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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | March 23, 2016


NASA data leads to rare discovery: Earth's moon wandered off axis billions of years ago
A new study published today in Nature reports Earth's moon wandered off its original axis roughly 3 billion years ago.
Statewide initiative associated with improved cardiac arrest outcomes
Statewide efforts to equip family members and the general public with the know-how and skills to use cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in the home or in public coincide with improved survival and reduced brain injury in people with sudden cardiac arrest.
NYU study examines where and why New York City retailers sell organic foods
A store's decision to sell organic food depends on its neighborhood demographics, and the range of organic foods offered for sale is linked to the size of the store, finds research by NYU Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development.
Hannover Messe: Saarbrücken engineers develop networked self-analyzing electric motors
A team of engineers from Saarland University are developing intelligent motor systems that function without the need for additional sensors.
Chronic diseases may negatively affect the mental health of poor and middle-income adults
In a study of more than 8,000 adults, those with a chronic health condition such as diabetes or asthma were more likely to report psychological distress and functional impairment if they were residents of poor or middle-income households.
Teen dating violence prevention programs fall short
While teen dating violence prevention programs increased knowledge and changed student attitudes to be less supportive of such behavior, they did not actually reduce dating violence, according to this meta-analysis of research on middle- and high school intervention programs.
Prooxidants may fix metabolic defect in arthritis-driving T cells
Researchers have uncovered a metabolic defect that spurs T cells to go rogue in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
New ultrasound method creates better picture of cardiovascular health
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have discovered a new and more accurate way to distinguish between harmful and harmless plaque in the blood vessels by using ultrasound.
Botswana study shows 96 percent rate of viral suppression for patients on HIV drugs
Botswana appears to have achieved very high rates of HIV diagnosis, treatment, and viral suppression -- much better than most Western nations, including the United States -- according to a new study from Harvard T.H.
Solar storms trigger Jupiter's 'Northern Lights'
Solar storms trigger Jupiter's intense 'Northern Lights' by generating a new X-ray aurora that is eight times brighter than normal and hundreds of times more energetic than Earth's aurora borealis, new research finds.
Correction: Solar fuels: Protective layer for the 'artificial leaf'
A team at the HZB Institute for Solar Fuels has developed a process for providing sensitive semiconductors for solar water splitting ('artificial leaves') with an organic, transparent protective layer.
New drug shows promise against muscle wasting disease
A new drug to treat the muscle wasting disease inclusion body myositis (IBM) reverses key symptoms in mice and is safe and well-tolerated in patients, finds a new study led by the Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases at University College London (UCL) and the University of Kansas Medical Center.
Reconstructing the cell surface in a test tube
Using component parts, namely fats and proteins, scientists from the National Centre for Biological Sciences and the University of California San Francisco build a minimal model of the cell surface in a test tube.
Tooth loss increases the risk of diminished cognitive function
IADR/AADR have published an article titled 'Tooth Loss Increases the Risk of Diminished Cognitive Function: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis' in the OnlineFirst portion of the JDR Clinical & Translational Research.
Community college teams propose ways to improve natural resource sustainability
The National Science Foundation (NSF), in partnership with the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), has named 10 finalists for the second annual Community College Innovation Challenge, which fosters the development of crucial innovation skills among students.
Prolonged daily sitting linked to 3.8 percent of all-cause deaths
A new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine found that sitting for more than three hours per day is responsible for 3.8 percent of all-cause mortality deaths.
New Population Council evidence shows what works to delay child marriage in Bangladesh
New research presented by the Population Council shows that programs that educate girls, teach them about their rights and build skills for modern livelihoods can reduce the likelihood of child marriage by up to one-third in Bangladesh.
Four new research units established
Topics range from paleoarcheology to the perception of risk. A total of €7 million has been awarded for the first funding period.
