Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

March 17, 2016
Galapagos lakes reveal tropical Pacific climate since Biblical times
Sediments track 2,000 years of El Niño and tropical rain band history, showing the strength can vary over centuries.

Drug makes stem cells become 'embryonic' again
If you want to harness the full power of stem cells, all you might need is an eraser -- in the form of a drug that can erase the tiny labels that tell cells where to start reading their DNA.

CRISPR-based method tracks RNA
The gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 can now be used as a flexible and accessible means to target and track the movement of RNA in living cells.

Signed, sealed, undelivered: Mechanisms underlying polycystic kidney disease
Zebrafish help investigators at the Medical University of South Carolina shed light on the mechanisms underlying cilia dysfunction in polycystic kidney disease and other ciliopathies

Could bread mold build a better rechargeable battery?
You probably don't think much of fungi, and especially those that turn bread moldy, but researchers reporting in the Cell Press journal Current Biology on March 17, 2016 have evidence that might just change your mind.

West Africa, Ebola and the threat of Zika
Rapid testing for the Zika virus is a critical need in the recent Ebola-affected countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, says a Georgetown University professor, because of the recent Zika outbreak on nearby Cape Verde and the similarity in symptoms between Zika and early Ebola.

Identification of a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor for acute myeloid leukemia
A new study in JCI Insight reports the development of a new drug that targets both resistant tumors and FLT3-independent acute myeloid leukemia.

In-car breathalyzers for DUI offenders curb drunk-driving deaths by 15 percent
State laws that require drivers who've been convicted of drunk driving to pass a breathalyzer-type test before starting their cars saved an estimated 915 lives between 2004 and 2013, according to a study published in the American Journal of Public Health by researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Brain calcium controls how long we sleep
Researchers at the RIKEN Quantitative Biology Center and the University of Tokyo in Japan have unveiled a new theory for how sleep works.

A new glimpse into working memory
MIT study finds bursts of neural activity as the brain holds information in mind, overturns a long-held model.

Harvard launches ResearchKit app to support football player health
The Football Players Health Study at Harvard University -- a series of studies that examine the health and well-being of former football players and aims to develop more effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions -- today launched TeamStudy, an iPhone research app built using ResearchKit, the open source software framework designed by Apple.

Shared decision-making can improve health care for LGBTQ racial/ethnic minority patients
In a series of three articles published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, researchers from the University of Chicago Medicine provide a roadmap to help health providers better understand the unique needs of patients with multiple minority identities.

Key findings -- Discovery of the characteristics of subcortical regions in schizophrenia
A Japanese research group found that patients with schizophrenia demonstrated a specific leftward volumetric asymmetry for the globus pallidus, one of the basal ganglia of the brain.

NASA examines powerful Tropical Cyclone Emeraude's winds, clouds
Tropical Cyclone Emeraude continued to strengthen in the Southern Indian Ocean as NASA captured infrared temperature data of the storm's clouds and measured its surface wind speed.

Varnish affects the sound of a violin
Varnishes protect works of art and wooden instruments from environmental damage.

Rare form of diabetes may require alternate treatment
Patients with a rare, genetic form of diabetes often are misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes because the two share symptoms.

Moffitt: Neutralizing tumor acidic environment improves immune-targeting therapies
Cancer cells have the ability to grow in an acidic tumor environment that is detrimental to other cells, including immune cells.

New golden frog species discovered in Colombia
A team of scientists including a Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) research associate announced the discovery of a new species of pale-gold colored frog from the cloud forests of the high Andes in Colombia.

For first time, scientists use CRISPR-Cas9 to target RNA in live cells
Scientists have long sought an efficient method for targeting RNA -- intermediary genetic material that carries the genetic code from the cell's nucleus to protein-making machinery -- in living cells.

Nature conservation areas no haven for butterflies
What do the brimstone, meadow brown and small heath butterfly species have in common?

Small businesses win technical support to develop clean energy technologies
Four small businesses will be working with Los Alamos National Laboratory to accelerate the nation's transformation toward a clean energy economy as part of the Department of Energy's Small Business Vouchers (SBV) pilot project.

