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Science News and Current Events for April 26, 2016


What's missing from current methods for genetic screening of sperm donors?
US sperm banks perform genetic testing to screen for and disqualify carriers of a limited number of recessive disease mutations, but more comprehensive and affordable DNA-based screening methods are now available that can detect many more disease-causing genetic variations.
Researchers look for causes of unexpected early bladder cancer recurrence after laparoscopic surgery
Although laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) and robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) continue to grow in popularity and are successful in the treatment of bladder cancer, they are still considered experimental approaches.
Young gay and bisexual men 6 times more likely to attempt suicide than older counterparts
Young gay and bisexual men are at significantly greater risk of poor mental health than older men in that group, according to new research by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.
Clothing made from tea byproduct could improve health of fashion industry
The fashion industry generates a lot of waste, which is why a team of Iowa State University researchers developed a new fiber that's 100 percent biodegradable.
Citizen scientists collected rare ice data, confirm warming since industrial revolution
In 1442, Shinto priests in Japan began keeping records of the freeze dates of a nearby lake, while in 1693 Finnish merchants started recording breakup dates on a local river.
NREL finds nanotube semiconductors well-suited for PV systems
Researchers at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered single-walled carbon nanotube semiconductors could be favorable for photovoltaic systems because they can potentially convert sunlight to electricity or fuels without losing much energy.
Fermentation festival leads to rapid response system at Center for Microbiome Innovation
While technological advances have made it easier to map our microbiomes and metabolomes, these studies typically take too long for that data to be medically useful.
Nutrient supplements can give antidepressants a boost
An international evidence review has found that certain nutritional supplements can increase the effectiveness of antidepressants for people with clinical depression.
Professor Philippe Dubois is awarded an FNR PEARL Chair
On Sept. 1, world-renowned material scientist Prof Philippe Dubois will join the Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, endowed with a €4 million FNR PEARL Chair.
Endocrine Society experts call for expanded screening for primary aldosteronism
The Endocrine Society today issued a Clinical Practice Guideline calling on physicians to ramp up screening for primary aldosteronism, a common cause of high blood pressure.
Poor understandability of notifications sent to women regarding breast density
In a study appearing in the April 26 issue of JAMA, Nancy R.
Outcomes of immunotherapy tablet for house dust mite allergy-related asthma
The addition of a house dust mite (HDM) sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet to maintenance medications improved time to first moderate or severe asthma exacerbation during a period of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) reduction among adults with HDM allergy-related asthma not well controlled by ICS, according to a study appearing in the April 26 issue of JAMA.
Despite their small brains -- ravens are just as clever as chimps
A study led by researchers at Lund University in Sweden shows that ravens are as clever as chimpanzees, despite having much smaller brains, indicating that rather than the size of the brain, the neuronal density and the structure of the birds' brains play an important role in terms of their intelligence.
Regenerating blood vessels gets $2.7 million grant
Biomedical engineers in the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin have received $2.7 million in funding to advance a treatment that regenerates blood vessels.
Penn team restores memory formation following sleep deprivation in mice
Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania observed that sleep deprivation is tied to an impairment of protein production in the hippocampus, a brain region thought to be central to memory.
Minimally invasive colitis screening using infrared technology could offer fast, simple test
A minimally invasive screening for ulcerative colitis, a debilitating gastrointestinal tract disorder, using emerging infrared technology could be a rapid and cost-effective method for detecting disease that eliminates the need for biopsies and intrusive testing of the human body, according to researchers at Georgia State University.
Threat of novel swine flu viruses in pigs and humans
The wide diversity of flu in pigs across multiple continents, mostly introduced from humans, highlights the significant potential of new swine flu strains emerging, according to a study to be published in eLife.
Researcher finds teenage e-cigarette use 'clustered' in certain schools
A new study from the University of Colorado Denver finds that certain school environments have an impact on electronic cigarette use among teenagers.
