Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

February 22, 2016
Home health care, post-acute care in a facility infrequent for hospitalized kids
Hospitalized children infrequently used home health care (HHC) and facility-based post-acute care (PAC) after they were discharged, according to an article published online by JAMA Pediatrics.

Two Johns Hopkins researchers win Presidential Early Career Awards
Namandje Bumpus, Ph.D., and Jordan Green, Ph.D., of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine are among 105 winners of Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers, which were announced by the White House on Feb.

Museum samples of extinct butterfly populations show how populations rise and fall
Fragmentation of habitat affects the evolution of butterfly movement and makes them better adapted to a changing environment.

Parents rate flu vaccine less important, effective, safe than other childhood vaccines
Parents who do not get their children flu shots rate flu vaccine less favorably than other childhood vaccines, a national poll finds.

Permit female genital 'nicks' that respect culture/religion but don't harm, say experts
A small surgical 'nick' or minimalist procedures that slightly change the look, but not the function or sensory capacity of a young woman's external genitalia, should be legally permitted as a compromise solution to FGM, argue gynaecologists in the Journal of Medical Ethics.

When in-store digital displays drive sales -- and when they don't
Consumers shop at different size stores for different reasons, and retailers may well wonder whether in-store digital displays for their establishments are worth the investment.

Meningitis A nearly eliminated in Africa through vaccination, reaching over 235 million people
Global vaccine experts and officials from all 26 African 'meningitis belt' countries have convened in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to celebrate one of Africa's biggest public health achievements -- the introduction of a vaccine, MenAfriVac®, designed, developed, and produced for use in Africa, that in five years of use has nearly eliminated serogroup A meningococcal disease from meningitis belt countries and is now being integrated into routine national immunization programs.

Spanish conquest left its imprint on men's genes in Panama
European men who chose indigenous women as the mothers of their children left their mark on men in the New World.

Using sugar to detect malignant tumors
Ordinary sugar could become a contrast agent of the future for use in magnetic resonance tomography examinations of tumors.

Couples' lifestyle choices impact on obesity risk, study finds
The lifestyle a person shares with their partner has a greater influence on their chances of becoming obese than their upbringing, research suggests.

In obese patients, 5 percent weight loss has significant health benefits
For patients with obesity, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine have found the greatest improvements to health come from losing just 5 percent of their body weight.

Benefits of taking the natural pigment astaxanthin
A research group led by University of Tsukuba Professor Hideaki Soya and Professor Randeep Rakwal has investigated the effect on hippocampal function of the naturally derived pigment ASX, which is believed to have the most powerful antioxidant activity among carotenoids.

Experiencing financial stress may lead to physical pain
People who feel that their financial outlook is shaky may actually experience more physical pain than those who feel financially secure, according to new research in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

Cancer in 3-D
Cancer cells don't live on glass slides, yet the vast majority of images related to cancer biology come from the cells being photographed on flat, two-dimensional surfaces.

Weight and height during adolescence may impact future risk of developing Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
A new analysis indicates that higher body weight and taller stature during adolescence increase the risk of developing Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a type of cancer of the lymphatic system.

ARDS appears to be underrecognized, undertreated and associated with high risk of death
Among nearly 460 intensive care units (ICUs) in 50 countries, acute respiratory distress syndrome appeared to be underrecognized, undertreated, and associated with a high mortality rate, according to a study that appears in the Feb.

Accelerating genome analysis
An international team of scientists, led by researchers from A*STAR's Genome Institute of Singapore and the Bioinformatics Institute, have developed SIFT 4G (SIFT for Genomes) -- a software that can lead to faster genome analysis.

New 'lipidomics' method could bring fast cancer diagnosis
Researchers have developed a new analytical tool for medical applications and biological research that might be used to diagnose cancer more rapidly than conventional methods.

Research warns about the sleep disturbances in patients with cancer
Researchers from the Hospital Inmaculada ONCOSUR-Granada hospital and the University of Granada prove that sleep problems are very significant among patients with cancer prior to undergoing radiotherapy.

