Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 06, 2016
How did birds get their wings? Bacteria may provide a clue, say scientists
New research has used bacteria to show that acquiring duplicate copies of genes can provide a 'template' allowing organisms to evolve novel traits from redundant copies of existing genes.

In scientific first, researchers visualize proteins being born
Albert Einstein College of Medicine researchers, led by Robert Singer, Ph.D., have developed a technology that allows them to 'see' single molecules of messenger RNA as they are translated into proteins into living cells.

Women undergoing TAVR have a different risk profile and greater survival rate than men
Data from one of the largest national registries of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) patients shows that although women are more likely to experience vascular complications in the hospital, their one-year survival rate is more favorable than men.

Rapid, low-cost, and portable test for Zika effectively detects virus in monkeys
Doctors working hundreds of miles away from the nearest hospital could soon have a way to quickly detect Zika virus in blood or saliva samples for less than a dollar per patient.

Effect of the Van-der-Waals and intramolecular forces
The tertiary system of nucleotide chain -- gold nanoparticles--- carbon nanotube represents a great interest in the modern research and application of the bio-nano-technologies.

Smartphones uncover how the world sleeps
A pioneering study of worldwide sleep patterns combines math modeling, mobile apps and big data to parse the roles society and biology each play in setting sleep schedules.

Severe stroke prognoses differ depending on the doctor
Families rely on doctor recommendations after a brain hemorrhage, but new research shows different physicians make very different decisions.

Quantum chemical computations provide insight into liver toxicity
By systematic computational studies on 55 hydrocarbons Balasubramanian and Basak have ranked the toxicity of halocarbons on the basis of the electron affinity and proton-extraction propensity from the lipid membrane of the liver.

Penn study finds moderate sedation more effective than general anesthesia for TAVR patients
Researchers from the Perelman school of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania conducted the largest observational study of minimally invasive transfemoral -- entry through the groin -- TAVR to find whether the use of moderate sedation is associated with improved patient outcomes, specifically evaluating 30-day mortality and length of hospital stays, as compared to traditional general anesthesia.

Silk keeps fruit fresh without refrigeration, according to Tufts study
Tufts University biomedical engineers have demonstrated that fruits can stay fresh for more than a week without refrigeration if they are coated in an odorless, biocompatible silk solution so thin as to be virtually invisible.

Antibody therapy opens door to potential new treatment for HIV
Researchers are developing an antibody-based drug that may provide a better strategy for long-term control of HIV.

Scientists track Greenland's ice melt with seismic waves
Researchers from MIT, Princeton University, and elsewhere have developed a new technique to monitor the seasonal changes in Greenland's ice sheet, using seismic vibrations generated by crashing ocean waves.

Fish-eating enantiornithine bird provides evidence of modern avian digestive features
In a paper published April 28 in the journal of Current Biology, Drs.

MSU scientists put some muscle behind their research
Michigan State University researchers used an old-fashioned neurobiology technique to explore new avenues for treatments to reverse a late-onset neurodegenerative disease that robs men of the capacity to walk, run, chew and swallow.

TGen-ASU researchers find tiny genetic switches in lizard tail regeneration
Any kid who pulls on a lizard tail knows it can drop off to avoid capture, but how they regrow a new tail remains a mystery.

IASLC commends FDA move to regulate e-cigarettes, cigars
The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer applauds the US FDA's decision to extend its regulation of tobacco products to e-cigarettes, cigars, hookah tobacco, and pipe tobacco, among other products.

Continental drift created biologically diverse coral reefs
An international research team has studied the geographical pattern of the evolution of corals and reef fish.

Mothers' excess pregnancy weight gain, elevated blood sugar 'imprint' obesity in children
Children whose mothers gain excess weight or have elevated blood sugar during their pregnancies are more likely to become overweight or obese during their first decade of life, according to a new Kaiser Permanente study published in Maternal and Child Health Journal.

Blood analyses may predict risk of delirium in older surgical patients
Delirium, or sudden severe confusion due to rapid changes in brain function that can occur with physical or mental illness, affects 15 to 53 percent of older surgical patients.

Physics: From the atomic to the nuclear clock
Measuring time using oscillations of atomic nuclei might significantly improve precision beyond that of current atomic clocks.

What can we learn from zebrafish about human blood disorders?
Genetic regulation of the various types of blood cells in zebrafish and humans is highly similar, making it relatively easy and cost-effective to perform genetic, chemical, imaging and other molecular studies on this invaluable model organism to study normal hematopoetic development in humans as well as blood disorders and malignancies, as described in a Review article in Human Gene Therapy.