The high cost of norovirus worldwide
While norovirus is often linked in the news to outbreaks on cruise ships, the highly contagious stomach bug sickens nearly 700 million around the world every year and results in roughly $4.2 billion in health care costs and $60.3 billion in societal costs annually, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research suggests.
TGen tracks the origins and spread of potentially deadly Valley Fever
Scientists at the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) have tracked the likely origins and dispersal of the fungus that causes Valley Fever, according to a study published today in the journal mBio.
Yoga may have health benefits for people with asthma
A new Cochrane Review, published in the Cochrane Library today, suggests that yoga may have a beneficial effect on symptoms and quality of life in people with asthma, but effects on lung function and medication use are uncertain.
Breast density and outcomes of supplemental breast cancer screening
In a study appearing in the April 26 issue of JAMA, Elizabeth A.
The Lancet Oncology: Remaining in the EU is vital to maintaining the UK's global strength in cancer research and care, say leading oncologists
Writing in the May issue of The Lancet Oncology, leading oncologists from the UK and EU express their support for the UK remaining in Europe.
Study finds readability of dense breast notifications poor
About half of American women have dense breasts, which makes it harder for mammograms to identify cancer and add to a woman's risk for cancer.
Penn Medicine study uncovers new pathways that control skin tanning and lightening
New research has uncovered cellular pathways in skin pigment cells that are activated by estrogen and progesterone, and also identified synthetic hormone derivatives that specifically influence the pigment producing pathway.
Fossils may reveal 20-million-year history of penguins in Australia
Multiple dispersals of penguins reached Australia after the continent split from Antarctica, including 'giant penguins' that may have lived there after they went extinct elsewhere, according to a study published April 26, 2016, in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Travis Park from Monash University, Australia, and colleagues.
Who gets hooked on drugs? Rat study finds genetic markers that influence addiction
Why does addiction vulnerability differ from individual to individual? For the first time, scientists have shown in selectively bred animals that the propensity for addiction is linked to differences in expression of genes for specific molecules in a specific brain region.
Statins and colorectal cancer
A large case-control study published in this week's PLOS Medicine conducted by Ronac Mamtani, M.D., MSCE, an assistant professor of Medicine at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA, and colleagues provides evidence that indication bias may explain the link between statin use and reduced colorectal cancer risk.
Child homicide -- speaking of the unspeakable
New estimates published in PLOS Medicine suggest that homicide could be responsible for just over 1 percent of all neonatal deaths in South Africa.
Abnormally low blood flow indicates damage to NFL players' brains
The discovery of brain pathology through autopsy in former National Football League (NFL) players called chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has raised substantial concern among players, medical professionals, and the general public about the impact of repetitive head trauma.
Nanograft seeded with 3 cell types promotes blood vessel formation to speed wound healing
Large or slow-healing wounds that do not receive adequate blood flow could benefit from a novel approach that combines a nanoscale graft onto which three different cell types are layered.
Centennial Awards honor outstanding GENETICS articles
The Genetics Society of America (GSA) and the Editorial Board of the journal GENETICS are pleased to announce the winners of the first Centennial Award for outstanding articles published in GENETICS in 2015.
First small molecule targeted therapy to mitigate hearing loss in Usher syndrome type 3
A new study published in Nature Chemical Biology reports the first small molecule targeted therapy for progressive hearing loss in a mouse model of USH3, an USH classified by progressive loss of hearing and vision starting in the first few decades of life along with variable balance disorder.
Smartphones and wearables could revolutionize medical care for people with brain disorders
A major new research program supported by the Innovative Medicines Initiative launches today, which will develop new ways of monitoring major depressive disorder, epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis using wearable devices and smartphone technology.
Does frequent sex lead to better relationships? Depends on how you ask
Newlywed couples who have a lot of sex don't report being any more satisfied with their relationships than those who have sex less often, but their automatic behavioral responses tell a different story, according to new research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
Model predicts how forests will respond to climate change
Using a new model, three Washington State University researchers predict that many forests across the US are ill-suited to withstand drought conditions likely to face the country in the coming century.