Calcium controls sleep duration in mice
University of Tokyo and RIKEN researchers have identified seven genes responsible for causing mice to stay awake or fall asleep based on a theoretical model of sleep and on experiments using 21 different genetically modified mice, some of which showed different sleep durations.

Successful mentoring programs begin with focus, training
Mentoring programs for school-aged children have grown in the past two decades, but their effectiveness has not kept pace with their popularity.

The flexible way to greater energy yield
Biogas is an important energy source that plays a central role in the energy revolution.

Future brain therapies for Parkinson's possible with stem cell bioengineering innovation
Scientists at Rutgers and Stanford universities have created a new technology that could someday help treat Parkinson's disease and other devastating brain-related conditions that affect millions of people.

A better surveillance system for tracking police homicides
Official counts of homicides by police seriously undercount incidents, according to a study from Harvard T.H.

What's in a name?
On a quest to solve the mystery surrounding his name, a UCSB English scholar uncovers family history and suppressed stories.

Replacement for silicon devices looms big with ORNL discovery
Two-dimensional electronic devices could inch closer to their ultimate promise of low power, high efficiency and mechanical flexibility with a processing technique developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Immune study shows how gut keeps deadly infections at bay
Treatment and prevention of life-threatening infections could be improved by research from the University of Edinburgh that reveals how bacteria are kept in check.

Lamprey-derived antibody specifically recognizes human plasma cells
A new study In the current issue of JCI Insight describes the generation of a plasma cell-specific antibody from immunized lampreys.

Stem cell therapy reverses age-related osteoporosis in mice
Imagine telling a patient suffering from age-related (type-II) osteoporosis that a single injection of stem cells could restore their normal bone structure.

Biological field stations: Keeping a pulse on our planet
A recent BioScience paper provides the first comprehensive inventory of the world's biological field stations.

School breakfasts contribute to healthy weight, study finds
Middle school students who eat breakfast at school -- even if they have already had breakfast at home -- are less likely to be overweight or obese than students who skip breakfast, says a new study by the Community Alliance for Research and Engagement at the Yale School of Public Health and the Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity at the University of Connecticut.

Consortium names NIST's May top lab director, honors indoor air quality researchers
The Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer (FLC) has named Under Secretary of Commerce for Standards and Technology and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Director Willie E.

Prenatal exposure to air pollution linked to impulsivity, emotional problems in children
Exposure to common air pollutants during pregnancy may predispose children to problems regulating their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors later on, according to a new study led by researchers at the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health within Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and New York State Psychiatric Institute.

Treating HIV patients at risk for tuberculosis with TB drugs doesn't save more lives
Treating HIV patients at risk for tuberculosis with multi-drug TB regimens does not save more lives, researchers from Penn Medicine and other institutions report in The Lancet.

'Rejuvenation factor' Zscan4 is expressed in response to telomere shortening
Scientists from the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe, Japan, have discovered that Zscan4, a protein believed to be involved in the development of pluripotency in stem cells, is actually a repair mechanism triggered by the shortening of telomeres that takes place during cell division.

Enzyme controls food intake and drives obesity
Researchers have identified an enzyme in the brain that plays a key role in regulating how much food mice eat in one sitting, finding that deletion of this enzyme caused the mice to increase their food intake to the point of becoming obese.

Women with impaired stress hormone before pregnancy have lower-birthweight babies
Before women even become pregnant, some may have a biological profile that predicts a lower birth-weight baby, a UCLA-led research team reports.

Antibodies from unconventional B cells less likely to neutralize HIV, NIH study finds
Antibodies derived from a type of immune cell found in unusually high numbers in HIV-infected individuals with chronically uncontrolled virus levels are less effective at neutralizing HIV than antibodies derived from a different type of immune cell more common in people without HIV, scientists report.

PERK-opathies: Stress mechanism underlying neurodegeneration
The objective of the review is to highlight the impact of PERK in neurodegenerative processes and underscore the pathway as a reservoir of therapeutic targets.

The countdown is on for The International Liver CongressTM 2016
There is one month to go until The International Liver CongressTM 2016 and registration for media is open!

Conservative care may be a reasonable option for elderly kidney failure patients
Among kidney failure patients aged 80 years, there was no statistically significant survival advantage for those who chose dialysis over conservative management.

