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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | February 08, 2016


Scientists discover a unique mechanism for a high-risk leukemia
Researchers uncovered the aberrant mechanism underlying a notoriously treatment-resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia subtype; findings offer lessons for understanding all cancers.
Wholesome wholegrain
When it is a matter of health, whole grain has the X factor -- or rather the BX factor -- in the form of a certain group of bioactive compounds called benzoxazinoids, or BX.
Mark Rosin receives 2015 AAAS Early Career Award for Public Engagement with Science
Mark Rosin, a physicist who has directly reached more than 15,000 members of the public through his playful and inventive public engagement events, has been chosen by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to receive the 2015 Early Career Award for Public Engagement with Science.
Millennials say one thing but do another when choosing chocolate, study finds
Despite strong preferences for ethical chocolate in focus groups, only 14 percent of millennials in individual choice studies selected candy with ethical or social factors labeling, according to a Kansas State University study.
Treatments that reduce knee buckling may help prevent falls in older adults
Symptoms of knee instability in older adults may indicate an increased risk of falling and of experiencing the various physical and psychological effects that can result from falling, according to a study published in Arthritis Care & Research, a journal of the American College of Rheumatology.
A long, hot view: Climate change likely to extend across next 10,000 years
Warming temperatures, melting glaciers and rising sea levels persist for 10,000 years in a new set of research-based climate change scenarios developed by an international team of researchers.
Zika virus: 5 things to know
A concise 'Five things to know about.... Zika virus infection' article for physicians highlights key points about this newly emerged virus in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
ESC Congress 2016 program now online
The pre-arranged scientific program for ESC Congress 2016 is now online.
Stereotypes about Native Americans and alcohol debunked by UA study
In contrast to enduring stories about extraordinarily high rates of alcohol misuse among Native Americans, University of Arizona researchers have found that Native Americans' binge and heavy drinking rates actually match those of whites.
Why your muscles get less sore as you stick with your gym routine
Scientists have studied the reduced-soreness phenomenon for decades, but they still can't figure out exactly why people feel less sore the second time around.
Terrestrial laser scanning in California
Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) is a powerful mapping tool that helps us to image natural surfaces at centimeter scale, which is established in this research study by evaluating the performance of long-range TLS, Riegl Z620i and Riegl LPM-800HA, on characterizing natural surfaces.
A step closer to understanding fertilization
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have taken a step closer to understanding the mechanism that leads to the fusion of egg and sperm at fertilization.
ACP publishes depression recommendations; news from Annals of Internal Medicine
In a new clinical practice guideline published in Annals of Internal Medicine, the American College of Physicians (ACP) recommends that physicians select either cognitive behavioral therapy or second generation antidepressants to treat adults with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Red or white? Healthy humans need both
Red blood cells deliver oxygen to all the cells of the body and a lack of sufficient red blood cells results in anemia, which can affect physical and mental functions necessary on a space mission.
Stress could help activate brown fat
Mild stress stimulates the activity and heat production by brown fat associated with raised cortisol, according to a study published today in Experimental Physiology.
Claims for solar cell efficiency put to test at NREL
The sheet of paper taped to the door of Keith Emery's office tells the story.
Turning the volume of gene expression up and down
Scientists at OIST and the Janelia Research Campus have shown that gene expression in a fruit fly embryo can be accurately and predictably tuned.
Scientists propose 'pumpjack' mechanism for splitting and copying DNA
New close-up images of the proteins that copy DNA inside the nucleus of a cell have led a team of scientists to propose a brand new mechanism for how this molecular machinery works.
IAU receives prestigious Edinburgh Medal
The 2016 Edinburgh Medal will be jointly awarded to Kevin Govender from IAU's Office of Astronomy for Development and the International Astronomical Union (IAU) on Wednesday March 30 at the 2016 Edinburgh International Science Festival, to recognize their wide-reaching contribution to science.
Umea University researchers help Europe fight spread of Zika virus
Researchers at Umea University in Sweden help assess the risk that Zika will spread to Europe by describing the transmission season, areas at risk and intervention strategies.
Terminology of chronic pain published by Dove Medical Press
Clinicians and society as a whole need to appreciate language's potential to further stigmatize and marginalize all patients suffering from chronic pain, and accordingly we are obligated to work toward a more language-neutral system of pain classification.