Global team aim for faster, more effective TB diagnosis
Funded by the Gates Foundation and Wellcome Trust, the team aims to sequence 100,000 TB genomes to build reference database of drug resistance genes to speed choice of treatment for multi drug resistant TB.
Microfluidic devices gently rotate small organisms and cells
A method to rotate single particles, cells or organisms using acoustic waves in a microfluidic device will allow researchers to take three dimensional images with only a cell phone.
Green light stops sea turtle deaths
Dr Jeffrey Mangel, a Darwin Initiative research fellow based in Peru, and Professor Brendan Godley, from the Centre for Ecology and Conservation at the University's Penryn Campus, were part of a team of researchers who found that attaching green battery powered light-emitting diodes (LED) to gillnets used by a small-scale fishery reduced the number of green turtle deaths by 64 per cent, without reducing the intended catch of fish.
New reaction turns feedstock chemical into versatile, chiral building block
Researchers in the Doyle lab at Princeton have developed a direct cross-coupling reaction to produce versatile building blocks that are highly useful in pharmaceutical research from the feedstock chemical pyridine.
Endocrine Society calls for integrative approach to improve diabetes care
To provide integrated care for people who have diabetes and may be at risk of developing related medical complications, the US health care system needs to continue building effective multidisciplinary care team models, according to new recommendations issued by the Endocrine Society today.
Treating withdrawal symptoms could help cannabis users quit, study finds
Treating symptoms of cannabis withdrawal could help heavy users stay clean longer, finds a new study by researchers Douglas C.
Using magnetic forces to control neurons, study finds brain is vital in glucose metabolism
A new tool to control the activity of neurons in mice avoids the downfalls of current methods by using magnetic forces to remotely control the flow of ions into specifically targeted cells.
A study demonstrates the possibility of changing the behavior of the gaze by transcranial magnetic stimulation
This work has shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (noninvasive and painless) of the STS can selectively and transiently inhibit the subject's gaze into the eyes of the person speaking to them.
The tougher men think they are, the less likely they are to be honest with doctors
Men are less likely than women to go to the doctor, more likely to choose a male doctor when they do go, but less likely to be honest with that doctor about their symptoms, Rutgers psychologists have found.
Cellular 'light switch' analyzed using neutron scattering
The internal movements of proteins can be important for their functionality; researchers are discovering more and more examples of this.
Concert hall acoustics influence the emotional impact of music
The researchers presented the test subjects an excerpt of Beethoven's symphony with the acoustics measured in different concert halls.
The conflict between science and religion lies in our brains
The conflict between science and religion may have its origins in the structure of our brains.
Generosity and commitment to causes improve when giving is personal
Whether the call to action is to support an important cause, save a life, or offer monetary support, new research shows it's the personal connection of giving that makes the giver feel more generous.
ASAA receives funding award from Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute
Today, the American Sleep Apnea Association announced that the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute Board of Governors approved a three-year, $2.5 million demonstration project called 'Monitoring and Peer Support to Improve Treatment Adherence and Outcomes in Patients with Overlap Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Sleep Apnea via a Large PCORnet Collaboration' or simply known as the O2VERLAP Study.
Live-imaging technique for mice seen as boost to studies of brain function and development
University of Oregon scientists have looked into the brains of living mice to see in real time the processing of sensory information and generation of behavioral responses.
Study finds benefits of device for inserting IUDs after birth, Stanford researcher says
A simple tool designed for inserting an intrauterine device may offer women in the developing world a convenient, low-cost option for long-term contraception.
Missed opportunities to avoid painful shocks at the end of life
Many patients who have a common medical device known as an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are unaware that the device can be deactivated to prevent painful shocks in their final days of life, according to two studies scheduled for presentation at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
Ultrasound-estimated fat content in muscles may be an indicator of physical health
Ultrasound-estimated percent intramuscular fat of muscles in the lower extremity was inversely associated with physical activity level and positively associated with body mass index in a recent study.