New Canadian recommendation against colonoscopy for routine screening of colorectal cancer
Physicians should screen for colorectal cancer in asymptomatic, low-risk adults aged 50 to 74 years every two years using fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), or flexible sigmoidoscopy every 10 years, rather than colonoscopy, according to a new Canadian guideline from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Extinct glyptodonts really were gigantic armadillos, ancient DNA shows
According to researchers who have reconstructed the family tree of glyptodonts based on their mitochondrial genome, reconstructed from small fragments of DNA extracted from bits of a protective, bony carapace.

Successful real-time observation of atomic motion with sub-nanometer resolution
A research group led by University of Tsukuba, the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, the RIKEN SPring-8 Center and the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Institute have succeeded in using the immensely powerful x-ray pulses from the free electron laser (XFEL) facility SACLA *1 to investigate excited-state induced transient lattice dynamics on sub-picosecond time scales in phase-change materials via x-ray diffraction.

Researchers pinpoint potential enzyme for T-cell leukemia treatment
For the first time, researchers at Boston University have shown that T-cell leukemia cells use a particular cycle, called the TCA or Kreb cycle, to support their growth and survival.

Researchers trace peanut crop back to its Bolivian roots
Researchers at the University of Georgia, working with the International Peanut Genome Initiative, have discovered that a wild plant from Bolivia is a 'living relic' of the prehistoric origins of the cultivated peanut species.

Physicists discover new laws governing the 'developmental biology of materials'
When one atom first meets another, the precise nature of that interaction can determine much about what kinds of physical properties and behaviours will emerge.

Quantum phase transition underpins superconductivity in copper oxides
Physicists have zoomed in on the transition that could explain why copper-oxides have such impressive superconducting powers.

Antarctic ice sheet is more vulnerable to CO2 than expected
Results from a new climate reconstruction of how Antarctica's ice sheets responded during the last period when atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) reached levels like those expected to occur in about 30 years, plus sediment core findings reported in a companion paper, suggest that the ice sheets are more vulnerable to rising atmospheric CO2 than previously thought.

Block Yik Yak? UF Health researchers suggest doing the research first
Some colleges have called for the banning of Yik Yak, a social media application to which users centered around a geographic area can post anonymously.

USU biological engineer patents method to make natural blue dye
Biological engineering researchers at USU have patented a new method to create the deep blue dye known as indigoidine using E. coli.

ERC Consolidator Grant: Six million euros for 3 scientists at Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen
The European Research Council (ERC) is supporting three scientists in their research projects at the Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (HMGU) with a total sum just under six million Euros.

Graphic images may not scare smokers off cigarettes, says study
Images of disease and suffering should move smokers to kick the habit -- at least, that's the thinking behind graphic warning labels used on cigarette packages in much of the world, and maybe someday in the U.S.

Reef sharks prefer bite-size meals
Sharks have a reputation for having voracious appetites, but a new study shows that most coral reef sharks eat prey that are smaller than a cheeseburger.

Atmospheric sulfate particles reduced, but as acidic as ever
Tough emission controls have dramatically reduced the amount of toxic sulfate particles in air, but at least in the Southeast United States, they haven't reduced the acidity of the health-threatening particles.

Crop Science Society sending students to Zambia for conference
The Crop Science Society of America is sending ten graduate students to Zambia to learn more about dry bean research and increase international knowledge of this important crop.

NASA sees category 5 southern Pacific Tropical cyclone hit Fiji
NASA satellites provided data on Tropical Cyclone Winston before and after it made an historic landfall in eastern Fiji.

KAIST graduate receives a 2016 PECASE award from the US government
President Barack Obama of the United States announced 105 recipients of the 2016 Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE) on Feb.

Supply of GPs and detection of hypertension in England associated with premature mortality rates
University of Leicester researchers examine associations between mortality under 75 years and general practice characteristics

IUPUI analysis finds differences in pain coping between black and white Americans
Black and white Americans cope with pain differently. An IUPUI review and analysis of 19 studies is the first to examine the entire published literature and quantify the relationship between race and the use of pain-coping strategies.

