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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | April 03, 2016


Evacetrapib impacts cholesterol but doesn't reduce cardiovascular events
Cleveland Clinic researchers studying evacetrapib have shown that despite reducing levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or 'bad' cholesterol) by 37 percent and raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, or 'good' cholesterol) by 130 percent, the drug failed to reduce rates of major cardiovascular events, including heart attack, stroke, angina or cardiovascular death.
Early childhood antibiotics may change gut microbes and lead to adolescent prediabetes
Young children who take antibiotics may disrupt their gut's microbial ecosystem and be more likely to develop prediabetes in adolescence, new research from Greece reports.
International technology-based competition associated with more exercise
A competition that used technology to encourage and track physical activity was effective at helping participants lose weight and exercise more in both developed and developing countries, according to a study presented at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
Genes causing high cholesterol are less common than previously thought
Only a small fraction of people with very high cholesterol can attribute their condition to a genetic mutation related to familial hypercholesterolemia, but individuals with these mutations face a high risk of developing early-onset coronary artery disease, according to research presented at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
SAPIEN 3 improves outcomes for major endpoints at 1 year
Intermediate-risk patients who received transcatheter aortic valve replacement, known as TAVR, with the latest-generation valve fared better than patients receiving traditional surgical aortic valve replacement after one year, in a study presented at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
Society of Interventional Radiology Foundation bestows annual awards
Renan Uflacker, M.D., FSIR, was honored posthumously on April 3 with the Society of Interventional Radiology Foundation Leaders in Innovation Award.
Study finds testosterone supplementation reduces heart attack risk in men with heart disease
A new multi-year study from the Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute shows that testosterone therapy helped elderly men with low testosterone levels and pre-existing coronary artery disease reduce their risks of major adverse cardiovascular events -- including strokes, heart attacks, and death.
BEAT hunger with safe, nonsurgical weight loss treatment
A safe, new, minimally invasive treatment, developed by interventional radiologists, led to sustained weight loss in severely obese people, according to research presented at the Society of Interventional Radiology's 2016 Annual Scientific Meeting.
Few patients use weight-loss medications despite FDA approval
Despite guidelines that advocate the use of weight loss medications to treat obesity, and the availability of FDA approved medications, very few patients use this treatment option, a new study suggests.
Crime: Measuring by 'damage to victims' will improve policing and public safety
Current crime stats are 'legacy of 19th century' that push police to chase minor offences instead of preventing most serious crimes.
SSRI antidepressants promote bone loss during lactation
Antidepressant use with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy and breast-feeding causes decreased bone density in mothers that may put them at higher risk of broken bones later in life, a new study suggests.
Design procedures of HVAC systems are best illustrated using worked examples
What is the best strategy to introduce HVAC design procedures to undergraduates with the aim of promoting understanding of the principles, and competence in their application?
Salmonella-based oral vaccine a promising therapy for preventing type 1 diabetes
A combined vaccine therapy including live Salmonella is a safe and effective way to prevent diabetes in mice and may point to future human therapies, a new study finds.
Higher volume of TAVR boosts key in-hospital outcomes
The more frequently a hospital performs a minimally invasive technique called transcatheter aortic valve replacement, or TAVR, to replace a damaged aortic heart valve, the better patients fare, on average, immediately after the procedure, researchers reported at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
Trial offers objective evidence of muscle-related side effects with statins
The first major clinical trial to include a blinded, placebo-controlled 'statin re-challenge' in patients with a history of muscle-related side effects sheds new light on statin-associated muscle symptoms, according to research presented at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
No improvement in clinical outcomes with ischemic postconditioning
A large randomized controlled trial of ischemic postconditioning in patients who had experienced the deadliest form of heart attack -- ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) -- failed to show that this procedure significantly reduces death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure, according to research presented at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
Patients with chest pain benefit from decision aid tool used with physician
Patients who arrive at the emergency department with low-risk chest pain and talk through treatment options with a physician show improved knowledge of their health status and follow-up options, compared with patients who received standard counseling from a physician, according to Mayo Clinic research presented at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
Aromatase inhibitors plus growth hormone may help short adolescent boys grow taller
Aromatase inhibitors, when used for up to three years in combination with growth hormone, may effectively and safely help very short adolescent boys grow taller, new research suggests.
