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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | December 14, 2015


Plasticulture system offers alternative for cabbage producers
Optimum plant population and plant arrangement to maximize marketable yield were established for cabbage grown in a plasticulture system in Florida.
Colorectal cancer risk varies based on Latino subgroup affiliation
In a first study of its kind, USC researchers have found that colorectal cancer risk in Californian Latinos vary widely depending on their country of origin.
Luxury-charity partnerships can help promote retail sales this holiday season
Buying luxury items this holiday season may have consumers wondering if the cost is justified, but new research shows that guilt is removed if the luxury purchase is associated with charitable organizations.
Mystery of missing exoplanet water solved
Exeter academics led an international team of experts in analyzing observations from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.
Hubble reveals diversity of exoplanet atmosphere
Astronomers have used the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope to study the atmospheres of ten hot, Jupiter-sized exoplanets in detail, the largest number of such planets ever studied.
Sea lions exposed to algal toxin show impaired spatial memory
California sea lions exposed to the algal toxin domoic acid can suffer brain damage that leads to significant deficits in spatial memory.
NASA studies high clouds, Saharan dust from EPIC view
From a dusty atmosphere stretching across the Atlantic Ocean to daily views of clouds at sunrise, a new NASA camera keeping a steady eye on the sunlit side of Earth is yielding new insights about our changing planet.
Can pomegranates reduce heart disease risk?
A new study assessing the antioxidant effects of pomegranate extract on cardiovascular risk factors and muscle function showed reductions in blood pressure and some atheroprotective benefits, but no effects on inflammation, oxidative strength, or muscle strength.
Analysis of neuronal avalanches reveals spatial temporal roadmap of humans higher cognitive function
For the first time ever in a study of the living human brain as it responds to outside stimuli, an Israeli doctoral candidate recently completed a quantitative analysis of how neuronal avalanches arise from the balance between two fundamental electrochemical forces mediated on the level of neural networks -- the force that excites the propagation of electrical activity through the brain, and the force that inhibits it.
Low levels of vitamin D may increase risk of stress fractures in active individuals
Vitamin D plays a crucial role in ensuring appropriate bone density.
Brain cancer self-organizes into streams, swirls, and spheres
Brain cancer is not anarchy, say researchers but highly organized--self-organized.
Small fish species evolved rapidly following 1964 Alaska earthquake
Evolution can happen quickly. Consider a tiny fish species that evolved within decades -- both in its genome and external phenotypic traits -- after the 1964 Alaskan earthquake as discovered by University of Oregon scientists.
Extending the growing season for baby-leaf salad greens
Baby-leaf salad greens suited for extended-season production in northwest Washington were identified in experiments using nine leafy greens grown at two locations in two seasons.
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature gets $1.35 million boost
The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, the organisation overseeing the naming rules for animal species, together with the National University of Singapore, has set up an endowment fund to protect the long-term viability of the ICZN.
Clemson researchers receive NSF grant to examine impacts of conservation easements
A team of Clemson University researchers has received $850,000 from the National Science Foundation for a four-year comprehensive study of conservation easements in the United States.
Bob Dylan: A source of inspiration for medical scientists
The number of articles citing the lyrics of Bob Dylan in the biomedical literature has increased exponentially since 1990, according to a study in the Christmas issue of The BMJ.
A well-preserved skeleton reveals the ecology and evolution of early carnivorous mammals
Prior to the rise of modern-day mammalian carnivores, North America was dominated by a now-extinct group of mammalian carnivores -- the hyaenodontids.
Treating colon cancer with vitamin A
Scientists at EPFL have identified the biological pathway behind the growth of colon cancer, and were able block it with vitamin A.
Children's ability to detect sugar varies widely
According to new research from the Monell Center, sensitivity to sweet taste varies widely across school-aged children and is in part genetically-determined.
Scientists warn light pollution can stop coral from spawning
Sexual reproduction is one of the most important processes for the persistence of coral reefs and disrupting it could threaten their long-term health and the marine life they support.
A cultural revolution in the study of the gut microbiome
A team at the Wyss Institute at Harvard University has leveraged the Institute's proprietary human-organs-on-chips technology to microengineer a model of human intestinal inflammation and bacterial overgrowth in a human-gut-on-a-chip.
Continuous joint use of estrogen and progestin lowers risk of EC in postmenopausal women
Adding continuous progestin to estrogen has been shown to lower the risk of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women according to a study published Dec.