EARTH: Slipping point -- snow scientists dig in to decipher avalanche triggers
As skiers hit the slopes this winter, EARTH magazine explores the science of how to keep them and other winter explorers safe.

New evidence confirms human activities drive global warming
A new statistical technique, analyzing data records since measuring started 150 years ago, independently confirms that man-made carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions have led to global warming, according to a JRC-led article published Nature Scientific Reports.

Chemically storing solar power
Scientists at TU Wien (Vienna) have developed a cell, which can harness UV light and store it chemically by pumping oxygen ions through a membrane.

Detecting hidden malicious ads
Yan Chen's dynamic detection system could prevent malicious ads from entering the market to protect smartphones.

Recombinase Brec1 trend-setting for future HIV therapy
Researchers at the Medical Faculty of the Technische Universität Dresden and the Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology succeeded in developing a designer recombinase (Brec1) that is capable of specifically removing the provirus from infected cells of most primary HIV-1 isolates.

UA College of Pharmacy faculty member develops inhalers to treat lung diseases
Dr. Mansour's goal is to design treatments for pulmonary conditions by researching and developing new drugs and by developing the delivery mechanisms for these drugs.

Dapivirine vaginal ring helped protect women against HIV in ASPIRE Phase III trial
A vaginal ring containing an ARV called dapivirine that women use for a month at a time was safe and helped protect against HIV in a large-scale clinical trial of women in Africa.

Stroke patients' speech loss linked to loss of brain interconnections
When brain regions that control speech and reading comprehension are destroyed due to blockage of blood flow, patients are often unable to speak or comprehend spoken or written language.

The Charlie Sheen effect on HIV prevention
For some time scientists and advocates have recognized the importance of celebrity in public health.

Species groups follow patterns reacting to climate change on US northeast shelf
Researchers studying groups of species with similar depth and temperature distribution have found that those groups have similar responses to the effects of climate change.

Women have higher survival rates than men after transcatheter valve replacement
Women undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) have better survival rates than men at one year, according to a study published in Annals of Internal Medicine.

Crafting a better T cell for immunotherapy
T-cell therapy, a form of immunotherapy, involves engineering the patient's T cells in the laboratory to carry new proteins that guide the immune cells directly to tumor cells, allowing the engineered T cells to attack and kill the cancer.

Intense deep-ocean turbulence in equatorial Pacific could help drive global circulation
The findings could help solve an outstanding mystery about the global ocean conveyor belt and improve future climate forecasts.

Non-destructive technique measures oxygen levels in 3-D cells used for toxicity testing
A non-destructive technique which can measure the concentration and consumption of oxygen in 3-D models of biological cells has been developed by Plymouth University in partnership with pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca.

Toddler screening essential for autism detection despite national task force's reservation
Given that earlier diagnoses have been found to be more beneficial for treating children on the autism spectrum, a Drexel professor and her colleagues believe universal screening in 18-24 month-old children remains essential, despite a federal task force deciding there is insufficient evidence to recommend it.

Which discipline or reward is best for your child?
A new study lends insight into how children react to discipline practices used by parents and teachers, and sheds light on their view of what's fair.

Pre-pregnancy heart abnormalities may predict recurrent preeclampsia risk
Women who had pregnancy-related high blood pressure (preeclampsia) multiple times had recognizable heart abnormalities between pregnancies that could help predict their risk for heart and blood vessel disease during subsequent pregnancies and even later in life.

Squirm with purpose: FSU research shows fidgeting is helpful for ADHD patients
New research by Kofler at FSU's Children's Learning Clinic shows that children often fidget or move when they are trying to solve a problem, and that movement may have a positive effect on children with ADHD.

A portable device for rapid and highly sensitive diagnostics
A portable and low-cost diagnostic device has been developed at EPFL.