Exercise may slow brain aging by 10 years for older people
Exercise in older people is associated with a slower rate of decline in thinking skills that occurs with aging.
Novel stadium-based research helps us understand group dynamics
New Psychology research led out of New Zealand's University of Otago is backing up the old saying that 'birds of a feather flock together.' The findings emerged after researchers used video cameras on a large covered stadium's roof to track and analyze how strangers formed groups.
Model of tumor spreading may help doctors pinpoint best treatment
Researchers at the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine have invented a metastasis-on-a-chip system that is believed to be one of the first laboratory models of cancer spreading from one 3-D tissue to another.
Warning: High-intensity training could hurt you if you're not an athlete
High-intensity 'sprint training' may be gaining popularity at gyms, but if you're new to this form of exercise, the workout could do more harm than good.
Increased vitamin C in the diet could help protect against cataracts
Higher dietary intake of vitamin C has been found to have a potentially preventative effect on cataract progression in the first twin study of cataracts to examine to what degree genetic and environmental factors influence their progression with age.
Wayne State start-up, RetroSense, doses first patient in phase I/II RP clinical trial
A Wayne State University startup company announced today the first successful dosing of a patient in a clinical trial that is a major step forward for patients with vision challenges.
MSU part of team working to save endangered species in Nicaragua
A proposed canal project in Nicaragua that would connect the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean could seriously deplete and disrupt the habitats of a number of animals, including some that are endangered.
Does a common parasite play a role in rage disorder?
In recent years, a common parasitic infection has been linked to a range of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
PTSD may affect blood vessel health in veterans
Post-traumatic stress disorder may decrease the ability of blood vessels to dilate, raising the risk of heart attack and stroke in Veterans.
Eating foods high in vitamin C cuts risk of cataract progression by a third
Women who ate more vitamin C-rich foods had a 33 percent risk reduction in cataract progression over 10 years, according to a study of UK twins published in Ophthalmology, journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Digital health tool helps cardiac rehab patients shed more pounds
Adding a digital health tool to traditional cardiac rehabilitation appears to help people recovering from a heart attack lose significantly more weight in a relatively short period of time, according to research scheduled for presentation at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
Pit bull label may triple length of stay in dog shelters
Dogs labeled as 'pit bulls' may wait three times as long to be adopted from shelters than differently labeled lookalikes.
Oxytocin level in pregnancy predicts postpartum depression severity
Higher oxytocin levels in the third trimester of pregnancy predicts the severity of postpartum depression symptoms in women who previously suffered from depression, reports a new study.
Penn researchers identify a new cause of inherited neuropathy
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease is a family of inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system, affecting approximately one in 2,500 Americans.
Brain stimulation may reduce symptoms and improve decision-making in people with anorexia
Core symptoms of anorexia nervosa, including the urge to restrict food intake and feeling fat, are reduced after just one session of a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, according to King's College London research published today in PLOS ONE.
The anatomy of pain
Emotions consist of general components that are also elicited by similar impressions and specific components.
Smoking cessation benefits persist in spite of weight gain in patients with mental illness
The weight gain that can result from quitting smoking does not eliminate the reduction in cardiovascular risks associated with smoking cessation among patients with serious mental illness, at least not during the first year.
Antipsychotic drugs may not be effective against delirium
A recent review of the medical literature does not support the use of antipsychotic medications for preventing or treating delirium in hospitalized patients.
Blood test can predict risk of developing tuberculosis
Only a fraction of those infected with the bacterium that causes TB ever develops symptomatic illness.
You taste like mercury, said the spider to the fly
More mercury than previously thought is moving from aquatic to land food webs when stream insects are consumed by spiders, a Dartmouth College-led study shows.
10th edition of the EBMT Patient, Family and Donor Day
The annual EBMT Patient, Family and Donor Day provides a forum for meeting professionals, exchanging experiences and learning from each other.