Research traces cause of organ dysfunction in Down syndrome
While most Down syndrome research has focused on the brain, a new report by Johns Hopkins University biologists uncovers how the disorder hampers a separate part of the nervous system that plays a key role in health and longevity.
Shippee receives GSA's 2015 Senior Service America Senior Scholar Award
The Gerontological Society of America and Senior Service America, Inc., have named Tetyana P.
Algal toxin impairs sea lion memory and foraging
A new study shows that a neurotoxin produced by algae disrupts the memory of California sea lions, animals that rely heavily on recall of food-rich locations to forage.
Kindness, charitable behavior influenced by amygdala, Penn research reveals
University of Pennsylvania professor Michael Platt, of Psychology, Neuroscience and Marketing, along with Steve Chang from Yale and other researchers, discovered that the amygdala, a small structure in the brain, is associated with charitable giving and positive social behavior, not just fear.
How nanoparticles give electrons away
Working groups led by Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg and the University of Barcelona have now succeeded in counting the number of elementary charges that are lost by a platinum nanoparticle when it is placed onto a typical oxide support.
Better catalysts for green energy
A new study, just published in Nature Materials, provides a detailed account of how to control the electron charge of nanoparticles of platinum, an important catalyst in fuel cells, to maximize the efficiency of the process.
Promising cancer therapy advanced by chemical explanation
Radiation therapy: A chilling word that creates images of burn-injuries where the cancer killing ray went through the skin.
U mad bro? Computers now know when you're angry
Most people can tell if you're angry based on the way you're acting.
Microscope creates near-real-time videos of nanoscale processes
Engineers at MIT have designed an atomic force microscope that scans images 2,000 times faster than existing commercial models.
Brain cell death is a possible trigger of multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) may be triggered by the death of brain cells that make myelin, the insulation around nerve fibers, according to research on a novel mouse model.
Tramp ant caught globetrotting under false name
An enigmatic invasive ant of unknown origin was recently revealed by an international team of scientists to actually be a commonly known species from Asia.
ACS announces new open-access journal ACS Omega
The Publications Division of the American Chemical Society will expand its open-access program in 2016 with today's announcement of ACS Omega, a new open access, multidisciplinary chemistry journal publishing peer-reviewed research of broad impact from around the world.
New results from world's most sensitive dark matter detector
The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, which operates nearly a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in the Black Hills of South Dakota, has already proven itself to be the most sensitive detector in the hunt for dark matter, the unseen stuff believed to account for most of the matter in the universe.
CEO compensation study examines factors in excess returns
Of many issues associated with CEO compensation, excess returns are likely among the most controversial.
Knowledge gap on extreme change in temperature elucidated
New study by geologist Christoph Korte from University of Copenhagen, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, provides documentation to explain a previously not understood major change in temperature during the Jurassic.
PNNL talks weather phenomena at AGU
PNNL researchers explored the forces that stall the weather event known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation as it crosses the islands of the Maritime Continent.
Isolating water's impact on vibrations within DNA
To isolate the contribution of water to the vibrational fluctuations that occur between DNA, bulk water, and the charged biomolecular interface between the two, researchers in Berlin have performed two-dimensional spectroscopic analyses on double-stranded DNA helices at different hydration levels.
Vegetarian and 'healthy' diets are more harmful to the environment
Following the USDA recommendations to consume more fruits, vegetables, dairy and seafood is more harmful to the environment because those foods have relatively high resource uses and greenhouse gas emissions per calorie.
Gut damage identified as cause of vaccine failure, malnutrition
Damage to the gut from infections is causing vaccine failure and contributing to malnutrition in low-income countries, researchers have determined.
Social media news consumers at higher risk of 'information bubbles,' IU study says
The first large-scale empirical analysis of online news-seeking behavior, conducted at Indiana University, has found that people who seek out news and information from social media are at higher risk of becoming trapped in a 'collective social bubble' compared to using search engines.
Scientists say face mites evolved alongside humans since the dawn of human origins
A landmark new study explores the fascinating, little-known natural history of the face mite species Demodex folliculorum, using genetic testing to link the microscopic animal's evolution to our own ever-evolving human story.
Sweet and sticky: Bacteria use sugars to bind to human cells
A team at Griffith University's Institute for Glycomics discover an entirely new way that cells and macromolecules interact together.
NOAA awards $23.7 million for coastal restoration project in Louisiana
As part of its efforts to support coastal communities looking to build more resilient futures, NOAA today announced the funding of a $23.7 million award for the construction of the Oyster Bayou Marsh Restoration project.