Five papers provide new data from flyby of Pluto
Pluto's surface exhibits a wide variety of landscapes, results from five new studies in this special issue on the New Horizons mission report.

2016 Cool Science Image contest: Amazing pictures tell tales of science, nature
Ten images and two videos by University of Wisconsin-Madison students, faculty and staff have been named winners of the 2016 Cool Science Image contest.

A new recessive disease identified
Each gene variation has the potential to trigger specific defects.

Researchers generate whole-genome map of fruit fly genetic recombination
For the first time, researchers at the Stowers Institute have mapped where recombination occurs across the whole genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster after a single round of meiosis.

Study shows bariatric surgery better than intensive lifestyle and drug interventions at reversing diabetes
New research shows that bariatric surgery (also known as obesity surgery) is much more effective than an intensive lifestyle/medication intervention at reversing type 2 diabetes in patients with only mild-to-moderate obesity.

Dartmouth's 'Wild-ID' tracking technology highlights vulnerability of wildebeest migration
Recent efforts to combat habitat fragmentation and poaching have temporarily stabilized wildebeest populations in northern Tanzania, but this iconic migrating species of the African Savannah remains vulnerable, a Dartmouth College-led team has found using an unusual wildlife photo-identification tracking technology developed at Dartmouth.

A pharmacological approach to improving pancreatic β cell growth and function
In this month's issue of JCI Insight, researchers developed a screen for pharmaceutical compounds that induce pancreatic β cell growth and improve function.

High levels of co-infection with pathogens and symbionts in ticks from the Ardennes
Ticks are small blood-feeding arachnids that can transmit diseases amongst animals and humans.

Where did the 'Siberian unicorn' disappear?
The beautiful title 'Siberian unicorn' belongs to Elasmotherium sibiricum -- an elasmotherium Siberian rhinoceros, which as previously thought became extinct 350,000 years ago.

Democratizing high-throughput single molecule force analysis
A team at Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and Boston Children's Hospital has developed an inexpensive miniaturized Centrifuge Force Microscope that in combination with DNA nanoswitch technology permits highly reliable analysis of the force responses of thousands of similar molecules simultaneously.

How rocks shaped the Civil War
The most studied battleground from the American Civil War, from a geological perspective, is the rolling terrain surrounding Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Breakthrough: Microbes protect plants with plant hormones
Researchers from the Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences at University of Copenhagen have for the first time demonstrated that the production of a plant hormone by a beneficial microbe is protecting a plant from a pathogenic microbe by inducing plant resistance.

Researchers refute textbook knowledge on macrophage metabolism in inflammatory diseases
What happens when macrophage immune cells are activated in the course of an inflammation to combat pathogens such as bacteria or viruses?

Systemic antibody responses to oral bacteria with aging
Today at the 45th Annual Meeting & Exhibition of the American Association for Dental Research, researcher Jeffrey Ebersole, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA, will present a study titled 'Systemic Antibody Responses to Oral Bacteria with Aging.'

The Lancet: Paracetamol 'not clinically effective' in treating osteoarthritis pain or improving physical function
In a large-scale analysis of pain-relief medication for osteoarthritis, researchers found that paracetamol does not meet the minimum standard of clinical effectiveness [1] in reducing pain or improving physical function in patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis.

Adversity forges unlikely friendship between hyenas, wolves
It is often true in life that adversity makes humans more likely to lean on one another.

How HIV infection increases the risk of tuberculosis
A study published on March 17 in PLOS Pathogens suggests that it is not a general weakening of the immune system by HIV that initially leads to loss of Mtb control, but rather that HIV is associated with a failure to prevent harmful immune responses.

Common treatment of TB in advanced HIV patients doesn't save more lives
In what investigators say is a surprise finding, results of a new study appear to strongly affirm the effectiveness of prescribing the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid alone -- in place of the standard four-drug regimen -- to prevent TB and reduce death in people with advanced HIV/AIDS infections.

NIFA, NSF announce $6 million in funding for plant, animal phenomics and microbiomes
The US Department of Agriculture's National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the National Science Foundation Biological Sciences Directorate today announced $6 million in available funding to support the development of transformative plant and animal phenomics and microbiome technologies.

