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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | June 06, 2016


Researchers can now build an inexpensive and flexible micro-raman system
Raman spectroscopy provides detailed chemical information, and when combined with a microscope, it can non-destructively analyze biological samples.
NHS England needs to stop stalling and make HIV preventing treatment available
An effective treatment that can prevent HIV infection and reduce the human and financial costs of the preventable condition is taking too long to be commissioned and made available on the NHS, warns Deborah Gold, chief executive of the National Aids Trust, in an article published by The BMJtoday.
Law reform in Canada may help curb organ transplant tourism
Creating a confidential reporting system in Canada about organ transplant tourism could help reduce the practice and disrupt international networks, argues a commentary published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
This desert moss has developed the ultimate water collection toolkit
Scientists and mechanical engineers teamed up to understand how a desert moss uses its leaves instead of roots to collect water from the atmosphere.
Myricitrin may protect against neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease
A new study has shown that myricitrin, a flavinoid with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that is present inedible plants and fruit, can protect mouse brains from the loss of dopamine-producing neurons caused by neurotoxicity.
Study finds wide geographic differences in treatment of diabetes, hypertension, depression
An international study led by Columbia University researchers has found widespread differences in the treatment of patients with common chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and depression.
Ships flagged for illegal fishing still able to get insurance: UBC study
New research from the University of British Columbia finds that rogue fishing vessels are able to secure insurance including those that have been flagged by international watchdogs for unlawful activity.
Two kinds of Medicare -- 2 kinds of patients? Findings may mean a lot for health policy
Nearly one in three American senior citizens choose to get their government-funded Medicare health coverage through plans run by health insurance companies.
Towards building next-generation batteries using a pigment electrode
Toyohashi Tech researchers have demonstrated calcium ion batteries (CIBs) using pigment electrodes such as Prussian blue and its analogues.
Advanced cancer patients receive aggressive care at high rates at the end of life
A national health claims analysis of cancer patients who were younger than age 65 and had metastatic disease revealed that nearly two-thirds were admitted to the hospital or visited the emergency room in the last 30 days of their lives.
UNIST professor, chosen for 2015 IEEE CPMT Best Paper Award
A professor, affiliated with Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) has been recognized as one of the world's leading scholars in the field of Electronic Packaging, winning the 2015 IEEE CPMT Best Paper Awards.
Study of 81,000 adults examines mental illness, gun violence and suicide
People with serious mental illnesses who use guns to commit suicide are often legally eligible to purchase guns, despite having a past record of an involuntary mental health examination and brief hospitalization, according to a new Duke Health analysis.
Study: News stories often wrongly link violence with mental illness
Nearly four in 10 news stories about mental illness analyzed by Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health researchers connect mental illness with violent behavior toward others, even though less than five percent of violence in the United States is directly related to mental illness.
Rape kit data yield major implications for sexual assault investigations
Researchers discovered serial rapists are far more common than previous data suggested -- a finding that could change how sexual assaults, including so-called acquaintance rapes, are investigated.
Faithfulness is in the eye of the beholder
In a recent set of experiments, psychologists Dr. Shana Cole (Rutgers University), Dr.
The truth is out there: Scientists unlock X-Files DNA mystery
Scientists have unlocked a crucial part of the mystery as to how our DNA can replicate and repair itself -- something which is essential for all life forms.
Combination therapy cures tick-borne illness in mice
A novel combination therapy cures an emerging infectious disease, babesiosis, which is transmitted by the same ticks that transmit the agents of Lyme disease, said Yale researchers.
Pictures warning of smoking dangers on cigarette packs increased quit attempts
Affixing pictures on cigarette packets to illustrate the danger of smoking increased attempts by smokers to quit, according to the results of a clinical trial published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.
Novel protein inhibitors engineered as alternative approach to potentially treat cancer
Researchers have engineered endogenous protein inhibitors of protein-degrading enzymes as an alternative approach to synthetic inhibitors for potentially treating cancer and other diseases.