Surgeries for gastro-esophageal reflux disease have declined in recent years
Researchers have found that the rates of surgical operations for gastro-esophageal reflux disease in the United States have fallen rapidly in recent years, from 0.062 percent in 2009 to 0.047 percent in 2013.

Testosterone undecanoate improves sexual function in men with type 2 diabetes
In a recent placebo-controlled study, long acting testosterone undecanoate (an ester of testosterone) improved erectile function, intercourse satisfaction, and sexual desire scores in type 2 diabetic men with severe hypogonadism, a condition in which the body doesn't produce enough testosterone.

Why 'sharks get cancer, mole rats don't'
A provocative new book by Loyola Medicine radiation oncologist James S.

Rapid, low-cost detection of Zika virus using paper-based synthetic gene networks
University of Toronto Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Keith Pardee and an international team of collaborators, including scientists from the Wyss Institute at Harvard University, have developed a low-cost, easy-to-use diagnostic platform for detecting the Zika virus.

Air power now weapon of choice
Air power has become the weapon of choice for Western politicians because it causes maximum destruction with the minimum of commitment, according to new research from a University of Exeter academic.

Simulation tool uses FinTech quant techniques and big data to guide best health insurance plan
Using technologies originally developed to evaluate complex investments and portfolios, a new data-driven simulator is being developed to help individuals and families evaluate health plans and select the health insurance policies most likely to meet their projected needs, with realistic cost estimates under a wide range of potential healthcare outcomes.

Peptide payload
Erkki Ruoslahti and colleagues provide proof of principle for safe, targeted delivery of drugs to the placenta during pregnancy.

Zika virus may cause microcephaly by hijacking human immune molecule
For the first time, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have determined one way Zika virus infection can damage developing brain cells.

Does the moon affect our mood or actions?
While the full moon cannot turn people into werewolves, some people do accuse it of causing a bad night's sleep or creating physical and mental alterations.

Evidence that Zika causes neural stem cells to self-destruct
A new addition in the growing number of studies using brain organoids to understand how the Zika virus leads to microcephaly reveals that human neural stem cells infected by the virus subsequently trigger an innate immune response that leads to cell death.

Mass. General-developed device may provide rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections
A team of Massachusetts General Hospital investigators has developed a device with the potential of shortening the time required to rapidly diagnose pathogens responsible for health-care-associated infections from a couple of days to a matter of hours.

Young women at greater risk for adverse outcomes following PCI
Women younger than 55 years of age who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome are more likely to experience one-year adverse cardiovascular events due to risk factors such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease, yet they are less likely to receive potent antiplatelet therapy than men.

Moderate sedation shows promise for TAVR patients
The largest observational study of percutaneous transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) demonstrated that moderate sedation use is associated with improved patient outcomes, including lower 30-day mortality and shorter hospital stays, as compared to traditional general anesthesia.

Australian swift parrot listed as critically endangered
The Australian Government has listed the iconic Tasmanian swift parrot as critically endangered, lifting its status from endangered, following research by The Australian National University.

Sonic net could save birds and aircraft, study suggests
Introducing a noise net around airfields that emits sound levels equivalent to those of a conversation in a busy restaurant could prevent collisions between birds and aircraft, saving passenger lives and billions in damages, new research has found.

Design tool enables novices to create bendable input devices for computers
A software tool developed by Disney Research makes it possible for non-experts to design and build flexible objects that can sense when they are being deformed and thus be used to control games, provide feedback for toys or otherwise provide input to a computer.

Study of elite paralympic athletes supports benefits of exercise for children with cerebral palsy
For highly trained Paralympic athletes with cerebral palsy (CP), bone mineral density and other measures of body composition are similar to those of able-bodied adults of similar age, reports a study in the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, the official journal of the Association of Academic Physiatrists.

Drug-like peptides show promise in treating 2 blood diseases
New research suggests that synthetic peptides called minihepcidins may potentially treat two serious genetic blood diseases in children and adults.

Anticoagulation medications show no gender-based variations in outcomes for TAVR patients
A study on the impact of using different anticoagulation medications on men and women who have undergone a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) found no difference in early vascular complications or mortality.

Suomi NPP satellite continues to monitor Alberta's huge wildfire
The Fort McMurray wildfire in Alberta, Canada, continues to burn and the smoke and heat from the intense fires are detectable by satellite.