Light echoes give clues to planet nursery around star
For the first time, UA astronomers used echoes of light to determine the distance from a star to the inner wall of its surrounding planet-forming disk of dust and gas.
Ancient glass-glued walls studied for nuke waste solutions
The modern challenge of nuclear waste storage and disposal has researchers at Washington State University looking back at ancient materials from around the world.
Allen Institute releases powerful new data on the aging brain and traumatic brain injury
The Allen Institute for Brain Science has announced major updates to its online resources available at brain-map.org, including a new resource on Aging, Dementia and Traumatic Brain Injury in collaboration with UW Medicine researchers at the University of Washington, and Group Health.
Zika present in Americas longer than previously thought
The Zika virus was present in Haiti several months before the first Zika cases were identified in Brazil, according to new research by infectious-disease specialists at the University of Florida.
Increased risk of coronary heart disease seen among women who work rotating night shifts
In a new study from Brigham and Women's Hospital published in the April 26 issue of JAMA, researchers found that women who work more than 10 years of rotating night shift work had a 15 to 18 percent increased risk of developing coronary heart disease, the most common type of heart disease, as compared with women who did not work rotating night shifts.
Open-sourced coding expands UMN's StudyFinder to additional CTSA institutions
The University of Minnesota is expanding access to clinical trials and supporting the health research community by sharing its clinical trial resource, StudyFinder, with other institutions designated with Clinical and Translational Science Awards, a program spearheaded by the National Institutes of Health.
First multi-year study of honey bee parasites and disease reveals troubling trends
Researchers from the University of Maryland and the US Department of Agriculture recently completed the first comprehensive, multi-year study of honey bee parasites and disease as part of the National Honey Bee Disease Survey.
Dartmouth study measures bias in how we learn and make decisions
Thinking about drawing to an inside straight or playing another longshot?
Aspirin may help prevent bile duct cancer
Regular use of aspirin was linked with a significantly reduced risk of developing bile duct cancer, also called cholangiocarcinoma, in a recent study.
Carbon dioxide fertilization greening Earth, study finds
From a quarter to half of Earth's vegetated lands has shown significant greening over the last 35 years largely due to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, according to a new study published in the journal Nature Climate Change on April 25.
Researchers find brain circuit that controls binge drinking
Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have identified a circuit between two brain regions that controls alcohol binge drinking, offering a more complete picture on what drives a behavior that costs the United States more than $170 billion annually and how it can be treated.
Rational autologous cell sources for therapy of heart failure
This review focuses on the possibilities for intraoperative processing and isolation of autologous cells and their straightforward use in cell transplantation for heart failure therapy.
NREL theory establishes a path to high-performance 2-D semiconductor devices
Researchers at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have uncovered a way to overcome a principal obstacle in using two-dimensional (2-D) semiconductors in electronic and optoelectronic devices.
Radioactive waste disposal could be safer and cheaper
Scientists from Tomsk Polytechnic University and Rosatom have developed a technology to reprocess irradiated reactor graphite by evaporation.
Rare ice data collected by early 'citizen scientists' confirms warming
In 1442, 50 years before Columbus 'sailed the ocean blue,' Shinto priests in Japan began keeping records of the annual freeze dates of a nearby lake.
Tamping down neurons' energy use could treat neurodegeneration
Salk scientists find a drug that slows protein production, helping neurons affected by a genetic disease.
Climate change and extreme weather linked to high pressure over Greenland
Greenland is one of the fastest-warming regions of the world, according to climate change experts at the University of Sheffield.
Patients with low literacy levels get health information from commercial websites
When searching the internet for health information, people with less education and lower literacy levels are more likely to visit poorer quality commercial websites, according to a study published in the ARC Journal of Urology.
Measuring happiness on social media
In a study published in March in the journal PLOS One, University of Iowa computer scientists used two years of Twitter data to measure users' life satisfaction, a component of happiness.
Conflicts of interest in surgical research: More transparency needed, study finds
The research emphasizes the importance of transparency for the reliability of evidence-based medicine.