Experimental drugs that change energy supply in cells could slow brain tumor growth
Experimental drugs that alter cell metabolism also halted tumor growth and extended survival in mice with cancers linked to changes in the same gene, according to a new study led by researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center, its Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center and Massachusetts General Hospital.
Chitchat and small talk could serve an evolutionary need to bond with others
Princeton University research suggests that idle conversation could be a social-bonding tool passed down from primates.
Designer crystals for next-gen electronics
A new process that uses vapor -- rather than liquid -- to grow designer crystals could lead to a new breed of faster, more powerful electronic devices.
Spintronics, low-energy electricity take a step closer
EPFL scientists have discovered a new topological insulator that could be used in future electronic technologies.
First brain scans of sea lions give clues to strandings
Brain scans and behavioral tests of California sea lions that stranded on shore show how an algal toxin disrupts brain networks, leading to deficits in spatial memory.
New research shows Earth's tilt influences climate change
LSU paleoclimatologist Kristine DeLong contributed to an international research breakthrough that sheds new light on how the tilt of the Earth affects the world's heaviest rainbelt.
Study shows stroke and TIA patient outcomes best at experienced centers
Researchers from Houston Methodist Hospital and five partner institutions used data from a major stroke clinical study to show that medical centers with more experience and expertise in aggressive medical management had a significantly positive impact on patient outcomes.
Portable MRI named Top 10 Breakthrough of 2015 by Physics World magazine
Los Alamos National Laboratory's portable MRI was named one of the Top 10 Breakthroughs of the Year by Physics World, the member magazine of the Institute of Physics.
Liver protein boosts growth of insulin-producing cells
Now researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center have identified a key protein produced in the liver that aids in accelerating the growth of these cells.
Expert debunks the 'curse of the rainbow jersey'
The cycling World champion is significantly less successful during the year when he wears the rainbow jersey than in the previous year, but this is not due to a curse, as many believe, according to a study in the Christmas issue of The BMJ.
Rapid Arctic warming drives shifts in marine mammals, new research shows
New hydrophone surveys of migration gateways to the Arctic show that recent extremes in sea ice loss has opened new waters to humpback and fin whales that once ranged through the far north only in summer.
Election risk
Elected presidents and prime ministers from 17 countries lived 2.7 fewer years and had a 23 percent increased risk of premature death compared to runners-up who never served.
New research could help to prevent blockages faced by many long-term catheter users
New research could lead to new treatments to prevent blockages and urinary tract infections experienced by many long-term catheter users.
Helicopter parenting at the doctor's office may impact teen health
Nearly 40 percent of parents say that they alone -- not their teen -- would ask doctors questions about health issues.
Biochar suitable substrate for soilless hydroponic tomatoes
A study reported on the suitability of using biochar produced from tomato crop green waste as a substrate in soilless, hydroponic tomato production.
Election to head of government linked to greater risk of early death
Election to head of government is associated with an increased risk of death compared with runner-up candidates, finds a study in the Christmas issue of The BMJ.
New technology by NTU could save millions in energy costs
A new technology from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, could help companies and factories cut their energy bills by as much as 10 percent.
Cell memory loss enables the production of stem cells
Harvard Stem Cell Institute researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital in collaboration with scientists from the Research Institutes of Molecular Biotechnology and Molecular Pathology in Vienna have identified genes that when suppressed effectively erase a cell's memory, making the cell more susceptible to reprogramming and, consequently, making the process of reprogramming quicker and more efficient.
Study: Emotion processing in the brain changes with tinnitus severity
A new study reveals that people with tinnitus who are less bothered by their symptoms use different brain regions when processing emotional information.
System converts stereoscopic 3-D video content for use in glasses-less 3-D displays
'Glasses-less' 3-D displays now commercially available dispense with the need for cumbersome glasses, but existing 3-D stereoscopic content will not work in these new devices, which project several views of a scene simultaneously.
Heart structural gene causes sudden cardiac death in animal model
The presence or absence of the CAP2 gene causes sudden cardiac death in mice.
EORTC-ETOP study opens on pembrolizumab for patients with early stage NSCLC cancer
There is a need to improve treatment for this disease, and the EORTC in collaboration with European Thoracic Oncology Platform and with the sponsorship of MSD (known as Merck in the US and Canada) has now opened EORTC-ETOP trial 1416 to investigate the use of pembrolizumab in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer after resection and completion of standard adjuvant therapy.
