth rate is declining in all industrialized countries, and socioeconomic factors and women's age are not solely to blame.

DZNE scientist gets most important research award in Germany
The molecular biologist Frank Bradke, group leader at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases and professor for neurobiology at the University of Bonn, will be awarded the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize, which is endowed with 2.5 million euros.

£14 million funding for major long-term science studies
Three high-value, long-term research projects totaling £13.9 million have been awarded funding by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.

The body, according to the 18th century
'Technology, Self-Fashioning and Politeness in Eighteenth-Century Britain,' by Dr. Alun Withey, a Wellcome Research Fellow, shows how in the second-half of the 18th century new expectations came into effect about how people looked.

New theory of Okinawan coral migration and diversity proposed
OIST's genome analysis of coral population leads to new findings about Okinawan coral reefs.

Sensation-seeking, reward sensitivity and early cannabis use
Sensation seeking, or the tendency to seek out exciting experiences, has been linked to addiction.

Bacterial circadian clocks set by metabolism, not light
Although commonly thought to be tied to the day-night cycle, the circadian clock actually appears to be set by metabolic rhythms, according to a new study on genetically engineered cyanobacteria by scientists from the University of Chicago.

Plant growth enhanced by increased CO2, but food webs give rise to significant variations
According a new study, inter-annual variation in climate has stronger effects on predators such as spiders than populations of their detritivorous prey, such as isopods.

Some prairie vole brains are better wired for sexual fidelity
Researchers at The University of Texas at Austin have found that natural selection drives some male prairie voles to be fully monogamous and others to seek more partners.

Cancer drug shows promise in reducing toxic genetic material in myotonic dystrophy
A group of researchers has shown for the first time in cells and in a mouse model that a drug used to treat cancer can neutralize the toxic RNA that causes the prolonged muscle contractions and other symptoms of myotonic dystrophy type 1, the most common form of adult-onset muscular dystrophy.

Can male prairie voles blame promiscuity on poor memory?
Male prairie voles that roam widely looking for mates have poorer spatial memory than their faithful male counterparts, who better recall locations of rough encounters with other males and thus stay closer to home, a new study shows.

Thicker mantle may explain some of Earth's inner processes
A new study finds that the viscosity of the Earth's mantle abruptly increases 1,000 kilometers (621 miles) below the surface, differing significantly from previous estimates, which suggest this phenomenon occurs at depths of roughly 670 km (416 miles).

When brain metabolism dips, desire goes up in monkeys on 'female Viagra'
As the drug touted as 'the female Viagra' comes to market, researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison are learning more about how the drug, called flibanserin, affects the brain.

Northern spotted owl decline linked to invasive owl, habitat loss, and climate
Northern spotted owl populations are declining in all parts of their range in the Pacific Northwest, according to research published in The Condor.

Neural stimulation offers treatment for 'dry eye'
Scientists have developed a device that electronically stimulates tear production, which will offer hope to sufferers of dry eye syndrome, one of the most common eye diseases in the world.

Scientists develop diesel that emits far less CO2
Researchers from KU Leuven and Utrecht University have discovered a new approach to the production of fuels.

NASA tests ICESat-2's laser aim
Close enough doesn't cut it in the spacecraft assembly cleanroom at NASA Goddard's Space Flight Center, where engineers are building an elevation-measuring instrument to fly on the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2 or ICESat-2.

Periodic table of protein complexes
A new 'periodic table' provides a unified way to classify and visualize protein complexes.

Heat radiates 10,000 times faster at the nanoscale
When heat travels between two objects that aren't touching, it flows differently at the smallest scales -- distances on the order of the diameter of DNA, or 1/50,000 of a human hair.

Study in Science finds economic stimulus from research investments and Ph.D. recipients' earnings
Research-funded Ph.D.s entering private industry 'disproportionately get jobs at large and high wage establishments in high tech and professional service industries,' according to the study in Science.

Twin studies provide first explanations for boundary within Earth's mantle
Two new studies co-authored by University of Maryland geologists provide different, though not necessarily incompatible, explanations for a boundary in Earth's mantle at a depth of one megameter (1,000 kilometers).

Nature Publishing Group and Readcube unveil results of scientific article sharing trial
Nature Publishing Group, part of Springer Nature, has announced the results of its ground-breaking 12-month content sharing initiative to support collaborative research.

Mapping downgoing plate topography: The 2005 Sumatra earthquake
New geophysical data show that fault slip during the March 2005 magnitude 8.7 (Mw) earthquake off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia (also referred to as the Simeulue-Nias earthquake), was stopped by the topography on the downgoing plate.