How 'salt' MRI scans could give a clearer picture of disease
MRI experts at The University of Nottingham win £1 million grant to adapt scanning techniques to pick up sodium in the body.

Semiconductor-inspired superconducting quantum computing devices
Builders of future superconducting quantum computers could learn a thing or two from semiconductors, according to a report in Nature Communications this week.

Study: Divided parties rarely win presidential elections
New research shows that a divided party could mean a difference of 4 to 5 percent of the vote in the general election -- enough to have a significant impact on the outcome.

Expanding use of recycled water would benefit the environment and human health
Expanding the use of recycled water would reduce water and energy use, cut greenhouse gas emissions and benefit public health in California -- which is in the midst of a severe drought -- and around the world.

Temporary disconnects shed light on long-term brain dysfunction
Targeting axons uncovers the brain's distance communications.

Documenting obesity and underweight in clinical dental settings
A hands-on workshop titled 'Documenting Obesity and Underweight in Clinical Dental Settings' will take place today at the 45th Annual Meeting & Exhibition of the American Association for Dental Research.

Preventing sperm's 'power kick' could be key to unisex contraceptive
When human sperm get near the egg, the female sex hormone progesterone released by the egg triggers a tail snap that propels the sperm forcefully into and hopefully through the layers of cells protecting the egg.

New role of environment in multiple sclerosis revealed
Environmental factors may be playing a greater role in the onset of multiple sclerosis than previously realized, according to early research by Queen Mary University of London and Barts Health NHS Trust.

Scientists pinpoint molecular signal that drives and enables spinal cord repair
Researchers from King's College London and the University of Oxford have identified a molecular signal, known as 'neuregulin-1,' which drives and enables the spinal cord's natural capacity for repair after injury.

Mercury rising?
Researchers at UCSB's Earth Research Institute study potential mercury methylation in two California rivers.

Female animals look drab to avoid sexual harassment, study shows
In many species males attract the sexual attention of females with distinctive plumage, markings or displays of some type.

Researchers find ancient DNA preserved in modern-day humans
Residents of the remote equatorial islands of Melanesia share fragments of genetic code with two extinct human species.

Ancient Denisovan DNA excavated in modern Pacific Islanders
Archaic Denisovan and Neanderthal DNA that persists in modern Pacific islanders of Melanesia, far from the Siberian cave where Denisovan fossils have been found, is a source of information about early human history.

New cytoplasmic role for proteins linked to neurological diseases, cancers
Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have identified a second role for a class of RNA-binding proteins, revealing new insights about neurological diseases and conditions associated with this protein such as autism, epilepsy, and certain types of cancer.

Elderly emergency surgery admissions mortality risk in UK has improved 40 percent last 15 years
An article recently published in the International Journal of Surgery highlights some of the challenges that England's NHS faces regarding emergency care for elderly patients.

Manipulators less convincing online than in person, UBC research shows
If you have to negotiate business with a narcissist or psychopath, you're better off doing it on Facebook, research from UBC's Okanagan campus shows.

Award honors research partnership seeking to help bats survive deadly disease
An innovative research partnership that includes USDA Forest Service researchers, university scientists and state wildlife managers was awarded a Wings Across the Americas award for a multi-scale approach to helping bats become resilient to white-nose syndrome.

The genetic determinants of symptoms in a rare chromosomal deletion disorder
A study in the current issue of JCI Insight describes eight new subjects with microdeletions in chromosomal region 2p15p16.1 and provides evidence that loss of XPO1, REL, and BCL11A underlie this syndrome.

Paying attention to words not just images leads to better image captions
A team of University and Adobe researchers is outperforming other approaches to creating computer-generated image captions in an international competition.

Stanford chemists develop an ultra-sensitive test for cancers, HIV
Catching a disease in its earliest stages can lead to more effective therapies.

Partial restoration of irradiation-damaged salivary function following Shh gene delivery
Today at the 45th Annual Meeting & Exhibition of the American Association for Dental Research, researcher Fei Liu, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Temple, USA, will present a study titled 'Partial Restoration of Irradiation-Damaged Salivary Function Following Shh Gene Delivery.'

Wrangler Supercomputer speeds through big data
A new kind of supercomputer called Wrangler is helping researchers speed through the bumpy terrain of big data and reach new discoveries, according to a special report at the Texas Advanced Computing Center.