Cancer statistics for African-Americans, 2016
A new report outlines substantial progress in reducing the mortality gap between blacks and whites for some cancers, while the gap has widened or remained level for two leading cancers

Proven one-step process converts CO2 and water directly into liquid hydrocarbon fuels
A team of University of Texas at Arlington chemists and engineers have proven that concentrated light, heat and high pressures can drive the one-step conversion of carbon dioxide and water directly into useable liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

Clock gene may connect mood and sleep
If you pull an all-nighter or stay up late to binge watch Game of Thrones, you will probably be grumpy the next day.

Texas fish of dinosaur era, at Perot Museum of Nature and Science, found to be new species
A 90-million-year-old fossil fish, currently on display at the Perot Museum of Nature and Science in Dallas, turns out to be a new species.

Perception: Brain integrates features directly to patterns
Does our brain perceive objects initially as a conglomeration of shapes, colors and patterns or does it instantly recognize the entire structure?

TSRI researchers uncover potential target for treating autoimmune disease
Scientists from the Scripps Research Institute have identified a molecule that appears to be a cause of autoimmune diseases such as lupus.

Parental anxiety/depression linked to pre-schoolers' fussy eating
Parental anxiety and/or depression during pregnancy and before their child starts school is linked to a heightened risk of that child becoming a 'fussy' eater, finds research published online in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

Researchers sequence seagrass genome, unlocking valuable resource
Researchers say a fully sequenced Z. marina genome is a valuable resource that can advance research in a variety of areas.

Little diet pain, big health gain
Those who struggle with obesity, take heart. Losing as little as 5 percent of your body weight is enough to reap significant health benefits, according to a study published Feb.

Vaginal ring provides partial protection from HIV in large multinational trial
A ring that continuously releases an experimental antiretroviral drug in the vagina safely provided a modest level of protection against HIV infection in women, a large clinical trial in four sub-Saharan African countries has found.

Gulf of Mexico historic shipwrecks help scientists unlock mysteries of deep-sea ecosystems
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill significantly altered microbial communities thriving near shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico, potentially changing these diverse ecosystems and degrading the historically and culturally significant ships they live on, according to new research.

New survey on Americans' attitudes toward the Pope following his visit to the US
The American people paid scant attention to the Pope's remarks on several important and controversial topics such as global warming, immigration and poverty, according to a new national survey conducted by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research.

Significant new study shows importance of help for childhood sexual abuse victims
While the sexual abuse of children is currently an issue at the forefront of public life, concern has focused on the protection of children and the identification of perpetrators.

PPPL researchers advance understanding of turbulence that drains heat from fusion reactors
Physicists at the US Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory appear to have gained important new insights into what affects plasma turbulence, which can impact the leakage of heat from the fusion plasma within tokamaks.

Two large studies show IPM's monthly vaginal ring helps protect women against HIV
Two large Phase III clinical trials -- The Ring Study and ASPIRE -- have shown that a monthly vaginal ring containing the antiretroviral drug dapivirine can safely help prevent HIV-1 infection in women.

White House honors NYU's Gureckis with Presidential Early Career Award
New York University's Todd Gureckis, an associate professor in the Department of Psychology, has been awarded a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers,

Fungi are at the root of tropical forest diversity -- or lack thereof, study finds
The types of beneficial fungi that associate with tree roots can alter the fate of a patch of tropical forest, boosting plant diversity or, conversely, giving one tree species a distinct advantage over many others, researchers report.

Study: Gender quotas in Mexico not reducing quality of female political candidates
A new study examining the impact of a series of gender quotas passed by Mexico to ensure equal representation in government shows no drop in the qualifications of women in office after two election cycles, and also refutes the widely held perception that women rely on personal connections more than men to get elected.

Scott Kelly returns to earth, but science for NASA's journey to Mars continues
NASA astronaut Scott Kelly paved the way for future missions when he embarked on a one-year mission in space along with Russian cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko.

Are lung cancer survivors getting too many costly scans for no reason? Study suggests so
Once you've made it through lung cancer treatment, you want to make sure you catch it early if it comes back again.

Television exposure directly linked to a thin body ideal in women
For the first time experts have been able to eliminate external factors and specifically pinpoint television as having a direct link with female body ideals.