Novel imaging model helps reveal new therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the most common of pancreatic cancers, is extraordinarily lethal, with a five-year survival rate of just 6 percent.
Researchers uncover new mode of action for HUMIRA in rheumatoid arthritis patients
Researchers from University College London have discovered that the widely used antiinflammatory drug HUMIRA doesn't just work by inhibiting its target protein, TNF, but by enhancing a particular function of TNF in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
New approach could make bone marrow transplants safer
Bone marrow transplantation is the only curative therapy for the millions of people living with blood disorders like sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and AIDS.
IL-33 ameliorates Alzheimer's-like pathology and cognitive decline
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology recently conducted a study on the potential therapeutic role of interleukin-33 (IL-33) in AD, where they injected the protein into transgenic mouse models of AD.
Gene TMEM230 suggests a novel mechanism for Parkinson's disease
TMEM230 is the first gene associated with Parkinson's disease that has been linked to the trafficking of vesicles that carry neurotransmitters between neurons and therefore illuminates a possible mechanism to explain the disease.
Genome engineering of quantifiable protein tags: Western blot on the way down?
Cell biologists' most notorious approach to detect and semi-quantify proteins, western blotting, could well be on its way down.
Immunotherapy improves survival, quality of life in rapidly progressing head and neck cancer
Immunotherapy doubles overall survival and improves quality of life, with fewer side effects, in a treatment-resistant and rapidly progressing form of head and neck carcinoma, reports a large, randomized international trial co-led by investigators at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute.
Hearing problems reduce the quality of life of older people
Research has found that hearing loss has wide-ranging impacts not only on older people's ability to communicate, but also on their ability to move about and participate in different hobbies and activities.
War and peace in the human gut: Probing the microbiome
In research appearing in the current issue of Annals of the New York Academy of Science, Aktipis and her colleagues Helen Wasielewski (ASU's Department of Psychology), and Joe Alcock, (at the University of New Mexico Department of Emergency Medicine), examine the role of microbes in the gut.
1 hour of driving a day = 2.3kg more weight and 1.5cm wider waist, study reveals
A research study led by Professor Takemi Sugiyama from the Australian Catholic University's Institute of Health and Ageing, show the convenience of car travel has a significant impact on public health.
Long after heart attack, chymase inhibitors could extend cell survival
Cardiologists generally agree that if someone has a heart attack, the window of opportunity to intervene closes within hours, because heart muscle dies and doesn't come back.
How the brain merges the senses
Scientists from the Cluster of Excellence Cognitive Interaction Technology at Bielefeld University and the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics have proposed a computational model that explains multisensory integration in humans utilizing a surprisingly simple processing unit.
New method seeks to diminish risk, maximize investment in cancer 'megafunds'
Recognizing the high research and development costs for drugs to combat cancer, a team of researchers has devised a method to maximize investment into these undertakings by spotting which efforts are the most scientifically viable.
Late-term birth associated with better school-based cognitive functioning
Better measures of school-based cognitive function were associated with late-term infants born at 41 weeks but those children performed worse on a measure of physical functioning compared with infants born full term at 39 or 40 weeks, according to an article published online by JAMA Pediatrics.
Elsevier selected to publish open-access Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, today announced that it has been chosen as the new publisher of the Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine (J-AIM), the official publication of the World Ayurveda Foundation and Trans-Disciplinary University, Bangalore.
Women still excluded from meaningful sport and exercise research, argue experts
Women are being excluded from meaningful sport and exercise research because the complexities of the menstrual cycle are considered 'major barriers' for clinical trials, argue experts in an editorial published online in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.
Epigenomic alterations contribute to obesity-associated diabetes
Obesity is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes, yet not all obese humans develop the disease.
News about the light-dependent magnetic compass of birds
Birds have a light-dependent compass in their eyes. A research group at Goethe University Frankfurt, together with French colleagues, has elucidated how this compass works at the molecular level.