International panel, including SLAC scientists, to discuss the search for dark matter at AAAS 2016
Researchers from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory will take part in a discussion of the global hunt for dark matter at this year's AAAS Annual Meeting, to be held Feb.
ACP: CBT and antidepressants are similarly effective treatments for adults with depression
Doctors should select cognitive behavioral therapy or second generation antidepressants to treat adults with major depressive disorder, the American College of Physicians recommends in a new evidence-based clinical practice guideline published today in Annals of Internal Medicine.
Double dose of bad earthquake news
A team of researchers, including one from the University of California, Riverside, has discovered that earthquake ruptures can jump much further than previously thought, a finding that could have severe implications on the Los Angeles area and other regions in the world.
Ocean acidification makes coralline algae less robust
Ocean acidification (the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere), is affecting the formation of the skeleton of coralline algae which play an important part in marine biodiversity, new research from the University of Bristol has found.
Engineers 3-D-print a new lifelike liver tissue for drug screening
A team led by engineers at the University of California, San Diego has 3-D-printed a tissue that closely mimics the human liver's sophisticated structure and function.
Zika, mosquitoes and how to not get bitten (video)
Diseases from mosquito bites kill hundreds of thousands of people every year worldwide.
Making sense of metallic glass
Vitrified metals, or metallic glasses, are at the frontier of materials science research.
Yale study examines evolution of cancer
A novel Yale study answers age-old questions about how cancers spread by applying tools from evolutionary biology.
Wolf species have 'howling dialects'
Largest quantitative study of howling, and first to use machine learning, defines different howl types and finds that wolves use these types more or less depending on their species, resembling a howling dialect.
Earth-like planets have Earth-like interiors
Every school kid learns the basic structure of the Earth: a thin outer crust, a thick mantle, and a Mars-sized core.
Difference in PSA testing among urologist and primary care physician visits
Declines in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing differed among urologist and primary care physician visits in a study that compared testing before and after a 2011 recommendation from the US Preventive Services Task Force against PSA screening for all men, according to an article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.
New device to get people with paralysis back on their feet
Australian medical researchers have created a new minimally invasive brain-machine interface, giving people with spinal cord injuries new hope to walk again with the power of thought.
UCLA-Stanford researchers pinpoint origin of sighing reflex in the brain
A UCLA-Stanford study has pinpointed two tiny clusters of neurons in the brain stem that are responsible for transforming normal breaths into sighs.
Newer pain management strategies can lead to quicker, shorter recovery after TKRs
According to a new literature review in the February issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, a team-based care approach (consisting of the patient, family members, the orthopaedic surgeon and other medical practitioners) on total knee replacement (TKR) procedures, in conjunction with newer pain management strategies, is key to maximizing patient outcomes.
Experts urge extreme caution on 'rewilding' to save wild places
Efforts to 'rewild' the landscape have become increasingly popular in some corners, but researchers writing in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on Feb.
'Hidden fish' genus described for 2 new weakly electric mormyrid species from Gabon
A new genus with two new species of the weakly electric freshwater fish family Mormyridae has been described from only three specimens collected over a period of 13 years in the Central African country of Gabon.
Non-motor microtubule-associated protein in maintaining synaptic plasticity
University of Tsukuba Faculty of Medicine Professor Yosuke Takei, in a joint study with the University of Tokyo, has for the first time clarified the mechanism in the brain that inhibits derailment of the receptor transport that supports memory.
Study accurately dates coral loss at Great Barrier Reef
The timing of significant Great Barrier Reef coral loss captured by a series of historical photos has been accurately determined for the first time by a University of Queensland)-led study.
Researchers find new cause of strong earthquakes
A geologic event known as diking can cause strong earthquakes -- with a magnitude between 6 and 7, according to an international research team.
Nature's mirror -- the code for chirality
Understanding the Thalidomide tragedy: How biological molecules re-shape crystalline surfaces and why this could pave the way to the development of new drugs.
Circadian misalignment helps explain higher risk for cardiovascular disease
New research from Brigham and Women's Hospital published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on Feb.
More detailed analysis of how cells react to stress
Stress in the body's cells is both the cause and consequence of inflammatory diseases or cancer.