Bat 'super immunity' could help protect people
For the first time researchers have uncovered a unique ability in bats which allows them to carry but remain unaffected by lethal diseases.

Model perfect
Mathematical models are used to predict just about everything from traffic and weather to plant metabolism and industrial biotechnology.

Web search study finds a 'Charlie Sheen effect' on HIV prevention
A Johns Hopkins computer scientist played a key role in a new study that analyzed online news and search engine records to gauge the public's response to actor Charlie Sheen's Nov.

Tough social issues provide a challenge for companies and researchers
Multinational companies are facing tough issues like climate change, poverty and human rights.

Prediction: High death rates from unnatural causes for male lions in Cecil the Lion's park
When Cecil the Lion was killed last year by a trophy hunter in Zimbabwe, it caused an international outcry.

Common macrolide antibiotics show no increased risk of serious heart arrhythmia or death
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning about the risk of serious heart rhythm disturbances and death with macrolide antibiotics use may be overstated, according to a large study published in Canadian Medical Association Journal.

Longer, intense rehabilitation boosts recovery after brain injury
Cognitive and functional recovery after a stroke or traumatic injury requires intense rehabilitative therapy to help the brain repair and restructure itself.

Waterloo vision scientists discover potential treatment for adults with lazy eye
A new treatment for adults with lazy eye, a condition previously thought to be treatable only in childhood, is one step closer as a result of research from the University of Waterloo in Canada and Sun Yat-sen University in China.

A new way of fighting bacteria?
In bacteria, toxin-antitoxin systems encode both a protein 'poison' and a counteracting 'antidote.' The antitoxin protein binds the toxin protein and prevents it from acting.

Gene therapy for Parkinson's disease to be tested by Pitt, UPMC experts
Experts at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine are leading the second arm of a clinical trial using gene therapy to relieve the symptoms of tremor and mobility impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Study of tundra soil demonstrates vulnerability of ecosystem to climate warming
Findings from one of the first comprehensive field studies by a collaborative team of researchers demonstrate the active layer microbiome of tundra soil was significantly altered after only 1.5 years of experimental warming -- a rapid response demonstrating high sensitivity of this ecosystem to warming.

How climate change may be impacting the world's tropical forests
New research suggests that multi-year droughts will significantly alter the structure, composition, and dynamics of second-growth tropical forests, which have re-grown after cessation of agricultural activity or a major disturbance such as fire.

IIVS awarded grant to develop non-animal testing strategy for respiratory sensitization
The Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. has received a grant from the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials to develop non-animal test methods for the evaluation of fragrance materials for potential respiratory irritation and sensitization.

Promising respiratory drug focus of new clinical trial for Parkinson's disease
A medication approved to treat various respiratory diseases and that has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in preclinical studies is the focus of a new clinical trial for Parkinson's disease.

Quantum experiments designed by machines
Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments.

UCSB chemical engineer selected for Presidential Science Award
Michelle O'Malley is recognized for her innovative research at the frontiers of science.

New research reveals surprising social networks of sharks
Although historically seen as solitary animals, new research being presented here shows sharks may have a more complex social structure than previously thought.

Can gene therapy provide a breakthrough in Alzheimer's disease?
Therapeutic gene transfer to specific brain regions in animal models of Alzheimer's disease has uncovered multiple potential treatment approaches that deserve to be considered as candidates for clinical applications, according to the article

Mystery of Dracula orchids' mimicry is unraveled with a 3-D printer
Scientists have unlocked the mystery of mimicry used by Dracula orchids to attract flies and ensure their survival.

Global study of ICU patients finds 10 percent have often-fatal ARDS
Just over 10 percent of ICU patients worldwide have Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, according to a large new study.

Researchers use Botox-like injection to treat runners and cyclists with knee pain
A painful knee condition that affects more than one in eight active people has been treated effectively with a botulinum toxin injection and physiotherapy.

Low-carbon policies could prevent up to 175,000 US deaths by 2030
Reducing US emissions to the levels needed to avoid a 2-degree C warming could prevent up to 175,000 premature deaths by 2030 and yield near-term national benefits of about $250 billion a year, according to a Duke/NASA study.