IV beta blockers before angioplasty are safe, but offer no clinical benefit
Giving intravenous beta blockers before performing a coronary angioplasty in patients who had experienced the deadliest form of heart attack -- ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) -- was safe but did not reduce heart attack severity or improve blood flow from the heart's main pumping chamber, according to research presented at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
Penn researchers find transcatheter aortic valve replacement better for patients with severe aortic stenosis
A new study conducted by researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, in partnership with Edwards Lifesciences, the Cardiovascular Research Foundation, and 50 centers across the United States and Canada, found that for patients at intermediate-risk for open-heart surgery, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with the latest generation of balloon-expandable device -- SAPIEN 3 -- is superior to surgery, resulting in better patient outcomes.
Elevated troponin linked to mental stress ischemia in heart disease patients
People with heart disease who experience mental stress induced-ischemia tend to have higher levels of troponin -- a protein whose presence in the blood that is a sign of recent damage to the heart muscle -- all the time, independently of whether they are experiencing stress or chest pain at that moment.
Nonsurgical fibroid treatment: Research shows improved sexual desire, function
Women who underwent a nonsurgical, image-guided treatment, uterine fibroid embolization, for the treatment of uterine fibroids experienced improved sexual function and a higher overall quality of life.
Bone density lower with use of ADHD stimulant medicine
Children and teenagers who take stimulant drugs to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have lower bone density than their peers who do not take these medications, a new study finds.
Statin intolerance objectively identified in patients
In the first major trial of its kind, Cleveland Clinic researchers used a blinded rechallenge with atorvastatin or placebo to objectively confirm the presence of muscle-related symptoms in patients with a history of intolerance to multiple statins and found that evolocumab (a PCSK9 inhibitor) was a more effective option to lower cholesterol than ezetimibe in these patients.
Penn researchers report successful cardiac transplant outcomes in adult patients with congenital heart disease
While there is little data to inform best practices for treating patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD), a team of researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania found that heart transplants can be performed in adult patients with prior corrective surgery for congenital heart disease with excellent outcomes.
Early data from clinical trial indicates safety and efficacy of new weight loss procedure
Findings from the early phase of a clinical trial led by Johns Hopkins investigators indicates that a new, minimally invasive weight loss treatment known as bariatric arterial embolization is safe and effective in sustaining weight loss in severely obese people.
Evacetrapib fails to reduce major adverse cardiovascular events
Despite lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL), known as 'bad' cholesterol, while markedly increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or 'good' cholesterol, a large clinical trial to investigate the cholesterol drug evacetrapib was discontinued early after a preliminary analysis showed it did not reduce rates of major adverse cardiovascular events, according to research presented at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
Abaloparatide may help prevent fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis
The investigational drug abaloparatide-SC (subcutaneous) may help increase bone mineral density in postmenopausal women and reduce their risk of fracture, new industry-sponsored research suggests.
In some men, taking testosterone while dieting may help lose fat, not muscle
In obese middle-aged men, losing weight while dieting normally depletes both fat and muscle.
Tool to engage patients with chest pain in care decisions shows benefits
Patients visiting a hospital emergency department with chest pain who engaged with their physician in shared decision-making using a tool called Chest Pain Choice showed improved knowledge of their health status and follow-up care options compared with patients who received standard counseling from a physician without the use of this decision aid, according to research presented at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
Single-gene mutations account for only 2 percent of cases of severely elevated cholesterol
A study from an international research team finds that familial hypercholesterolemia accounts for less than 2 percent of severely elevated LDL in the general population.
Deferred stenting shows no clinical benefit
Delayed or deferred stent implantation in patients experiencing the deadliest form of heart attack -- ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) -- failed to reduce death from any cause, hospitalization for heart failure, subsequent heart attacks or the need for a repeat procedure to restore blood flow to the heart, researchers reported at the American College of Cardiology's 65th Annual Scientific Session.
JVIR, SIR Foundation honor studies that improve patient care
The Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (JVIR) -- the Society of Interventional Radiology's peer-reviewed scientific journal -- presented the 2015 JVIR Editor's Best awards during the April 3 general session of the SIR Annual Scientific Meeting, April 2-April 7 in Vancouver, British Columbia.
Cholesterol lowering therapies for patients with muscle-related statin intolerance
Steven E. Nissen, M.D., of the Cleveland Clinic, and colleagues identified patients with muscle-related adverse effects from statins and compared lipid-lowering efficacy for two nonstatin therapies, ezetimibe and evolocumab.
Gels Handbook explores significant development of hydrogels
Hydrogels are made from a three-dimensional network of cross-linked hydrophilic polymers or colloidal particles that contain a large fraction of water.

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