Hybrid forms of the common house mosquito may serve as vectors between birds and humans
Researchers from Vetmeduni Vienna for the first time collected hybrid forms of two species of the house mosquito in eastern Austria.
Study finds shifting gaps in educational attainment among students of different incomes
A new NYU Steinhardt study published in the journal AERA Open looks at income-based gaps in educational attainment.
Gender differences and relationship power could be key in preventing HIV in South African adolescents
Millions of those infected with HIV worldwide are young women, ages 15-24, according to the World Health Organization.
Type 2 diabetes people 'let down' over delayed treatment
A University of Leicester study suggests 'clinical inertia' is preventing tight control of blood sugar levels.
NASA team set to fly balloon mission seeking evidence of cosmological inflation
Now that scientists have confirmed the existence of gravitational waves, a NASA team is set to search for a predicted signature of primordial gravitational waves that would prove the infant universe expanded far faster than the speed of light and began growing exponentially almost instantaneously after the Big Bang.
Despite efforts, childhood obesity remains on the rise
The alarming increase in US childhood obesity rates that began nearly 30 years ago continues unabated, with the biggest increases in severe obesity, according to a study led by a Duke Clinical Research Institute scientist.
How breast cancer cells slide to metastasis
The spreading of cancer cells from one part of the body to another, a process known as metastasis, is the leading cause of death among cancer patients.
New discovery may help engineers design quieter jet airplanes
University of Minnesota researchers reveal new turbulence physics that explains why jet noise is so loud.
Retroviral DNA needs time to find its home, but insertion happens in a blink
Retroviruses such as HIV must insert their viral DNA into host-cell DNA.
Does learning improve when every student gets a laptop?
Schools that provide each student with a laptop computer, as well as the appropriate support for both students and teachers, see significant improvement in academic achievement, a new paper indicates.
Cholesterol levels, not statins, influence colorectal cancer risk
Long-term use of the cholesterol-lowering drugs known as statins does not appear to decrease a patient's risk of colorectal cancer, suggests a new, large case-control study from Penn Medicine researchers published this week in PLOS Medicine.
New hepatocellular carcinoma prognostic model improves prediction of patient survival
The ITA.LI.CA prognostic system, a model integrating tumor staging, liver function, functional status, and alpha-fetoprotein level, builds on previous models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis and shows superior survival prediction in Italian and Taiwanese cohorts, according to a study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Alessandro Vitale of Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Padova, Italy, and colleagues.
UBC study finds psychedelic drugs may reduce domestic violence
Psychedelic drugs may help curb domestic violence committed by men with substance abuse problems, according to a new UBC study.
Radiant zinc fireworks reveal human egg quality
A stunning explosion of zinc fireworks occurs when a human egg is activated by a sperm enzyme, and the size of these 'sparks' is a direct measure of the quality of the egg and its ability to develop into an embryo.
Time spent working rotating night shift and risk of heart disease
Among female registered nurses, working a rotating night shift for five years or more was associated with a small increase in the risk of coronary heart disease, according to a study appearing in the April 26 issue of JAMA.
Scientist explains sulfur behavior in Venus atmosphere
The beautiful dark stripes on ultraviolet images of Venus's disc are in no way connected with the crystalline sulfur particles in its atmosphere -- the ultraviolet is absorbed by another substance.
Bioreactors ready for the big time
Bioreactors are passive filtration systems that can reduce nitrate losses from farm fields.
Study shows vivid language used to assure whistleblowers of protection instead evokes fear
A new study by researchers at Florida Atlantic University and Providence College is the first study to demonstrate that promoting explicit whistleblower protections can have the unintended consequence of actually inhibiting reporting of misconduct by intensifying the perceived risk of retaliation.
Seeing atoms and molecules in action with an electron 'eye'
A unique rapid-fire electron source -- originally built as a prototype for driving next-generation X-ray lasers -- will help scientists at Berkeley Lab study ultrafast chemical processes and changes in materials at the atomic scale.