Enhanced rock weathering could counter fossil-fuel emissions and protect our oceans
Scientists have discovered enhanced weathering of rock could counter man-made fossil fuel CO2 emissions and help to protect our oceans.
NASA atmospheric scientist 2015 AGU Roger Revelle Medal winner
Anne Thompson, chief scientist for atmospheric chemistry at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, has received the 2015 Roger Revelle Medal for her pioneering research in the understanding of ozone and other trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere.
Timing of first childbirth influences women's health at age 40
A new study finds some surprising ways in which women's health at midlife is connected to when they had their first child and to their marital history.
Researchers create cellular 'ORACLs' to aid drug discovery
A team of researchers at UC San Francisco has devised a new approach for early stage drug discovery that uses techniques from the world of computer vision in combination with a powerful new tool: a lineage of genetically modified cancer cells in a dish that change their appearance when treated with drugs targeting common disease pathways.
Headbanging Aussie bee takes a heavy metal approach to pollination
Research has for the first time revealed the heavy metal secret behind an Australian bee's unique approach to pollination: high-speed headbanging.
Amoebas reveals how human airway cells rally against cigarette smoke damage
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the US and cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD.
Experts discuss real world use of PrEP for the prevention of HIV infection
Evidence shows a substantial reduction in HIV transmission among patients receiving a daily combination of tenofovir and emtricitabine.
Study reports childhood family breakups harder on girls' health
A childhood family breakup can have long-term negative consequences for the children.
Doped organic semiconductors explored
Organic semiconductors are already being employed in solar cells and organic LEDs (OLEDs).
Call for international action to prevent a zombie apocalypse
Better funding and cooperation by the international community is needed to prevent a zombie apocalypse, argues a US expert in the Christmas issue of The BMJ.
RNs more likely to identify high-risk medication discrepancies
Researchers at the University of Missouri have found that RNs are more likely than LPNs to identify high-risk medication discrepancies, suggesting RNs are better equipped to assess and identify medication errors that could pose risks to residents' safety.
Medication protects fertility and defense system during chemotherapy
Researchers found the potent humanin analogue protected male germ cells, which are essential to fertility, and white blood cells, which are the soldiers in the body's defense system, during chemotherapy.
Cancer rates decline in many high-income countries, but rise in lower-income countries
Improved screening and detection efforts, combined with decreases in risk factors like smoking, have reduced the incidence and mortality rates from several common types of cancer in many high-income countries.
Optimal conditions for forcing cut pineapple lily
Researchers determined effects of bulb storage temperature and duration, production environment, planting density, and forcing temperatures on cut flower production of four pineapple lily varieties.
Precise method underlies sloppy madness of dog slurping
Using photography and laboratory simulations, researchers studied how dogs raise fluids into their mouths to drink.
Missing water mystery solved in comprehensive survey of exoplanets
A survey of 10 hot, Jupiter-sized exoplanets conducted with NASA's Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes has led a team to solve a long-standing mystery -- why some of these worlds seem to have less water than expected.
NIH gives SLU $2.2 million to design a cure for Hepatitis B
More than 350 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus.
Faster, finer filtration
A method of fabricating polymer membranes with nanometer-scale holes that overcomes some practical challenges has been demonstrated by KAUST researchers.
GSA releases most comprehensive textbook on basic biology of aging to date
A new e-book published by The Gerontological Society of America (GSA) provides a primary resource for detailed overviews of the aging process across multiple organisms -- from microbes to humans.
Consumers' preferences for foliage plant attributes
Experiments investigated the effect of plant attributes on consumers' likelihood of purchasing indoor foliage plants.
Nanoscale one-way-street for light
If light is able to propagate from left to right, the opposite direction is usually allowed as well.
Overprescribing of opioids is not limited to a few bad apples, Stanford study finds
Most prescriptions for opioid painkillers are made by the broad swath of US general practitioners, not by a limited group of specialists, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Mountain growth helped spawn fish diversity in New Zealand
The growth of mountain ranges on New Zealand's South Island directly influenced the evolution of different freshwater fish species in the region, according to new University of Otago-led research.
Antibiotic resistance could help find drugs for some of the most intractable diseases.
Scientists have developed an innovative way of using one of the biggest problems facing health services -- antibiotic resistance -- to develop drugs to combat some of the most intractable diseases.
Guam research aids in understanding recruitment limitation of rare tree
Research highlights hidden factors in mortality of young plants.