Depression after heart disease diagnosis tied to heart attack, death
New research shows patients with a history of chest discomfort due to coronary artery disease -- a build up of plaque in the heart's arteries -- who are subsequently diagnosed with depression are much more likely to suffer a heart attack or die compared with those who are not depressed.
Wildfire map reveals countries in Europe most at risk of catastrophic fire damage
Researchers led by the University of Leicester map risk from wildfires close to cities across Europe.
Scientists cross-breed to improve head shape in toy dogs predisposed to a painful disorder
New research shows it is possible to prevent Chiari malformation in toy dogs by cross breeding.
Many women not properly informed of heart risk by their doctors
Although nearly three-quarters of women taking a recent survey had one or more risk factors for heart disease, a startlingly small proportion -- just 16 percent -- had actually been told by their doctors that these factors put them at risk for heart disease, according to a study scheduled for presentation at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
Protecting coral reefs with bubbles
Bubbles -- yes, bubbles -- could help protect coral reefs, oyster farms, and other coastal ecosystems from increasing ocean acidification, according to new research by Stanford scientists.
Modeling to save a rare plant
Researchers use satellite imagery and elevation data to better understand where an endangered plant grows, saving time, labor and money.
Optimizing flutter shutter to minimize camera blur
Photographers typically have minimal control over scene lighting; often the only way to improve a digital camera's sensitivity is by increasing exposure time.
New study suggests children with cardiomyopathy benefit from treating entire family
Recently published in the Journal of Pediatrics, a long-term study initiated by the Children's Hospital of Michigan DMC and Wayne State University shows how more severe cases of pediatric cardiomyopathy-linked heart disease are associated with reduced 'quality of life and functional status,' which can have a negative impact on families of the patients and thus contribute to poor outcomes.
A new way to determine the age of stars?
Researchers have developed a new conceptual framework for understanding how stars similar to our Sun evolve.
Workplace status matters -- but not in the way you think
Are employees more likely to help co-workers above them or beneath them in the corporate pecking order?
Long naps, daytime sleepiness tied to greater risk of metabolic syndrome
Taking long naps or being excessively tired during the day is associated with a higher risk for developing metabolic syndrome, according to a study scheduled for presentation at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
Paradigm shift: 'We need to study lumps of bacteria'
New research from the University of Copenhagen reveals that bacteria which agglutinate before entering the body are far more resistant than single-celled bacteria.
NATO taps UH professor to keep big data secure on the cloud
When it comes to data breaches, it's not a question of if, but when.
New proteins discovered that link obesity-driven diabetes to cancer
For the first time, researchers have determined how bromodomain (BRD) proteins work in type 2 diabetes, which may lead to a better understanding of the link between adult-onset diabetes and certain cancers.
Paul G. Allen announces $100 million to launch the Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group
Philanthropist and entrepreneur Paul G. Allen today announced an initial commitment of $100 million to create The Paul G.
Suomi NPP satellite spots ex-Tropical Cyclone Emeraude's remnants
Former Tropical Cyclone Emeraude was battered by northeasterly vertical wind shear and reduced to a remnant low pressure area in the Southern Indian Ocean.
Human impact forms 'striking new pattern' in Earth's global energy flow
University of Leicester researchers lead Anthropocene study into planet's biological production and consumption.
Women, men with suspected heart disease have similar symptoms
Chest pain and shortness of breath are the most common symptoms reported by both women and men with suspected heart disease, a finding that is in contrast to prior data, according to a study scheduled for presentation at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
Stirling scientists examine the merits of fish oil supplements
The effects of fish oil supplements on muscle growth has been investigated by a team of Stirling academics, revealing the tablets do not give gym-goers an advantage in the weight room.
Sterile Box offers safer surgeries
A Rice University team validates its Sterile Box, a mobile, solar-powered facility to sterilize surgical instruments in low-resource settings.