Scientists provide new insights into gene regulation
Researchers at the University of Leicester have solved the three-dimensional structure of a gene repression complex that is known to play a role in cancer.
MicroRNA pathway could lead to new avenues for leukemia treatment
Cancer researchers at the University of Cincinnati have found a particular signaling route in microRNA (miR-22) that could lead to targets for acute myeloid leukemia, the most common type of fast-growing cancer of the blood and bone marrow.
An Icelandic success story of prevention of adolescent substance use
In 1998 substance use amongst adolescents in Iceland was one of the highest in Europe.
It takes more than peer pressure to make large microgels fit in
Researchers believe they've solved the mystery of how oversized microgels shrink to fit colloidal crystals, and what they've learned could also have implications for biological systems made up of soft organic particles not unlike the polymer microgels.
Danish researchers behind vaccine breakthrough
A Danish research team from the University of Copenhagen has designed a simple technique that makes it possible to quickly and easily develop a new type of vaccines.
When it's more than just an ouch! What parents should know
Dr. Lonnie Zeltzer, director of the UCLA Pediatric Pain and Palliative Care Program, is co-author of a new book on helping children cope with pain: 'Pain in Children and Young Adults: The Journey Back to Normal: Two Pediatricians' Mind-Body Guide for Parents.'
Culture, crowding and social influence all tied to aggressive driving behavior
A study of angry, competitive and aggressive driving suggests that these dangerous behaviors are becoming a worldwide phenomenon of almost epidemic proportions, and are a reflection of a person's surrounding culture, both on the road and on a broader social level.
Trabecular bone score validated as standalone predictor of fracture risk
A team of international researchers have now validated the predictive ability of Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) using individual-level data of 17,809 men and women from 14 studies worldwide.
What is the best way to whiten teeth? (video)
In the age of selfies, it seems everyone wants to have a whiter, brighter smile.
The older you get, the more difficult it may become to 'smell' through your mouth
You not only pick up aromas through your nose, but also through your mouth while you chew your food.
Nearby massive star explosion 30 million years ago equaled detonation of 100 million suns
A giant star that exploded 30 million years ago in a galaxy near Earth had a radius prior to going supernova that was 200 times larger than our sun, say astrophysicists at Southern Methodist University, Dallas.
NREL demonstrates light-driven process for enzymatic ammonia production
A new process using light to reduce dinitrogen into ammonia, the main ingredient in chemical fertilizers could inspire development of new, more sustainable processes that eliminate the energy-intensive, lengthier processes now commonly in use.
NJIT's NJII collaborates on new clinical data registry for radiologists
The New Jersey Innovation Institute (NJII) at NJIT has partnered with SaferMD to offer a qualified clinical-data registry designed specifically for radiologists.
Sub-Saharan women using modern contraceptives more likely to be HIV tested
Women in sub-Saharan Africa who use modern contraceptives are more likely to be tested for HIV than those who do not, according to a study published April 25, 2016 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Katherine Center from the University of Arizona and colleagues.
EARTH: Making tracks through the dinosaur diamond
EARTH Magazine travels through time to meet the major players of the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous -- from sauropods and theropods to protomammals -- that created the rich tapestry of life in this region millions of years ago.
Reducing waste while improving snack nutrition
Washington State University food scientists have discovered how to add carrot pomace -- the pulpy leftover from juicing the veggies -- to cornstarch, increasing the nutrition and 'puffiness' of snack foods.
Hubble discovers moon orbiting the dwarf planet Makemake
Peering to the outskirts of our solar system, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has spotted a small, dark moon orbiting Makemake, the second brightest icy dwarf planet -- after Pluto -- in the Kuiper Belt.
'A fatty liver may result in a broken heart,' according to new research
The extent to which NAFLD itself, rather than associated conditions such as diabetes, obesity, or atherogenic dyslipidemia, is responsible for increased cardiovascular death has been a matter of debate.
New curiously scaled beetle species from New Britain named after 'Star Wars' Chewbacca
Chewbacca, the fictional 'Star Wars' hairy character, has given his name to a new species of flightless beetle, discovered in New Britain, Papua New Guinea.