New NASA satellite maps show human fingerprint on global air quality
Using new, high-resolution global satellite maps of air quality indicators, NASA scientists tracked air pollution trends over the last decade in various regions and 195 cities around the globe.
Genes for age-related cognitive decline found in adult worm neurons
Researchers from Princeton University have identified genes important for age-related cognitive declines in memory in adult worm neurons, which had not been studied previously.
FAU study first to show how law enforcement leaders feel about police wearing body cameras
Several recent high-profile incidents involving police use of deadly force have resulted in increased scrutiny of officer behavior and police-community relations.
Experts discover new gait pattern among top Russian officials
Experts have discovered a new gait pattern among several well-known top Russian officials, including President Vladimir Putin and Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev.
Timing of first childbirth influences women's health at age 40
A new study finds some surprising ways in which women's health at midlife is connected to when they had their first child and to their marital history.
Stunning diversity of gut bacteria uncovered by new approach to gene sequencing
A collaboration between computer scientists and geneticists at Stanford University has produced a novel technique for mapping the diversity of bacteria living in the human gut.
Brain study shows there's more than meets the eye when making choices
If you're pondering whether to buy a Galaxy smartphone or an iPhone this holiday season, a part of the brain called the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex might ultimately determine your choice.
Study uncovers hard-to-detect cancer mutations
New research shows that current approaches to genome analysis systematically miss detecting a certain type of complex mutation in cancer patients' tumors.
Physician-assisted death should be listed on medical certificates of death in Canada
Physician-assisted death should be recorded on medical certificates of death in Canada in the event that assisted dying becomes legal, according to an analysis in Canadian Medical Association Journal.
Expensive, exploratory research biopsies overused in early studies of new cancer drugs
Early trials of new cancer drugs often require extra biopsies to determine the drugs' biochemical and physiological effects.
Universities' messages about socioeconomic diversity can affect academic confidence 
When students from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds perceive their universities to be 'chilly' towards students from their backgrounds, their academic confidence and sense of themselves as high-achievers suffers, according to a new series of Northwestern University studies.
Helping others dampens the effects of everyday stress
Providing help to friends, acquaintances, and even strangers can mitigate the impact of daily stressors on our emotions and our mental health, according to new research published in Clinical Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
Puerto Rico's community health centers face bleak future
An extraordinary need for publicly subsidized health services amidst an unprecedented economic crisis is putting Puerto Rico's federally funded community health centers in jeopardy, according to a new report.
New method of diagnosing deadly fungal lung infection in leukemia patients discovered
A team of researchers have discovered a new way for early detection of a potentially deadly fungal infection in patients with suppressed immune systems such as those being treated for leukemia or have had an organ transplant.
Antidepressants during pregnancy associated with increased autism risk
The use of antidepressants, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, during the final two trimesters of pregnancy was associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorder in children, according to an article published online by JAMA Pediatrics.
Flu fighting strategies should be tailored to cities and rural areas: York U study
In the face of a flu epidemic, a one-size fits all vaccine strategy won't be effective, a York University study has found.
Binghamton University professor launches web tool to track impact of drugs worldwide
Billions of dollars have been spent on developing drugs and supplying them around the world, but which companies' drugs are actually making an impact?
Mass. General study identifies potential treatment target for IDH1-mutant cancers
A Massachusetts General Hospital-based research team has identified a potential new treatment target for tumors -- including a significant percentage of malignant brain tumors -- driven by mutations in an important metabolic enzyme.
Whale, dolphin, sea lion experts meet in San Francisco
From Dec. 13-18, 2015 in San Francisco, California, USA up to 3,000 scientists engaged in marine mammal research, policy makers, government regulators, and educators will gather together at the world's largest conference of its kind, sponsored by the Society For Marine Mammalogy.
Quantum cryptography to prevent data 'hacking', new AXA Research Fund chair awarded to ICFO of Barcelona
The AXA Research Fund has awarded to ICFO-The Institute of Photonic Sciences a Chair, which is both permanent and pioneering on a global scale, for a quantum information technology project that will focus on risks associated with data privacy.
New industrial possibilities for nanoporous thin films
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new type of materials with nanoscale pores.
Early childhood exposure to farm animals and pets modifies immunological responses
Exposure to farm animals in early childhood modifies the key allergy-related immunological mechanisms, shows a recent study from the University of Eastern Finland.
Can technology help with the UK's rising health care costs?