Subset of E. coli bacteria linked to deadly disease in pre-term infants
Necrotizing enterocolitis is an intestinal disease that afflicts about one in 10 extremely premature infants and is fatal in nearly one-third of cases.

Novel method for storing and transporting cerebrospinal fluid samples for diagnosis of JEV
In resource poor areas patient samples often have to travel long distances for suitable diagnosis.

Modern Melanesians have retained Denisovan DNA
Modern Melanesians harbor genetic components passed on from Denisovans, a new study suggests.

Georgia State biologist gets $1.9 million from NIH to fight cardiovascular disease
Ming-Hui Zou has received a four-year, $1.9 million grant from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health, to fight cardiovascular disease.

Study shows spinal cord stimulation reduces emotional aspect of chronic pain
Researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center have shown that patients with chronic pain can reduce their emotional response to the pain through spinal cord stimulation.

The linguistics of signifying time: The human gesture as clock
A new scientific study documenting the linguistic practices of the Northwestern Amazonian peoples uncovers an unusual method of communicating the human concept of time.

Measuring chemistry: Local fingerprint of hydrogen bonding captured in experiments
A team from Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin has been able for the first time to measure how new bonds influence molecules: they have reconstructed the 'energy landscape' of acetone molecules using measurement data from the Swiss Light Source of the Paul Scherrer Institut, and thereby empirically established the formation of hydrogen bonds between acetone and chloroform molecules.

Homosexuality as common in Uganda as in other countries
Uganda has one of the harshest standpoints on homosexuality in the world.

Keep an eye on children's calories, researchers say
Most children overeat significantly when served large portions of calorie-dense popular foods, according to a Penn State study.

Strathclyde student wins Schmidt MacArthur Fellowship
A Ph.D. student at the University of Strathclyde is among only 18 worldwide to have been awarded a place on the prestigious Schmidt MacArthur Fellowship.

Parent mentors insure more uninsured children, improve access, eliminate disparities
Randomized trial reveals that parent mentors insure more children faster than traditional Medicaid/CHIP outreach, and children's access to healthcare and parental satisfaction improve, quality of well-child care is enhanced, thousands of dollars are saved per child, jobs are created, disparities are eliminated, and the intervention potentially could save our nation billions of dollars.

UNC researchers uncover how kappa opioid receptors drive anxiety
University of North Carolina researchers uncovered a cellular mechanism by which kappa opioid receptors (KOR) drive anxiety.

New research shows how nanowires can be formed
In an article published in Nature today, researchers at Lund University in Sweden show how different arrangements of atoms can be combined into nanowires as they grow.

Research proves it -- the smell of alcohol makes it hard to resist
The smell of alcohol may make it harder for people to control their behavior according to a team of Edge Hill University researchers whose findings were published today in the Psychopharmacology journal.

Baby monkeys grow faster to avoid being killed by adult males
Natural selection has shaped the ways in which babies grow in different species, including the rate or speed with which they develop.

Kessler Foundation's Dr. Fyffe awarded $590,000 Department of Defense grant
Denise Fyffe, Ph.D., was awarded a three-year grant from the Department of Defense Spinal Cord Injury Research Program to study the care for veterans with spinal cord injury by the Department of Veterans Affairs, comparing data for service-connected injuries with non-service-connected injuries.

Hubble unveils monster stars
Astronomers using the unique ultraviolet capabilities of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have identified nine monster stars with masses over 100 times the mass of the Sun in the star cluster R136.

Single brain cells reveal genes controlling formation, development
In one of the first studies to 'read' the genetic activity inside individual brain cells, University of Wisconsin-Madison neuroscientist Xinyu Zhao has identified the genetic machinery that causes maturation in a young nerve cell.

White delinquent youth more likely to abuse hard drugs than blacks
Abuse and dependence on 'hard drugs' (cocaine, hallucinogen or PCP, opiate, amphetamine and sedatives) are less common among delinquent African American youth than those who are non-Hispanic white, according to a new, 12-year longitudinal Northwestern Medicine study.

Students as teachers effective in STEM subjects
In the traditional college learning structure, students enter the classroom and place their focus on the classroom instructor.