Excessive tests don't benefit patient, do increase cost in age-related immune disorder
A series of tests physicians routinely order to help diagnose and follow their patients with an elevated antibody level that is a marker for cancer risk, often do not benefit the patient but do increase health care costs, pathologists report.
Weighing the pros and cons of mental-health apps
'There's an app for that.' The phrase is so ubiquitous it's a meme, and trademarked by Apple Inc.
Play as a field for research
Creativity, engagement and lifelong learning are three key focal points for PLAYTrack, a new research project at the Interacting Minds Centre at Aarhus University in Denmark.
Study: Answer to antibiotic-resistant infections could already be on the market
The rise of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens is an increasingly global threat to public health.
The $60 billion question -- can we prevent norovirus?
Each year, norovirus causes over 200,000 deaths and a global economic burden of $60 billion.
Study may explain gene's role in major psychiatric disorders
A new study shows the death of newborn brain cells may be linked to a genetic risk factor for five major psychiatric diseases, and at the same time shows a compound currently being developed for use in humans may have therapeutic value for these diseases by preventing the cells from dying.
Caution advised in over-regulating e-cigarettes as alternative to smoking tobacco
International tobacco control experts compared the potential risks of e-cigarette use with the benefit of use in aiding smoking cessation, advising regulators to balance the risk-reward of e-cigarette use as a tool in smoking cessation.
Newly discovered titanosaurian dinosaur from Argentina, Sarmientosaurus
Scientists have discovered Sarmientosaurus musacchioi, a new species of titanosaurian dinosaur, based on an complete skull and partial neck fossil unearthed in Patagonia, Argentina, according to a study published April 26, 2016, in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Rubén Martínez from the Laboratorio de Paleovertebrados of the Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Argentina, and colleagues.
ERC Advanced Grant for Bochum IT security expert
Dr. Christof Paar from the Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum has been awarded an Advanced Grant by the European Research Council, amounting to €2.5 million in total.
Oscillations determine whether blood vessels grow thicker or branch
How do the cells of blood vessels decide between growing new side branches or expanding the surface?
China pays price of western lifestyle with soaring childhood obesity
Less than 1 percent of children were obese in 1985 compared to 17 percent of boys and 9 percent of girls in 2014.
Coral 'toolkit' allows floating larvae to transform into reef skeletons
In a study published today, researchers from the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Rutgers University, and the University of Haifa identified key and novel components of the molecular 'toolkit' that allow corals to build their skeletons (called biomineralization) and described when -- in the transformation from floating larvae to coral skeleton -- these components are used.
SHSU professor gets first-hand look at Mexican drug wars
Nathan Jones, an assistant professor at Sam Houston State University, spent a year in Mexico examining drug cartels and government interventions in the drug trade for his first book.
Chernobyl, three decades on
The Chernobyl disaster struck 30 years ago today. The devastating radiation spill created a huge radio-ecological laboratory where University of South Carolina professor Tim Mousseau and colleagues have been studying the effects of radiation on free-living organisms since 2000.
One oil field a key culprit in global ethane gas increase
A single US shale oil field is responsible for much of the past decade's increase in global atmospheric levels of ethane, a gas that can damage air quality and impact climate, according to new study led by the University of Michigan.
Chile quake at epicenter of expanding disaster and failure data repository
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has made available a comprehensive set of data from the 2010 Chile earthquake to provide researchers, engineers, codemakers and others in quake-prone areas worldwide a powerful tool to help them improve resilience to future seismic events.
UH Case Medical Center first surgical site to test regen treatment for chronic stroke
University Hospitals Case Medical Center is the first surgical site for a Phase 2b clinical trial study to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of an investigational cell therapy for the treatment of chronic motor deficit following an ischemic stroke.
Atomic magnets using hydrogen and graphene
CIC nanoGUNE researchers in collaboration with the Autonomous University of Madrid and the Institut Néel of Grenoble have shown for the first time that the simple absorption of a hydrogen atom on a layer of graphene magnetises a large region of this material.