A disposable, highly sensitive biosensing system
A new biosensing platform has been fabricated for the determination of haptoglobin in human blood.
Cocaine users present alterations in the function and structures of the brain
A new study has shown the presence of alterations in brain functioning and structure in cocaine users.
Variation in hospice visits for Medicare patients in last 2 days of life
Medicare patients in hospice care were less likely to be visited by professional staff in the last two days of life if they were black, dying on a Sunday or receiving care in a nursing home, according to an article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.
Research discovers neuroprotective protein in blood is biomarker of Alzheimer's disease
A new discovery by Tel Aviv University researchers takes the medical community a leap forward in the process of effectively screening and diagnosing Alzheimer's disease.
New algorithm improves speed and accuracy of pedestrian detection
Electrical engineers at the University of California, San Diego have developed a pedestrian detection system that performs in near real-time (two-four frames per second) and with higher accuracy (close to half the error) compared to existing systems.
Clemson researchers receive $1.8 million for root study with broad implications for agriculture
Julia Frugoli, Alex Feltus and Victoria Corbin are the recipients of the three-year National Science Foundation grant.
February Health Affairs: Vaccine development assistance nearly quadrupled over 14 years
The February issue of Health Affairs explores the current environment in which vaccines are discovered, produced, and delivered.
Ag and food research funding supported
Three scientific societies praise the Obama administration's commitment to doubling funding for the US Department of Agriculture.
Phase 3 trial with PM1183 in OC continues on the basis of positive recommendation by IDMC
The Independent Data Monitoring Committee (IDMC) has notified PharmaMar of its recommendation that the Phase III (CORAIL) trial currently under way with PM1183 in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients should continue without any changes.
The mechanism of maintaining cell polarity visualized by super-resolution microscope
A research group lead by University of Tsukuba Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences International Tenure Track Assistant Professor Norio Takeshita (who holds a concurrent post as Group Leader of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Department of Applied Microbiology) has succeeded in using a super-resolution microscope to visualize the mechanism by which cell polarity is maintained.
VA health system faces significant challenges, studies find
A series of reports prepared as part of a Congressionally mandated review of the VA health care system finds that demands on the VA will continue to increase through the end of the decade.
Researchers identify most dangerous strains of often-deadly bacteria
Researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine have for the first time determined the genetic makeup of various strains of E. coli, which every year kills hundreds of thousands of people around the world.
Childhood diabetes discoveries could lead to new treatments
A team led by the University of Exeter Medical School has found for the first time that, while children aged six or under are left with very few insulin-producing beta cells in their pancreas when diagnosed, those with onset of symptomatic type 1 diabetes as teenagers still retain large numbers of these cells.
Nanoscale cavity strongly links quantum particles
Scientists have created a crystal structure that boosts the interaction between tiny bursts of light and individual electrons, an advance that could be a significant step toward establishing quantum networks in the future.
UTA engineer earns NSF grant to develop optofluidic laser to better detect diseases
An electrical engineer at The University of Texas at Arlington is developing an all-liquid optofluidic laser that could better detect cancer in the comfort of a doctor's office.
Intensifying Atlantic storm examined by NASA's GPM
As a low pressure area continued to intensify in the Atlantic Ocean off the United States' East Coast, NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core satellite gathered information about the precipitation the storm was packing.
New 'Little Ice Age' coincides with fall of Eastern Roman Empire and growth of Arab Empire
New research suggests links between a century-long deep freeze across Europe and central Asia with famine, large-scale migration, a plague pandemic that ripped through the Eastern Roman Empire, and the expansion of the Arab Empire.
New type 2 diabetes biomarker identified
Type 2 diabetes accounts for around 90 percent of diabetes cases as well as being one of the major cardiovascular risk factors.
Scientists elucidate genetic underpinnings of congenital heart disease
Mutations in the gene TBX5 have been shown to cause both rare and more prevalent forms of congenital heart disease, yet the underlying mechanisms have remained unclear.
Research finds no easy answers to use of drug screening for pain patients
Doctors who treat patients suffering from chronic pain face a quandary, according to research from the University of Houston and the University of Texas Medical Branch.
Older and younger adults surf different brain waves
Cognitive scientists have found more evidence that aging brains work differently than younger brains when performing the same memory task, pointing to a potentially new direction for age-related cognitive care and exploration.