Belief in God strengthened by imagining how life would be different
New research shows a person's belief in God is strengthened when thinking of 'what might have been' especially in reflecting on a major life event that could have turned out poorly.

Older women lose much of their advantage in living active lives
In a reversal of a long-standing pattern, a new study shows that older women in the US have lost ground relative to older men in the number of years they can expect to live free from disabilities past age 65.

Reprogramming bone tumors
There exist several oncogenes that drive cancer. In many cases, however, the oncogenes themselves are not sufficient and must be complemented with other mutations before cancer develops.

Researchers find that immune cells play unexpected role in Lou Gehrig's disease
Cedars-Sinai research scientists have found that immune cells in the brain play a direct role in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, offering hope for new therapies to target the neurodegenerative disease that gradually leads to paralysis and death.

'Slow thinking' a conversation stopper for people with Parkinson's
New research into Parkinson's disease shows that cognitive impairment could affect the conversational ability of people with Parkinson's more than physical speech problems.

Portion control: Cells found in mouse brain that signal 'stop eating'
While researching the brain's learning and memory system, scientists at Johns Hopkins say they stumbled upon a new type of nerve cell that seems to control feeding behaviors in mice.

High viral load in HIV-infected individuals underlies innate immune cell dysfunction
A new study in JCI Insight demonstrates that a high viral load associates with a dampened inflammatory response in innate immune cells from HIV-infected individuals.

Researchers identify molecule needed for sperm activation
Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health have discovered the cellular switch that boosts the activity of sperm cells so that they can travel to the egg.

CU-Boulder student-built dust counter got few 'hits' on Pluto flyby
A student-built University of Colorado Boulder instrument riding on NASA's New Horizons spacecraft found only a handful of dust grains, the building blocks of planets, when it whipped by Pluto at 31,000 miles per hour last July.

Sustainable and cost-efficient lignin-based concrete plasticizer
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a technique that can be used to convert lignin -- a by-product of pulp mills and biorefineries -- into a concrete plasticizer that is competitive against the synthetic and lignosulphonate-based admixtures currently on the market.

Mom's microbes influence her offspring's immune system, mice study shows
During gestation, a mother's microbiome shapes the immune system of her offspring, a new study in mice suggests.

New technique for rapidly killing bacteria using tiny gold disks and light
Researchers have developed a new technique for killing bacteria in seconds using highly porous gold nanodisks and light, according to a study published today in Optical Materials Express, a journal published by The Optical Society.

Insilico Medicine and CBRM announce a licensing agreement on geroprotective compounds
Insilico Medicine and CBRM announce a licensing agreement.

Even diversity-friendly employers discriminate against racial minority job seekers
Minority applicants may fare even worse in the resumes pile at companies purporting to support diversity than they would at companies that don't make the claim, shows a new study from the University of Toronto.

BU researchers discover how RNA editing may promote tumor growth
A new study provides insight on the potential role played by RNA (ribonucleic acid) editing in cancer.

Tailored protein binding opens possibilities for nerve, tissue treatments
The bottleneck in using proteins to treat conditions from macular degeneration to heart disease is finding appropriate binding partner for your protein of interest.

Drones revolutionize ecological monitoring
New Monash University research has paved the way for drones to revolutionize ecological monitoring.

New report reveals hundreds still dying in detention
An ongoing culture of secrecy, poor access to specialist mental health services and a lack of high quality independent investigations has contributed to hundreds of non-natural deaths in detention, according to a new report by the Equality and Human Rights Commission.

3-D technology enriches human nerve cells for transplant to brain
NIH-funded scientists have developed a 3-D micro-scaffold that promotes reprogramming of stem cells into neurons, and supports growth of neuronal connections capable of transmitting electrical signals.

A molecular subtype of bladder cancer resembles breast cancer
In this month's issue of JCI Insight, a research team characterized a new subtype of muscle-invasive bladder cancer that shares molecular signatures with some forms of breast cancer.

Specialized nursing care needs assessment model developed for pediatric patients
The N-KICS tool (Nursing-Kids Intensity of Care Survey) is the first pediatric-specific tool designed to describe the intensity of nursing care for children with CMC.