Mars' surface revealed in unprecedented detail
The surface of Mars -- including the location of Beagle-2 -- has been shown in unprecedented detail by UCL scientists using a revolutionary image stacking and matching technique.
Immuno-psychiatry: When your body makes its own angel dust
A new study in Biological Psychiatry reports structural brain damage from an autoimmune encephalitis that impairs behavior in ways that are somewhat similar to the effects of 'angel dust.'
Proteomics method measures carbon uptake of marine microbes
In a paper published April 26 in mSystems, a team of researchers led by microbiologists at Oregon State University, in Corvallis, describe a successful trial of a new method of identifying the carbon uptake of specific marine bacterioplankton taxa.
Researchers create artificial protein to control assembly of buckyballs
A Dartmouth College scientist and his collaborators have created an artificial protein that organizes new materials at the nanoscale.
One minus 1 does not always equal 0 in chemistry
In 1848, Louis Pasteur showed that molecules that are mirror images of each other had exactly opposite rotations of light.
Micro-needle insertion into hippocampus helps brain regeneration in animal model of AD
Researchers testing the potential positive effects of 'micro-injury' by brief insertion of a small needle into the hippocampal region of mice modeled with Alzheimer's disease found that the procedure not only stimulated the hippocampus into regenerative activity, but also reduced β-amyloid plaques, a hallmark of AD.
Large wildlife important for carbon storage in tropical forests
Conserving wildlife can benefit carbon storage in tropical forests across the world, and thus contribute to controlling global warming, predicts an international consortium of researchers from the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), Nature Conservation Foundation (NCF), University of Leeds and 12 other academic and conservation institutions.
Penn study on fragile X syndrome uses fruitfly's point of view to identify new treatments
The hormone insulin -- usually associated with diabetes -- is involved in the daily activity patterns and cognitive deficits in the fruitfly model of FXS.
Race and gender may not affect employer interest in resumes
In 2004, research found that resumes submitted by people with distinctly sounding African-American names were less likely to get callbacks regarding the job.
Study to test ways to improve cognitive functioning of older adults with HIV
UAB School of Nursing Professor David Vance, Ph.D., received a five-year, $2.86 million R01 grant to test ways of improving cognitive function in older adults with HIV.
New land snail species from Australia shows dissection not necessary to identify molluscs
Dissection might prove unnecessary when identifying new molluscs after scientists Corey Whisson and Dr.
Whites receive more state funding for autism services than other racial/ethnic groups
Whites with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in California receive more state funding than Hispanics, African Americans, Asians and others, new research from UC Davis Health System has found.
Providing children with tablets loaded with literacy apps yields positive results
Researchers at MIT, Tufts University, and Georgia State University have been conducting a study to determine whether tablet computers loaded with literacy applications could improve the reading preparedness of young children living in economically disadvantaged communities.
Researchers find nerve damage may precede diabetic retinopathy
For many years, scientists believed patients developed retinopathy and, as a result of the damage to the blood vessels, later developed neuropathy.
The geology of wine
Every day, all around the world, millions of people contemplate a very simple question with a very complex answer: which wine?
Could off-grid electricity systems accelerate energy access?
Small off-grid electricity systems are growing rapidly in South Asia.
TSRI scientists reveal secrets of a deadly virus family
Scientists at the Scripps Research Institute have solved the structure of the biological machinery used by a common virus to recognize and attack human host cells.
We share a molecular armor with coral reefs
A new study published today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B has found that one particular molecule found in reef ecosystems plays a similar immunological role in corals as it does in humans.
Reducing the sodium content of packaged foods: How does Canada measure up?
In 2010, a multi-stakeholder working group published Canada's Sodium Reduction Strategy.
Groundwater quality changes alongside expansion of hydraulic fracturing
New research from The University of Texas at Arlington demonstrates that groundwater quality changes alongside the expansion of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing but also suggests that some potentially hazardous effects may dissipate over time.

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