Goods targeted in thefts 'change with market values'
The more expensive an item, the more likely it is to be targeted by thieves and stolen, a report by a University of Warwick academic has revealed.

Consuming omega-3 during pregnancy enhances fetal iron metabolism
Research carried out by scientists from the University of Granada and King's College London shows that maternal DHA supplementation could help preventing or reducing the risk of the newborn suffering from anemia.

Zebrafish embryos exposed to atrazine pass on health problems to their young
Atrazine exposure during embryonic development could cause later reproductive problems for female zebrafish, as well as physical deformations in their offspring, according to new research from Purdue University.

FDA-approved ALK IHC CDx superior to another IHC assay for patient selection
The US Food and Drug Administration approved VENTANA anti-ALK(D5F3)CDx performed more accurately than another commonly used immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay, based on the use of the 5A4 clone, for the selection of patients eligible to receive ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment.

Using plasmonics to transmit more data
Robert Chang's work demonstrates a new scheme to control infrared plasmons, opening a new door for transmitting information much faster.

Results of Raltegravir plus combination antiretroviral therapy in early HIV infection
Addition of the integrase strand transfer inhibitor raltegravir (RAL) to standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) in ART-naive patients with early HIV infection was not associated with a difference in the quantity of HIV DNA, residual virus in the blood, or CD4+ T-cells containing replication-competent virus, according to a new study published in BioResearch Open Access.

New reports show positive and negative effects of Louisiana school voucher program
A new report examines the impact of Louisiana's school voucher program on the achievement and non-cognitive skills of students offered vouchers, as well as racial segregation and the competitive effects on students in public schools.

Increasing drought threatens almost all US forests
Forests nationwide are feeling the heat from increasing drought and climate change, according to a new study by scientists from 14 research institutions.

What do Canadians in every riding believe about climate change?
Researchers from the University of Montreal, University of California Santa Barbara, Utah State University and Yale University have just released a new interactive tool to visualize, with unprecedented detail, the geographic distribution of climate opinions across Canada.

Epidemiologic Reviews devotes special issue to research on gun violence
The journal Epidemiologic Reviews, a leading review journal in public health, today released a special issue of the journal focused entirely on gun violence prevention and policy research.

Modified laser cutter prints 3-D objects from powder
Rice University researchers have designed and tested an open-source system that uses a laser to melt powdered plastics and biomaterials into intricate 3-D designs.

Throwaway culture can include friendships, researcher says
Are your BFFs as disposable as your razors? According to a new study from the University of Kansas appearing in the journal Personal Relationships, the mindset that objects are disposable extends to social ties.

May the capillary force be with you
Future astronauts may boldly go farther than ever before, thanks to research at Washington State University recently funded by NASA to study fluids in space.

Survey finds that social security and unemployment are Americans' primary economic concerns
A new national poll conducted by The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research provides a detailed look at the economic issues Americans identify as most important.

Almond joy: Eating just a handful a day boosts diet health, study shows
Just add a handful of almonds: a University of Florida study suggests that improving one's diet can be as simple as that.

Carnegie Mellon, Stanford researchers devise method to safely share password data
An unfortunate reality for cybersecurity researchers is that real-world data for their research too often comes via a security breach.

UEA scientists pave way for new generation of superbug drugs
Scientists at the University of East Anglia are getting closer to solving the problem of antibiotic resistance.

Sea-level rise past and future: Robust estimates for coastal planners
Sea-levels worldwide will likely rise by 50 to 130 centimeters by the end of this century if greenhouse gas emissions are not reduced rapidly.

New definitions created for sepsis and septic shock
Updated definitions and clinical criteria for sepsis should facilitate earlier recognition and more timely management of patients with or at risk of developing sepsis.

Large-scale environmental variation affects reproduction and survival of plants
A new analysis looks at how rates of reproduction and survival of 26 shrub species with fire-dependent life cycles in the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa respond to environmental variation.