Cox2 inhibition improves preeclampsia symptoms in a mouse model
In this issue of JCI Insight, Robin Davisson and colleagues use a mouse model that spontaneously develops cardinal features of preeclampsia to explore its underlying causes.

Cancer burden can be alleviated by training foreign medical graduates in surgical oncology
Many low- and middle-income countries do not have a defined medical specialty in surgical oncology and lack an educational infrastructure to respond to the local burden of cancer, but a Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center fellowship is succeeding in addressing this problem by training foreign medical graduates in surgical oncology.

2016 Protein Science Best Paper Awards
The Protein Society announces the 4th annual selection of two Protein Science authors as winners of the 2016 Best Paper Awards.

New compounds discovered as candidates for new antimicrobial drugs against Listeria infection
Scientists at Umeå Centre for Microbial Research have discovered chemical compounds which are able to attenuate the virulence of the bacterial human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.

Study: Communicating vehicles could ease through intersections more efficiently
Imagine a scenario where sensor-laden vehicles pass through intersections by communicating with each other, rather than grinding to a halt at traffic lights.

Green Gitmo
Following President Obama's plans to close the military prison at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, a conservation biologist and a professor of law are proposing to transform the naval base into a marine research center and international peace park.

Children's Hospital Los Angeles awarded $7.1 million by CIRM
Tracy C. Grikscheit, M.D., of The Saban Research Institute of Children's Hospital Los Angeles has received a $7.1 million grant from the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine Translational Research program to develop a cellular therapy for the treatment of nerve disorders of the digestive system.

Adaptation to increasing flood risk in Europe should aim to reduce impact
A JRC-led research published in Climatic Change investigated the benefits of four adaptation measures to reduce the increasing flood risk in Europe under state-of-the-art global warming projections under a high-end climate scenario.

VLA shows earliest stages of planet formation
VLA reveals details of the inner, thickest portion of a dusty disk surrounding a young star and provides new insight on the earliest stages of planet formation.

CIRM grant to fund proposed stem cell trials for ALS
The Independent Citizens Oversight Committee of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine approved yesterday a $6.3 million grant to a research team from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and University of California, Davis to pursue a novel human embryonic stem cell-based therapy to rescue and restore neurons devastated by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS.

Biodiesel from sugarcane more economical than soybean
America's oil consumption far exceeds that of every other country in the world.

University of South Florida receives $9 million to treat age-related hearing loss
Researchers in the University of South Florida's Global Center for Hearing and Speech Research, recognized as the world's top research center for age-related hearing loss, have received a 5-year, $9 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to study two unique ways to treat age-related hearing loss.

Affinity maturation defects in memory B cells of HIV-infected individuals
A new study in JCI Insight identifies deficiencies in the affinity maturation process of memory B cells in HIV-infected individuals that result in an inadequate antibody response.

An implant to prevent Alzheimer's
In a cutting-edge treatment for Alzheimer's disease, EPFL scientists have developed an implantable capsule that can turn the patient's immune system against the disease.

Weaving for lightweight construction
Adil Mountasir, doctoral candidate at the Institute of Textile Machinery and High Performance Material Technology (ITM) at TU Dresden, will be awarded the renowned Théophile Legrand International Award for Innovation in Textile Industry Service 2016 in Paris, for his excellent research achievements within the Collaborative Research Centre 639.

VCU scientists develop computer models simulating stem cell transplant recovery
Scientists at Virginia Commonwealth University have developed computer models that can simulate the recovery of the immune system in patients undergoing stem cell transplants.

TGen helps track down deadly bloodstream infection
The Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), working with international investigators, have discovered the source of a potential deadly blood infection in more than 50 South American cancer patients.

New MD Anderson-developed breast cancer staging system emphasizes importance of tumor biology as prognostic indicator
A new breast cancer staging system developed by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center finds that incorporating tumor biology is a critical prognostic indicator for women who undergo neoadjuvant, or pre-surgical, therapy for breast cancer.

Common painkillers are more dangerous than we think
New research from Aarhus University shows that common painkillers (NSAIDs) have more side effects than we think, and that they should be used with great care in patients with heart disease.

Our gut microbiome is always changing; it's also remarkably stable
Turnover is to be expected in the gut -- as soon as one bacterium leaves, another is ready to divide and take its place.
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