From diabetes to dementia, from depression to AIDS, large segments of the UK's population are living with conditions that cannot be cured, but must be managed outside of the hospital environment.
ASCB unveils Celldance 2015 awards -- now is the golden age of cell imaging
ASCB today releases its 2015 Celldance awards for three new exciting 'Tell Your Own Cell Story' videos, made by cell scientists themselves and featuring eye-popping live cell imaging.
New method prevents premature halt in protein synthesis in certain genetic illnesses
Today, a team of researchers at CSHL describes in Nature Biotechnology their success in paradoxically inhibiting a process called NMD that cells have evolved to prevent imperfect proteins from being synthesized.
Who's writing prescriptions for opioid pain relievers?
While prescriptions for opioid pain relievers were concentrated in specialties for pain, anesthesia, and physical medicine and rehabilitation, it was general practitioners who dominated total prescriptions among Medicare prescribers based on sheer volume, according to an article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.
Diagnosing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: New Canadian guideline
Diagnosing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is important to help children and adults, and their families, who have the disorder.
Some gas produced by hydraulic fracturing comes from surprise source
Some of the natural gas harvested by hydraulic fracturing operations may be of biological origin -- made by microorganisms inadvertently injected into shale by oil and gas companies during the hydraulic fracturing process, a new study has found.
Learning on the job: Johns Hopkins Medicine Alliance for Patients
Academic medical centers that take on community partners to form accountable care organizations face a number of unexpected challenges, says Scott Berkowitz, M.D., M.B.A., medical director of accountable care for the Office of Johns Hopkins Physicians and executive director of the Johns Hopkins Medicine accountable care organization known as the Johns Hopkins Medicine Alliance for Patients.
NASA sees Typhoon Melor make landfall in Philippines
As Typhoon Melor approached a landfall in the central Philippines, NASA's RapidScat instrument identified the strongest winds north of the center.
Humans evolved to get better sleep in less time
Insomniacs take heart: Humans get by on significantly less sleep than our closest animal relatives.
Massey scientists uncover process that could drive the majority of cancers
The gene p53 has been described as the 'guardian of the genome' due to its prominent role in preventing genetic mutations.
Study finds evidence for more recent clay formation on Mars
Clays and other minerals formed when rocks are altered by water have been found in multiple locations on Mars.
Altered cell cycle gene activity underlies brain overgrowth in autistic toddlers
Further underscoring the prenatal origins of Autism Spectrum Disorder, researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine describe for the first time how abnormal gene activity in cell cycle networks that are known to control brain cell production may underlie abnormal early brain growth in the disorder.
Age of blueschist is not an indicator of the date of emergence of plate tectonics
Researchers have managed to demonstrate for the first time that the absence of blueschist in the earliest geological periods goes back to a change in the chemical composition of the ocean's crust in the course of the Earth's history, which in turn is a result of the gradual cooling of the Earth's mantle since the Archean eon.
New ceramic firefighting foam becomes stronger when temperature increases
A team of chemists from ITMO University, in collaboration with research company SOPOT, has developed a novel type of firefighting foam based on inorganic silica nanoparticles.
Survival rates for patients with prostate cancer better with surgery vrs radiotherapy
A rigorous evaluation of survival rates has shown that cancer patients with localised prostate cancer -- the most common form of prostate cancer -- have a better chance of survival if treated by surgery than by radiotherapy.
Producing clean energy from Italian waste water with Finnish fuel cell expertise
In the European DEMOSOFC project, Convion Ltd and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd will demonstrate fuel cell systems for high-efficiency cogeneration of heat and power from biogas produced in connection with waste water treatment in Italy.
Altered microbiome burns fewer calories
A new University of Iowa study in mice shows that drug-induced changes to the gut microbiome can cause obesity by reducing the resting metabolic rate -- the calories burned while sleeping or resting.
Researchers find that Australian and New Zealand little penguins are distinct species
A team of researchers from New Zealand's University of Otago and the University of Tasmania has discovered that Australian and New Zealand little penguins represent two distinct species, rather than one.
Hybrid material presents potential for 4-D-printed adaptive devices
Combining photo-responsive fibers with thermo-responsive gels, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering and Clemson University have modeled a new hybrid material that could reconfigure itself multiple times into different shapes when exposed to light and heat.
How multiple sclerosis can be triggered by brain cell death
Multiple sclerosis may be triggered by the death of brain cells that make the insulation around nerve fibers, a surprising new view of the disease reported in a study.

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