A deep look into a single molecule
A German research group has demonstrated a non-destructive state detection technique for molecular ions.
Arthroscopic knee surgery does not cure sensations of knee catching or locking
A new Finnish study proves that a commonly used surgical treatment does not help patients who suffer from 'mechanical symptoms' associated with a degenerative knee.
Patients with PTSD together with sleep apnea may have reduced quality of life
New research finds patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) experienced lower quality of life, more sleepiness, and less adherence and response to positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy.
Biogen joins pioneering target validation collaboration
Biogen has joined the Centre for Therapeutic Target Validation, the pioneering public-private collaboration to improve the success rate for discovering new medicines.
Rice lab offers new strategies, tools for genome editing
Rice University bioengineers study alternative CRISPR-Cas9 systems for precision genome editing, with a focus on improving its accuracy and limiting 'off-target' errors.
National underutilization of preemptive and early kidney transplants
A kidney transplant is a life-changing and life-saving procedure. Yet, a new study conducted by Mayo Clinic and the University of Michigan shows that only one-third of patients who ultimately receive a living donor kidney transplant receive it preemptively (i.e., before starting dialysis).
Carbon emissions affect thousands of years of climate change
The Earth may suffer irreversible damage that could last tens of thousands of years because of the rate humans are emitting carbon into the atmosphere.
The brain game
A new book by neuroscientist Kenneth S. Kosik offers strategies for reducing the risk of Alzheimer's disease.
New evidence gives women informed choice in the prolapse surgery debate
New evidence published today highlights benefits and harms of using artificial mesh when compared with tissue repair in the surgical treatment of vaginal prolapse.
U.S. Air Force selects NJIT president Bloom for Civic Leader Program
NJIT President Joel S. Bloom has been selected for the Air Force Chief of Staff's civic leader program.
Cockroach inspires robot that squeezes through cracks
Ever wonder how roaches are able to get into anything, no matter how tight the seams?
Predicting who will develop multiple sclerosis
A team of investigators has launched a study of individuals at risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) to better understand the sequence of events that leads some people to develop the disease and set the stage for developing and testing interventions with which to block the onset of MS.
Mayo researchers identify new Borrelia species that causes Lyme disease
Mayo Clinic researchers, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and health officials from Minnesota, North Dakota and Wisconsin, have discovered a new bacterial species that causes Lyme disease in people.
200,000 fish bones suggest ancient Scandinavian people were more complex than thought
200,000 fish bones discovered in and around a pit in Sweden suggest that the people living in the area more than 9,000 years ago were more settled and cultured than we previously thought.
Program highlights: 2016 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology meeting
The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology will hold its annual meeting April 2-6 at the San Diego Convention Center.
Will more states ban nonmedical exemptions for childhood vaccination?
For more than 30 years, Mississippi and West Virginia were the only states in the country that disallowed nonmedical exemptions to mandatory school vaccination laws for religious or philosophical reasons.
Exposure to air pollution 30 years ago associated with increased risk of death
Exposure to air pollution more than 30 years ago may still affect an individual's mortality risk today, according to new research from Imperial College London.
Planning for end-of-life and palliative care among African-Americans
A new model developed to examine the relationship between factors that impact how African-Americans approach advance care planning (ACP) reveals how little is known about improving ACP in this population and points to new approaches to improve care and quality of life.
Brain scars in multiple sclerosis patients reveal possible cause of taste problems
Taste deficits appear to be more prevalent among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients than previously reported and correlate with brain lesions left by the debilitating disease, a new study from the University of Pennsylvania's Smell and Taste Center and the department of Radiology found.
Putting a price on nature, literally
We know that nature is valuable, but how does this value compare to other assets?
What's nature worth? Study helps put a price on groundwater and other natural capital
A Yale-led research team has adapted traditional asset valuation approaches to measure the value of such natural capital assets, linking economic measurements of ecosystem services with models of natural dynamics and human behavior.
Faces of black children as young as 5 evoke negative biases
A new study suggests that people are more likely to misidentify a toy as a weapon after seeing a black face than a white face, even when the face in question is that of a five-year-old child.