New research shows quasars slowed star formation
Research led by Johns Hopkins University scientists has found new persuasive evidence that could help solve a longstanding mystery in astrophysics: why did the pace of star formation in the universe slow down some 11 billion years ago?
Tufts faculty earn national awards for exceptional potential in science and engineering
Promising research from Tufts University's School of Engineering has earned one faculty member the prestigious Presidential Early Career Award and two faculty members Faculty Early Career Development awards from the National Science Foundation and US Department of Energy.
TSRI chemists find a way to synthesize complex plant molecule phorbol and its derivatives
In a landmark feat of chemical synthesis, scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have developed a 19-step process for making the naturally occurring compound phorbol in the laboratory, in quantities that are useful for pharmaceutical research.
Tracing star formation rates in distant galaxies
In paper published online March 22, a group of researchers, led by Irene Shivaei, a University of California, Riverside graduate student, observed 17 bright distant galaxies with the MOSFIRE high-resolution near-infrared spectrometer at the W.
In human development research, big data could mean better results
While there is no Hubble telescope gathering data about the universe of human development, projects to make large amounts of information -- big data -- more accessible to developmental researchers could bring behavioral science's biggest questions into focus, according to a Penn State psychologist.
NIST, partners set research agenda for protecting firefighters from harm
Recently, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) teamed with the National Fallen Firefighters Foundation (NFFF) to host a symposium at which more than 100 representatives of the fire service and fire research communities identified and prioritized firefighter health and safety issues, and then created a guide for addressing them through scientific study and technology development.
Modified maggots could help human wound healing
In a proof-of-concept study, NC State University researchers show that genetically engineered green bottle fly larvae can produce and secrete a human growth factor -- a molecule that helps promote cell growth and wound healing.
VIB, KU Leuven and UGent achieve breakthrough in diagnosis of melanoma skin cancer
In collaboration with researchers from UGent, VIB scientists from KU Leuven have revealed a remarkable link between malignant melanoma and a non-coding RNA gene called SAMMSON.
UBC study finds safety of Whistler sliding track comparable to other tracks
High speed and athlete inexperience are top contributing factors to injuries and accidents on the Whistler sliding track, according to a UBC study conducted following the death of an athlete during a training run before the opening ceremonies of the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics.
Storing extra surface water boosts groundwater supply during droughts
Although years of drought and over-pumping have significantly depleted groundwater in Arizona and California, a new study shows the situation has an upside: It has created underground reservoirs where extra surface water can be stored during wet times so it is available during drought.
Decreased blood vessel leakage can improve cancer therapy and reduce tumor spread
Cancer therapy is often hampered by the accumulation of fluids in and around the tumor, which is caused by leakage from the blood vessels in the tumor.
Overlap between genetic factors associated with risk of schizophrenia & maternal age at 1st birth
The risk of schizophrenia in children associated with younger and older maternal age appears to be partly explained by the genetic association between schizophrenia and age at first birth, according to an article published online by JAMA Psychiatry.
People with rage disorder twice as likely to have latent toxoplasmosis parasite infection
Individuals with a psychiatric disorder involving recurrent bouts of extreme, impulsive anger -- road rage, for example -- are more than twice as likely to have been exposed to a common parasite than healthy individuals with no psychiatric diagnosis.
For doctors behaving badly, which state's the best? U-M team finds wide variation
What happens when doctors misbehave? The answer depends a lot on which state they practice in, a new study shows.
International trade damages tropical nature: NUS study
While international trade may generate economic benefits to the exporting countries, a study by researchers from the National University of Singapore revealed that benefits from trade are unable to compensate for the loss of forests and ecosystems in those countries.
Ultragenyx funds Saint Louis University researcher's quest to treat his daughter's disease
Funded by Ultragenyx Pharmaceuticals, Saint Louis University's Fran Sverdrup, Ph.D., will continue promising research to find a treatment for a form of muscular dystrophy.