Breakthrough improves method for synthesizing cyanohydrins as pharmaceutical precursors
A research group led by Dr. Kazuaki Ishihara, a professor at Nagoya University, has established a new method of chemically modifying ketones in a way that ensures that optically active cyanohydrins are obtained, enabling efficient production of pharmaceutical precursors at a high yield and with good selectivity.

African Invertebrates migrates to Pensoft's journal publishing platform
One of the oldest zoological journals in Africa, African Invertebrates, is now moving to Pensoft to benefit from the next generation publishing platform, offered by the company.

Individual macromolecule motion in a crowded living cell
The research article embraces the status of the experimental situation and touches obstacles that still hinder the applications of single molecules in the cellular environment.

Phase 2 clinical trial to treat rare hereditary muscle disease shows promise
Researchers present the first clinical study that provides evidence that an extended-release sialic acid supplement may stabilize muscle strength in patients with GNE myopathy (GNEM), a rare hereditary, progressive, adult-onset muscle disease.

Worm study may resolve discrepancies in research on aging
Brown University researchers may have discovered what's responsible for discrepant findings between dozens of fundamental studies of the biology of aging.

Mysterious extinct glyptodonts are actually gigantic armadillos, says their DNA
New research reveals that the evolutionary history of glyptodonts -- huge, armored mammals that went extinct in the Americas at the end of the last ice age -- is unexpectedly brief.

One drug used to prevent HIV transmission during pregnancy shows evidence of developmental effects
The antiretroviral drug atazanavir -- sometimes included in treatments to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission during pregnancy -- may have small but significant effects on infant development, reports a study in the journal AIDS, official journal of the International AIDS Society.

After the discovery: RIT researchers study implications of gravitational waves
Rochester Institute of Technology researchers continue exploring gravitational waves in a series of upcoming papers.

Body's immune system may play larger role in Alzheimer's disease than thought
Immune cells that normally help us fight off bacterial and viral infections may play a far greater role in Alzheimer's disease than originally thought, according to University of California, Irvine neurobiologists with the Sue & Bill Gross Stem Cell Research Center and the Institute for Memory Impairments and Neurological Disorders.

UM professor earns distinguished National Science Foundation CAREER grant
Orion Berryman, an assistant professor in the University of Montana Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, recently received a CAREER grant from the National Science Foundation.

Redefining sepsis: An international effort to improve patient outcomes
UPMC and University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine doctors played a central role in redefining the top killer of hospital patients: sepsis.

New surgical technique improves biological hip joint replacement
Traditional hip replacement procedures reduce pain and restore mobility. However, for younger, more active patients, an artificial hip has a limited lifetime and usually requires restricted activity.

Study shows likely overuse of PET scans to detect recurrence in lung & esophageal cancers
Use of positron emission tomography (PET) showed no association with two-year survival in lung and esophageal cancer patients and may possibly be overused in the hopes of detecting cancer recurrence, according to a study published Feb.

Remote predictions of fluid flow in fractures possible with new finding
A team of researchers has created a way to quickly and remotely evaluate fluid flow in subsurface fractures that could impact aquifers, oil and gas extraction, sequestration of greenhouse gases or nuclear waste and remediation of leaked contaminants.

Sea level mapped from space with GPS reflections
The GPS signal used for 'sat-navs' could help improve understanding of ocean currents, according to new research published in Geophysical Research Letters by National Oceanography Centre scientists, alongside colleagues from the University of Michigan and Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Pagliarini earns presidential recognition for research on mitochondria
Dave Pagliarini, director of metabolism at the Morgridge Institute for Research and associate professor of biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, has received the US government's highest honor for scientists in the early stages of their careers.

MGHfC review articles examine early-life risk factors, interventions for childhood obesity
Two articles receiving online publication in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine describe systematic reviews of the results of studies investigating either risk factors that contribute to childhood obesity or interventions that could prevent it during the first 1,000 days of life -- from conception to age 2.

Sea level rise in 20th century was fastest in 3,000 years, Rutgers-led study finds
Global sea level rose faster from 1900 to 2000 than during any of the previous 27 centuries.