Innate teaching skills 'part of human nature'
A small but novel study of hunter-gatherers concludes that 'teaching is part of the human genome.' 'It's part of our human nature,' says Barry Hewlett, a professor of anthropology at WSU Vancouver.
Wayne State and TRImaran Pharma enter license agreement to develop new class of drugs
Wayne State University recently entered into an exclusive license agreement with TRImaran Pharma Inc. for a class of novel drugs developed at Wayne State University that aims to offer hope in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorders, depression, ADHD and other neurological disorders.
Persistent ADHD associated with overly critical parents
For many children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, symptoms appear to decrease as they age, but for some they do not and one reason may be persistent parental criticism, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.
Early human ancestor didn't have the jaws of a nutcracker, study finds
Research published in 2012 garnered international attention by suggesting that a possible early human ancestor had lived on a diverse woodland diet including hard foods mixed in with tree bark, fruit, leaves and other plant products.
Physics: It's happening inside your body right now
Using a model blood vessel system built on a polymer microchip, researchers have shown that the relative softness of white blood cells determines whether they remain in a dormant state along vessel walls or enter blood circulation to fight infection.
Sleep deprivation linked to false confessions
Sleep-deprived people are much more likely to sign false confessions than rested individuals, according to a groundbreaking study that has important implications for police interrogation practices.
Study compares effectiveness of phone-based and web-based smoking cessation programs in four states
A new analysis indicates that states' Web-based and phone-based tobacco cessation programs can help people quit smoking, but certain personal characteristics may lead individuals to prefer one type of program over the other.
Air pollution exposure during pregnancy linked with asthma risk
Babies born to mothers exposed to air pollution from traffic sources during pregnancy have an increased risk of developing asthma before the age of 5 years, according to new findings.
Early human ancestor did not have the jaws of a nutcracker
New research by an international team of researchers, including Professors Lee Berger and Kristian Carlson from the Evolutionary Studies Institute (ESI) at the University of the Witwatersrand, now shows that Australopithecus sediba didn't have the jaw and tooth structure necessary to exist on a steady diet of hard foods.
Secondary tropical forests absorb carbon at higher rate than old-growth forests
Forests are an important carbon sink. While most attention has focused on old-growth tropical forests, it turns out that secondary forests that re-grow after forest clearance or agricultural abandonment can sequester large amounts of carbon.
Device hits pancreatic tumors hard with toxic 4-drug cocktail, sparing the body
A powerhouse team of researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has revealed that an implantable device can deliver a particularly toxic cocktail of drugs directly to pancreatic tumors to stunt their growth or in some cases, shrink them -- all while showing signs that the rest of the body would be spared toxic side effects.
Anarchistic proteins could hide secret to develop crops with high stress resistance
Some proteins behave rather anarchistic. Unraveling their unusual behavior might hold the secret to develop crops with a higher tolerance to stress.
Gut environment could reduce severity of malaria
Microorganisms in the gut could play a role in reducing the severity of malaria, according to a new study co-authored by researchers at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and the University of Louisville.
NREL patents method for continuous monitoring of materials during manufacturing
The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was recently issued a patent for a novel method that rapidly characterizes specialized materials during the manufacturing process.
New study links traffic-related air pollution to facial dark spots
A largescale study that included women from Germany and China has demonstrated a link between levels of traffic-related air pollution and air pollution-associated gases with the formation of dark spots on the skin, known as lentigenes.
AAAS Scientific Freedom and Responsibility Award goes to psychologist Jean Maria Arrigo
Jean Maria Arrigo, who confronted systematic efforts by the American Psychological Association to allow and conceal the involvement of psychologists in the torture and abuse of detainees following the Sept.
Graphene decharging and molecular shielding
A new study sheds light on unique property of 2-D materials -- ability to shield chemical interactions at the molecular level.
Chiral magnetic effect generates quantum current
Scientists at the US Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University have discovered a new way to generate very low-resistance electric current in a new class of materials.
The University of Oxford and SomaLogic announce wide ranging agreement for discovery
University of Oxford and SomaLogic announced agreement to undertake collaborative projects that will employ SomaLogic's proprietary SOMAmer® reagents and SOMAscan® assay technologies to discover and characterize protein biomarkers for a range of clinical diseases and conditions.