Lie-detecting software uses real court case data
By studying videos from high-stakes court cases, University of Michigan researchers are building unique lie-detecting software based on real-world data.

Grant to CHOP funds personalized treatments for children with neuroblastoma
A new $1.5 million grant to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation supports an innovative approach to treating relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma, a high-risk childhood cancer.

Researchers identify gene possibly linked with methamphetamine addiction
A new study sheds light on the significance of a potential genetic risk factor for drug addiction and possibly other neuropsychiatric disorders.

Survival and time to surgery, chemotherapy for patients with breast cancer
The association between survival and the time to surgery and chemotherapy for patients with breast cancer is examined in two original investigations published by JAMA Oncology, along with a related editorial and an audio interview with the authors.

Groundbreaking microscopy unlocks secrets of plant virus assembly
New research into how a plant virus assembles could lay the groundwork for future use to carry drugs into the human body.

Controversial prostate cancer screening can be improved by repeating abnormal tests
For more than 20 years, the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test has been used to help screen for prostate cancer, but in recent years, some task forces have called for this blood test to be abandoned because it leads to many unnecessary biopsies.

Scientists discover 530-million-year-old fossils of ancient, microscopic worms
The historic find -- made in South China -- by Virginia Tech researchers fills a huge gap in the known fossil record of kinorhynchs, small invertebrate animals that are related to arthropods.

Mapping the brain: Probes with tiny LEDs shed light on neural pathways
With the help of light-emitting diodes as small as neurons, University of Michigan researchers are unlocking the secrets of neural pathways in the brain.

The need to name all forms of life
Only a fifth of the nine million species of animal, plant and fungus thought to occur on earth is known.

Public and private investments in Ph.D. research programs pay economic development dividends
Research-funded Ph.D. recipients earn high wages after graduation, participate in national and international labor markets, and make an important impact on local economic development, according to a new study.

Campus programs increase California college students receiving mental health services
With the increase in students seeking mental health treatment, RAND researchers predict an additional 329 students will receive a college degree for each year the investment is made.

Active ingredient in magic mushrooms reduces anxiety and depression in cancer patients
Psilocybin, found in magic mushrooms, decreased anxiety and depression in patients diagnosed with life-threatening cancer.

A 'ghost from the past' recalls the infancy of the Milky Way
When our galaxy was born, around 13,000 million years ago, a plethora of clusters containing millions of stars emerged.

Researchers report possibility of using unused human pancreata to build new organs
Researchers have been working for years to develop an artificial pancreas in the lab to help the millions of people with type 1 diabetes.

Singing is beneficial for memory and mood especially in early dementia
Researchers led by Dr. Teppo Särkämö at University of Helsinki, Finland have revealed that caregiver-implemented musical leisure activities, particularly singing, are cognitively and emotionally beneficial especially in the early stages of dementia.

Harm reduction services less available in areas plagued by rising IV drug use and HIV infections
Access to harm reduction programs such as syringe exchange is lowest in rural and suburban areas, where rates of addiction to heroin and other opioids are on the rise, according to a study led by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published online today in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

First look at how astrocytes function in humans
Pretty much everything happening in the brain would fail without astrocytes.

MIT chemists characterize a chemical state thought to be unobservable
MIT researchers determine the energy and map the structure of a chemical reaction's transition state.

Urban swans' genes make them plucky
Researchers have discovered that swans' wariness is partly determined by their genes.

Using public surveillance to study insect vectors of Chagas disease in Texas
Chagas disease is caused by a parasitic protozoan (Trypanosoma cruzi) and transmitted via triatomine insects known locally in Texas as 'kissing bugs.' Due to the success of community based triatomine surveillance and collection in Central and South America, researchers from Texas A & M University set up a citizen science program to gain insight into the distribution and infection prevalence of triatomine insects in Texas.

A fishy tale of a sheep in wolf's clothing
Scientists have developed a technique to perform dietary analysis of fish by analyzing microscopic tooth wear.

Scientists create first map of the wheat epigenome
Scientists at the University of Liverpool have carried out the first ever genome-wide survey of heritable molecular changes that regulate gene activity in wheat, in what could become a new tool to improve crop breeding technologies.

Neurotransmitter GABA predicts learning
In an international collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University (Baltimore, MD, USA), neuroscientists at the Ruhr-University Bochum have determined a link between brain levels of the neurotransmitter GABA, the main source of inhibition in the brain, and tactile learning.

Unhealthy choices cost company health care plans billions of dollars
One out of every four dollars employers pay for health care is tied to unhealthy lifestyle choices or conditions like smoking, stress and obesity, despite the fact that most large employers have workplace wellness programs.