CSU-led team highlights ways to address global food system challenges
A new study published in the journal Bioscience May 4, 2016, and led by Meagan Schipanski, Colorado State University, presents strategies to address the complex challenges of producing food for a growing global population, while reducing environmental impacts and increasing resilience in the face of climate change.

New treatment for children with ARDS
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) affects hundreds of thousands of people each year, many of them children.

Deadly fungus threatens African frogs
Misty mountains, glistening forests and blue-green lakes make Cameroon, the wettest part of Africa, a tropical wonderland for amphibians.

DMP 'rheumatoid arthritis': Guidelines cover important health care aspects
IQWiG has identified guideline recommendations for a potential DMP: rehabilitation measures are only addressed sporadically; the focus is on drug therapy.

Changes needed to increase access to colorectal cancer screening
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) aimed to increase access to CRC screening by not holding patients responsible for all costs of the procedure, yet current Medicare insurance beneficiaries lacking supplemental insurance may not be able to afford colon cancer screening and treatment.

New book on biochar published
The Soil Science Society of America has published 'Agricultural and Environmental Applications of Biochar: Advances and Barriers.' Stunning agricultural and environmental benefits are covered.

Real Life, Labs, Research: The 9th Matilda White Riley Behavioral and Social Sciences Day
Every year, OBSSR honors the research trajectory and continuing influence of Dr.

Putting the spotlight on folic acid supplementation in pregnancy
Future Science Group today announced the publication of a new article in Future Science OA, reviewing national and international guidelines for folic acid supplementation, and analyzing its potential risks and benefits in terms of maternal and fetal outcomes.

Bright dusty galaxies are hiding secret companions
A new University of Sussex study has cleared the air on what lies behind hot dust visible in the distant universe.

Blood thinners on 'as needed' basis is safe and effective for lowering stroke risk as compared to long-term use
A new study shows the use of novel anticoagulants for AF prescribed on an 'as-needed basis' guided by diligent pulse monitoring, can be a safe and effective alternative to lowering overall risk of stroke.

Understanding tiny droplets can make for better weather forecasts
Understanding how small water droplets behave improves our ability to describe evaporation and condensation of water at widely different scales, which has implications for everything from nanodroplets to climate models.

Plymouth University plays a role in two BMJ Awards winners
Two winning projects from this year's national BMJ Awards have included important input from Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry (PUPSMD).

Apples or fries
There has been a lot of enthusiasm for nudging individuals to eat better without restricting choice by making healthy foods more visible, attractive, and convenient.

Clinicians need to screen 'nicotine naive' teenagers for vaping, says UB addictions expert
UB addictions expert Nancy Campbell-Heider calls on clinicians to screen for vaping among teens, who are either uninformed or misinformed about the dangers and risks associated with electronic cigarettes.

Teaching computers to understand human languages
Researchers at the University of Liverpool have developed a set of algorithms that will help teach computers to process and understand human languages.

PAD patients on statins may have lower amputation, death risk
People with peripheral artery disease (PAD) who take cholesterol-lowering statins may have a lower risk of amputation and death than PAD patients who don't take statins.

Study offers clues to better rainfall predictions
Seawater salinity depends largely on how much moisture is evaporated as winds sweep over the ocean.

Finding Zika one paper disc at a time
An international, multi-institutional team of researchers led by synthetic biologist James Collins, Ph.D. at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University, has developed a low-cost, rapid paper-based diagnostic system for strain-specific detection of the Zika virus, with the goal that it could soon be used in the field to screen blood, urine, or saliva samples.

NTU launches two big initiatives to support the silver generation
Nanyang Technological University Singapore (NTU Singapore) today launched the Ageing Research Institute for Society and Education (ARISE) and the Centre for Population Health Sciences (CePHaS) to provide solutions to health and lifestyle challenges faced by the elderly.

'Hammerhead' creature was world's first plant-eating marine reptile
Newly-discovered fossils of the Triassic marine reptile Atopodentatus unicus have revealed that the animal had a bizarre hammerhead-shaped jaw apparatus.

A new paper-based test for the Zika virus
Researchers at MIT and other institutions have developed a paper test that can diagnose Zika virus infection in just a few hours.

Experts decipher the disease behind one of the world's most famous paintings
It is one of the most famous paintings in American history: Christina's World, by Andrew Wyeth. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to