New target, potential treatment found for unhealthy levels of fat that can occur in type 1 diabetes
Researchers have new insight into the complex interchange that can raise blood levels of unhealthy lipids, or fat, in type 1 diabetes, and early evidence that a drug under study to block cancer cell growth can restore healthier levels.
Climate change helps bats to spread their wings
Climate change is most likely behind the spread of a type of vesper bat across Europe over the last four decades.
Multicomponent intervention linked to better sun protection for kids
A multicomponent intervention including reminder text messages, a swim shirt for children and a read-along book was associated with increased sun-protection behaviors among young children and a smaller change in children's skin pigment, according to an article published online by JAMA Pediatrics.
IU's Katy Börner, Noretta Koertge and Jessica Gall Myrick to present at AAAS 2016
Faculty experts from Indiana University will join thousands of scientists converging on Washington, DC, from Feb.
Fossil discovery: Extraordinary 'big-mouthed' fish from Cretaceous Period
Scientists have discovered two new plankton-eating fossil fish species of the genus called Rhinconichthys from the oceans of the Cretaceous Period, about 92 million years ago.
Nanoparticle therapy that uses LDL and fish oil kills liver cancer cells
An experimental nanoparticle therapy that combines low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and fish oil preferentially kills primary liver cancer cells without harming healthy cells, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers report.
Is it possible for humans to regenerate limbs?
Unlocking the complex biological and regenerative processes that would enable humans to regrow digits and limbs 'would radically change the prognosis and quality of life for amputees,' state the authors of 'Looking Ahead to Engineering Epimorphic Regeneration of a Human Digit or Limb,' a Review article published in Tissue Engineering, Part B, Reviews.
National Science Foundation award will secure microchip design and manufacturing
The National Science Foundation selected Siddharth Garg, a member of the New York University computer hardware security research team, to receive a prestigious award for promising young faculty.
No more hippy trail routes as backpackers become tourists
Low cost airlines, natural disasters, regional competition, tightening visa rules and terrorism have all changed backpacking in South East Asia.
Artistic space odyssey to broadcast people's messages to the stars
Messages from around the world are to be beamed into space at the speed of light as part of a cultural project to create a celestial time capsule.
Kitchen skills are highly dependent on level of income and children living at home
Our knowledge of food and our kitchen skills are highly dependent on our level of income and on whether we have children living at home.
NREL explains the higher cellulolytic activity of a vital microorganism
Researchers at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) say better understanding of a bacterium could lead to cheaper production of cellulosic ethanol and other advanced biofuels.
UK partnership will prepare high school students for geosciences careers
Addressing the growing need for geoscientists and an approaching workforce shortage, the 'Full STEAM Ahead' program will not only aim to attract more students into the field, but also more diverse students, a challenge geosciences has dealt with for years.
A new role for vitamin B6 in plants
Vitamin B6 is essential for all living organisms. Researchers have discovered an unexpected role for this micronutrient, in relation to nitrogen metabolism.
Researchers find that antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV in the female reproductive tract
For the first time, investigators in the Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine have determined how antiretroviral therapy affects the way HIV disseminates and establishes infection in the female reproductive tract.
Signs of early settlement in the Nordic region date back to the cradle of civilization
The discovery of the world's oldest storage of fermented fish in southern Sweden could rewrite the Nordic prehistory with findings indicating a far more complex society than previously thought.
Expression of a 'Ouija Board' protein that can summon 'monster' genes
A research group led by University of Tsukuba Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences Associate Professor Ryusuke Niwa, in a joint study with the National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, has studied Drosophila melanogaster flies to discover a new protein dubbed 'Ouija Board,' which plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones necessary for insect development.
Stanford study finds possible new jet-lag treatment
Exposing people to short flashes of light while they're sleeping could provide a fast and efficient method of preventing jet lag, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Study details molecular mechanism that regulates how the heart pumps blood
In a finding that could lead to new drugs to treat heart failure, researchers have uncovered the molecular mechanism that regulates how the heart pumps blood.
Researchers create synthetic biopathway to turn agriculture waste into 'green' products
Researchers at the University of Minnesota have engineered a new synthetic biopathway that can more efficiently and cost-effectively turn agricultural waste, like corn stover and orange peels, into a variety of useful products ranging from spandex to chicken feed.