The Lancet: Assuring health for India's people: A call to action by leading academics
A paper published in The Lancet today calls for a radical transformation in the architecture of India's healthcare delivery system, if the country is to achieve the government's vision of assuring health for all.

Parents have more influence than they might realize to prevent substance use
Adolescence is a time when many children may consider experimenting with alcohol or drugs.

Combined imaging modalities may change cancer management
PET/CT and whole-body MRI detect extraskeletal disease that may change the management of high-risk breast and prostate cancer patients, according to a recent study reported in the December issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

Shaking the nanomaterials out
Nano implies small -- and that's great for use in medical devices, beauty products and smartphones -- but it's also a problem.

Nature, not humans, has greater influence on water in the Colorado River Basin
Researchers have found that the water supply of the Colorado River basin, one of the most important sources for water in the southwestern United States, is influenced more by wet-dry periods than by human use, which has been fairly stable during the past few decades.

3-D map of human genome reveals relationship between mutations and disease development
Whitehead Institute researchers have created a map of the DNA loops that comprise the three dimensional (3-D) structure of the human genome and contribute to gene regulation in human embryonic stem cells.

Life after attaining a Ph.D.: Job flow and earnings
In one of the most comprehensive studies to date to analyze job outcomes for US university graduates with funded doctoral degrees, researchers found that nearly 40 percent of the doctoral recipients evaluated went into industry, and that these employees were more likely to work at high-wage establishments compared to their counterparts in academia.

TSRI scientists show how drug molecules regulate a medically important protein
A new study, led by scientists at the Scripps Research Institute, shows how different pharmaceutical drugs hit either the 'on' or 'off' switch of a signaling protein linked to asthma, obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Use of bacteriophages as a substitute for antibiotics to eliminate bacteria
The presence of pathogenic microorganisms, in other words, those that cause diseases, is one of the main problems fish farms are facing.

BEMR: A new reality for the future force
New virtual-reality capabilities emerging at the Battlespace Exploitation of Mixed Reality -- or BEMR -- Lab, in San Diego, California, will make dramatic impacts across the Navy and Marine Corps, including advancements in affordable virtual training, data assessment, firing of weapons and even basic concepts of operations.

Poorer children nearly 3 times as likely to be obese, new study finds
A new study has questioned why poorer children are at higher risk of obesity compared to their better-off peers.

LSD changes consciousness by reorganizing human brain networks
LSD alters consciousness, but the mechanism has been elusive. Robin Carhart-Harris, of Imperial College London, reported at the annual meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, that LSD interferes with the patterns of activation in brain networks that underlie human thought and behavior.

Resistance of ER-positive breast cancer to tamoxifen therapy may be driven by APOBEC3B
Responses to tamoxifen were significantly prolonged by reducing levels of the enzyme APOBEC3B in preclinical models of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and significantly shortened by increasing levels of APOBEC3B, suggesting that APOBEC3B drives resistance to tamoxifen, according to data presented at the 2015 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec.

Moderate drinking linked to reduced risk of death in early stage Alzheimer's disease
Drinking two to three units of alcohol every day is linked to a reduced risk of death among people with early stage Alzheimer's disease, finds research published in the online journal BMJ Open.

Vertebrate decomposition study provides potential new tool for forensic science
A new study led by the University of Colorado Boulder and the University of California, San Diego indicates unique and changing microbial communities present during the decomposition of human cadavers look to be a reliable 'clock' for forensic scientists.

Protein factors tie the genome up in a bow for gene expression
Protein factors are responsible for organizing chromosomes inside the nucleus in three dimensions, forming a shape like a gift bow, with proteins aggregating as the central 'knot' holding the ribbon-like loops of DNA when genes are organized for proper expression, or a tangled mess in the presence of certain mutations.

Heart disease: Jamming the signal
Researchers of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet in Munich have developed a short peptide that inhibits the activation of a signal pathway in monocytes that enables monocytes to adhere stick to endothelial cells and penetrate sites of acute inflammation.

Human skin detection technology for improved security, search and rescue
Researchers at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) have developed a novel two-dimensional feature space which uses the spectral absorption characteristics of melanin, hemoglobin and water to better characterize human skin.

Surprising diversity of TB strains found in Ethiopia
Ethiopia is a hotspot for tuberculosis (TB) infection, ranking third among African countries and eighth in the world for TB burden according to the World Health Organization.

If the shoe fits
Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering are exploring new techniques to better predict the wear rate of shoes in order to improve shoe design and replacement policies to reduce slip and fall accidents. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to