New model may improve population management of species facing local extinction
By developing a new model, researchers have provided the first detailed mortality estimates for male African lions.

New theorem helps reveal tuberculosis' secret
Rice University researchers seek to streamline the analysis of complex biochemical networks and to reveal inconsistencies in biological data.

Nearly all US forests threatened by drought, climate change
Forests nationwide are feeling the heat from increasing drought and climate change, according to a study by scientists from 14 research institutions.

Crystal and magnetic structure of multiferroic hexagonal manganite
Ever since Curie conjectured on 'the symmetry in physical phenomena, symmetry of an electric field and a magnetic field,' it has long been a dream for material scientists to search for this rather unusual class of material.

Surprising mathematical law tested on Project Gutenberg texts
Within the Research in Collaborative Mathematics project run by Obra Social 'la Caixa', researchers at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica attached to the UAB have conducted the first sufficiently rigorous study, in statistical terms, to test the validity of Zipf's law.

AWARE for All
The Center for Information and Study on Clinical Research Participation (CISCRP) is pleased to announce that its first international AWARE for All event will be held in the UK on 7 March, 2016 from 17:00 to 20:00 at London's Camden Centre on Euston Road.

MDI Biological Laboratory announces potential drug therapy for peripheral nerve damage
The MDI Biological Laboratory has announced that assistant professor Sandra Rieger, Ph.D., has identified two drugs that could potentially be used to reverse peripheral nerve damage, or peripheral neuropathy, resulting from chemotherapy treatment for ovarian, breast, lung, pancreas and other cancers.

Time of day can impact spray
A University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture study shows that some herbicides are more effective when applied at noon compared to early morning or late evening applications.

Some distractions while driving are more risky than others, researchers say
Drivers more than double their crash risk for more than half of their trips when they choose to engage in distracting activities, according to Virginia Tech Transportation Institute researchers writing in this week's Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Using fossilized remains, scientists complete the mitochondrial genome of the glyptodont
Scientists have sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of the ancient glyptodont, a giant, strange mammal and ancestor of the modern-day armadillo, which first appeared approximately 4 million years ago, roaming the Earth until its extinction during the Ice Age.

Fewer heart problems in people who drink moderately and often
People who drink wine, liquor or beer regularly are less prone to heart failure and heart attacks than those who rarely or never drink.

Charlie Sheen's HIV disclosure may reinvigorate awareness, prevention of HIV
Actor Charlie Sheen's public disclosure in November 2015 that he has the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) corresponded with the greatest number of HIV-related Google searches ever recorded in the United States, according to an article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.

How do children feel about their lives?
The views of young children are rarely the subject of research.

New tool helps model forest traits and evolution
Researchers have developed plant, a software framework, to investigate how plant species differing in traits may be able to coexist with one another.

Study shows dried plums provide protection from bone loss due to radiation
A recent study has shown that dried plums are effective in protecting from bone loss due to iodized radiation.

Penn study reveals how fish control microbes through their gills
In a new study published in the journal Nature Communications, Oriol Sunyer of the University of Pennsylvanian and colleagues found that fish induce production of a particular antibody in their gills in response to pathogen exposure, work that could lead to improved fish vaccines for aquaculture.

New bacterial pump could be used to remove cesium from the environment by light
By specifically introducing mutations into key parts of a pump located within the bacterial cell membranes, scientists have been able to induce it to pump cesium, including cesium's radioactive isotopes.

Quantum processes control accurately to several attoseconds
An international team of scientists including MSU physicists succeeded in proving that control over quantum processes accurately to several attoseconds (one billionth of a billionth of a second) is possible.

UMD's Antonio Busalacchi elected to National Academy of Engineering
Antonio Busalacchi, professor of atmospheric and ocean science at the University of Maryland and director of the Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, has been elected to the National Academy of Engineering.

Newly discovered HIV genome modification may put a twist on vaccine and drug design
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that HIV infection of human immune cells triggers a massive increase in methylation, a chemical modification, to both human and viral RNA, aiding replication of the virus. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to