Common colds at school a primary driver of asthma hospitalizations for children
Children with asthma tend to have the worst symptoms at the same times each year -- when school starts in the fall and after extended breaks such as Spring Break.
Wbp2 is a novel gene implicated in deafness
Researchers at King's College London and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in the United Kingdom have for the first time demonstrated a direct link between the Wbp2 gene and progressive hearing loss.
Timebomb in the testicles investigated by Oxford University researchers
Oxford scientists have for the first time been able to identify the origins of some severe disease-causing mutations within the testicles of healthy men.
Scientists create laser-activated superconductor
Shining lasers at superconductors can make them work at higher temperatures, suggests new findings from an international team of scientists.
Sustained aerobic exercise increases adult neurogenesis in the brain
It may be possible to increase the neuron reserve of the hippocampus -- and thus improve preconditions for learning -- by promoting neurogenesis via sustained aerobic exercise such as running.
Cotton candy machines may hold key for making artificial organs
Vanderbilt engineers have modified the cotton candy machine to create complex microfluidic networks that mimic the capillary system in living tissue and have demonstrated that these networks can keep cells alive and functioning in an artificial three-dimensional matrix.
Scientists say window to reduce carbon emissions is small
At the rate humans are emitting carbon into the atmosphere, the Earth may suffer irreparable damage that could last tens of thousands of years, according to a new analysis.
Diabetes drug shown to help body rebuild after heart attack
New light has been shed on how a common diabetes drug can be used to aid recovery from a heart attack.
Oregano may reduce methane in cow burps
A new research project aims to reduce methane emissions from dairy cows by up to 25 per cent.
Past experiences affect recognition, memory: Study
New research from the University of Guelph on the brain and memory could help in developing therapies for people with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease.
Search technique helps researchers find DNA sequences in minutes rather than days
Database searches for DNA sequences that can take biologists and medical researchers days can now be completed in a matter of minutes, thanks to a new search method developed by computer scientists at Carnegie Mellon University.
New research identifies drug target for dengue virus
No vaccine or drug has yet become available against the Dengue virus.
Social hormone promotes cooperation in risky situations
A hormone implicated in monogamy and aggression in animals also promotes trust and cooperation in humans in risky situations, Caltech researchers say.
Expanding use of vaccines could save up to $44 for every dollar spent, study suggests
Vaccinations, long recognized as an excellent investment that saves lives and prevents illness, could have significant economic value that far exceeds their original cost, a new study from researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health has found.
Genetics Society of America awards Detlef Weigel the 2016 GSA Medal
The Genetics Society of America (GSA) is pleased to announce that Detlef Weigel (Max Plank Institute for Developmental Biology, Tuebingen) has been awarded the GSA Medal for his outstanding contributions to the field of genetics in the last 15 years.
Clean energy from water
Fuel cells generate electrical energy through a chemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen.
Long-term picture offers little solace on climate change
Climate change projections that look ahead one or two centuries show a rapid rise in temperature and sea level, but say little about the longer picture.
Risk of suicide increased 3-fold in adults after a concussion
The long-term risk of suicide for adults who have had a concussion is three times higher than the population norm, and the risk increases further if the concussion occurred on a weekend, found a new study published in Canadian Medical Association Journal.
Muscles on-a-chip provide insight into cardiac stem cell therapies
Stem cell-derived heart muscle cells may fail to effectively replace damaged cardiac tissue because they don't contract strongly enough, according to a study in The Journal of Cell Biology.
Studying the solar system with NASA's Webb Telescope
NASA's James Webb Space Telescope will look across vast distances to find the earliest stars and galaxies and study the atmospheres of mysterious worlds orbiting other stars.
No genetic link between smaller subcortical brain volumes and risk for schizophrenia
There is no evidence of genetic overlap between risk for schizophrenia and brain volume measures, according to researchers in a global study that examined the genes that drive the development of schizophrenia.
Nasoalveolar molding use for cleft lip and palate reduces number of surgeries, cost of care
Patients with complete unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate (U/BCLP) who were treated with nasoalveolar molding (NAM) required fewer surgeries and a reduction in overall healthcare costs compared to similar patients who did not have NAM treatment, according to a study in The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, authored by Parit A.

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