Field Museum study reveals evolution of malaria
A Field Museum study published today in Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution reveals a new take on the evolution of different malaria species and contributes to the ongoing search for the origins of malaria in humans.
Blurred lines: Human sex chromosome swapping occurs more often than previously thought
It turns out that the rigid 'line in the sand' over which the human sex chromosomes -- the Y and X -- go to avoid crossing over is a bit blurrier than previously thought.
The wilds of the local group
This scene, captured by ESO's OmegaCAM on the VLT Survey Telescope, shows a lonely galaxy known as Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte, or WLM for short.
Genetically altering female mice prevents diet-induced obesity, study shows
Researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center seeking a way to combat the growing epidemic of obesity have found that deleting microRNA-155 in female mice prevents diet-induced obesity.
Heavy, persistent pot use linked to economic and social problems at midlife
A research study that followed children from birth up to age 38 has found that people who smoked cannabis four or more days of the week over many years ended up in a lower social class than their parents, with lower-paying, less skilled and less prestigious jobs than those who were not regular cannabis smokers.
NIST develops first widely useful measurement standard for breast cancer MRI
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed the first widely useful standard for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast, a method used to identify and monitor breast cancer.
New imaging scans track down persistent cancer cells
Head and neck cancer patients may no longer have to undergo invasive post-treatment surgery to remove remaining cancer cells, as research shows that innovative scanning-led surveillance can help identify the need for, and guidance of, neck dissection.
Two decades have brought little change for women in cardiology
Female cardiologists are less likely than their male counterparts to get married and have children and more likely to face challenges related to child care, family leave policies and professional discrimination, according to a study scheduled for presentation at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
Same symptoms, different care for women and men with heart disease
Despite messages to the contrary, most women being seen by a doctor for the first time with suspected heart disease actually experience the same classic symptoms as men, notably chest pain and shortness of breath, according to a study led by the Duke Clinical Research Institute.
Stanford scientists pinpoint brain circuit for risk preference in rats
Investigators at Stanford University have identified a small group of nerve cells in a specific brain region of rats whose signaling activity, or lack of it, explains the vast bulk of differences in risk-taking preferences among the animals.
Brad Pitt's and fruit flies' cowlicks controlled by cancer protein
What does Brad Pitt have in common with a fruit fly?
ELCC 2016 media alert: Don't miss out!
Key themes at this year's meeting include some of the most topical and keenly anticipated subjects pertinent not only to lung cancer but to oncology as a whole - such as the latest advances in immunotherapy, screening and reimbursement, new steps in the treatment of molecularly defined NSCLC and the new WHO classifications.
Health experts call for improved TB care for refugees
Refugees traveling across countries in Europe must have better access to tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics and treatments in order to prevent a rise in new cases of the disease, according to experts writing in the European Respiratory Journal today.
How much sugar is in your child's fruit drink?
Researchers from the University of Liverpool and colleagues from Action on Sugar have assessed the sugar content of over 200 fruit drinks marketed at children and have found them to be 'unacceptably high'.
Experiential learning needs time, experiential learners need support
Internships and experiential learning programs typically span the length of a semester, but preliminary findings of a new University of Houston study indicate that's not long enough for students to get the full benefits.
A savage world for frogs
UCF biologist Anna Savage is obsessed with frogs and figuring out why they are dying at an unprecedented rate around the world.
Unlocking the secrets of gene expression
Using cryo-electron microscopy, Berkeley Lab scientist Eva Nogales and her team have made a breakthrough in our understanding of how our molecular machinery finds the right DNA to copy for making proteins, showing with unprecedented detail the role of a powerhouse transcription factor known as TFIID.
Bristol and Lund set a new world record in 5G wireless spectrum efficiency
New research by engineers from the Universities of Bristol and Lund, working alongside National Instruments (NI), has demonstrated how a massive antenna system can offer a 12-fold increase in spectrum efficiency compared with current 4G cellular technology.

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