Larger wine glasses may lead people to drink more
Selling wine in larger wine glasses may encourage people to drink more, even when the amount of wine remains the same, suggests new research from the University of Cambridge.
Personalized medicine leads to better outcomes for patients with cancer
In a meta-analysis of hundreds of clinical trials involving thousands of patients, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine report that therapeutic approaches using precision medicine, which emphasizes the use of individual genetics to refine cancer treatment, showed improved response and longer periods of disease remission, even in phase I trials.
Electric eels make leaping attacks
Vanderbilt biologist Kenneth Catania has accidentally discovered that can electric eels make leaping attacks that dramatically increase the strength of the electric shocks they deliver and, in so doing, has confirmed a 200-year-old observation by famous 19th century explorer and naturalist Alexander von Humboldt.
2016 World Cultural Council Awards
Professor Edward Witten, has been selected as the winner of the Albert Einstein World Award of Science and Professor Kalevi Ekman, will be awarded with the Jose Vasconcelos World Award of Education.
Stampede 2 drives frontiers of science and engineering forward
Today, the National Science Foundation (NSF) announced a $30 million award to the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) at The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin) to acquire and deploy a new large-scale supercomputing system, Stampede 2, as a strategic national resource to provide high-performance computing (HPC) capabilities for thousands of researchers across the US.
Research proves Aboriginal Australians were first inhabitants
Griffith University researchers have found evidence that demonstrates Aboriginal people were the first to inhabit Australia, as reported in the prestigious Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal this week.
Microgrids, not always economically efficient in regulated electricity markets
Installing a microgrid within a regulated electricity market will sometimes, but not always, provide an economic benefit to customers, investors and utilities involved, according to new research led by Chiara Lo Prete, assistant professor of energy economics, Penn State.
Progression-free survival triples in select metastatic lung cancer patients with surgery or radiation after standard chemotherapy
Lung cancer patients with oliogometastases, defined as three or fewer sites of metastasis, may benefit from aggressive local therapy, surgery or radiation, after standard chemotherapy, according to research led by The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
Speeding up drug discovery to fight tuberculosis
Researchers at the Institute for Systems Biology and Center for Infectious Disease Research in Seattle have deciphered how the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis is able to tolerate the recently approved FDA drug bedaquiline.
Ice age bison fossils shed light on early human migrations in North America
Scientists using evidence from bison fossils have determined when an ice-free corridor opened up along the Rocky Mountains during the late Pleistocene.
A protective shield against the heavy metal uranium
Microorganisms can better withstand the heavy metal uranium when glutathione is present, a molecule composed of three amino acids.
Targeting B-cell malignancies with κ-specific T cells can lead to complete clinical responses
Targeting the light chain expressed by malignant B cells killed tumor cells while sparing normal B cells expressing the other type of light chain.
Tarantula toxins offer key insights into neuroscience of pain
Researchers have identified a pair of tarantula toxins that target a previously unknown pain pathway in sensory nerves.
MPs want academic 'match-making' service to help inform policy
MPs have expressed an overwhelming willingness to use a proposed new service to swiftly link them with academics in relevant areas to help ensure policy is based on the latest evidence.
In CRISPR genome editing, Cpf1, proved its marked specificity and produced a mutant mouse
Researchers at the IBS Center for Genome Editing in South Korea showed Cpf1 as a highly specific programmable tool that is suitable for precision genome editing with no unintended mutations and reported generation of mutant mice using CRISPR-Cpf1.
Obesity and gestational diabetes in mothers linked to early onset of puberty in daughters
aughters of overweight mothers who develop gestational diabetes are significantly more likely to experience an earlier onset of one sign of puberty, according to new Kaiser Permanente research published in the American Journal of Epidemiology.
Essential aspects of the regulation of the anti-tumor protein p53
The RNA Molecular Biology Laboratory, ULB, headed by Professor Lafontaine reveals essential aspects of the regulation of the anti-tumor protein p53.
Ohioans say it is important for the state to lead in education and medical research
An overwhelming majority of Ohio residents say it is important for the state to be a leader in education (89 percent) and in medical and health research (87 percent), according to a state-based public opinion survey commissioned by Research!America.
A new approach to chemical synthesis
MIT chemists have devised a new way to synthesize communesins -- fungal compounds with anti-cancer potential.
Army personnel most at risk for violent suicide
A study of rates and predictors of suicide among active duty enlisted service members found that Army personnel were most at risk for violent suicide.
Scientists use silver to make lights shine brightly
The toxic and expensive phosphors used widely in fluorescent lighting could be eliminated thanks to a new study conducted by a materials scientist at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL).
Copper is key in burning fat
A new study led by a Berkeley Lab scientist and UC Berkeley professor establishes for the first time copper's role in fat metabolism, further burnishing the metal's reputation as an essential nutrient for human physiology.
Moffitt researchers present phase 1 study results of selinexor combination therapy; multiple myeloma
Moffitt Cancer Center will present results from a phase 1 study of selinexor in combination with liposomal doxorubicin and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma.
Pandas don't like it hot: Temperature, not food is biggest concern for conservation
China's bamboo supply is more than enough to support giant pandas after it was discovered that they have bigger appetites than originally believed, but climate change could destroy their plentiful food source anyway.
'Wasteful' galaxies launch heavy elements into surrounding halos and deep space
Galaxies 'waste' large amounts of heavy elements generated by star formation by ejecting them up to a million light years away into their surrounding halos and deep space, according to a new study led by the University of Colorado Boulder.
The biological clock gets a time stamp
Yale School of Medicine researchers have identified the molecular pathways involved in the aging of human eggs.
Cleaning up decades of phosphorus pollution in lakes
Phosphorus is the biggest cause of water quality degradation worldwide, causing 'dead zones', toxic algal blooms, a loss of biodiversity and increased health risks for the plants, animals and humans that come in contact with polluted waters.
Intensive treatment of glucose levels can lead to serious complications
With a more-is-better mindset common in society, frequent commercials encouraging checks of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels, and ads for new diabetes medications to lower HbA1C in adults with Type 2 diabetes, Mayo Clinic researchers were not too surprised to find overtesting occurring.
Electroacupuncture may help relieve pain from carpal tunnel syndrome
Electroacupuncture combined with nighttime splinting may help alleviate pain from chronic carpal tunnel syndrome, according to a randomized controlled trial published in Canadian Medical Association Journal.
Blood-born molecules could predict those who will develop liver cancer
A panel of microRNAs from blood samples may predict patients at high risk of developing a common liver cancer from hepatitis B virus infection.
Increases in sFLT1 predict the onset of preeclampsia symptoms in mice
In this month's issue of the JCI, work led by Ananth Karumanchi determined that elevating levels of a protein called soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1) produced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant mice.
Gene study to shed light on how some people stay sharp in old age
More than 1,000 people have had their entire genetic make-up decoded as part of a long-term study at the University of Edinburgh to gain insight into why some people's brains age better than others.
Unexpected function of small nucleolar RNAs explains cause of some diseases
Scientists have discovered unexpected functions of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) that explain the cause of some diseases.
The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology: Mediterranean diet high in healthy fat does not lead to weight gain, according to randomized trial
Eating a non-calorie restricted Mediterranean diet high in vegetable fats such as olive oil or nuts does not lead to significant weight gain compared to a low-fat diet, according to a large randomized trial published today in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal.
Lucy had neighbors: A review of African fossils
If 'Lucy' wasn't alone, who else was in her neighborhood?
Distinguishing deadly Staph bacteria from harmless strains
To better understand the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and develop more effective treatments, University of California San Diego researchers examined the Staph 'pan-genome' -- the genomes of 64 different strains that differ in where they live, the types of hosts they infect and their antibiotic resistance profiles.
New compound shows promise against malaria
In recent years the most dangerous malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, has become increasingly resistant to the main anti-malarial drugs.
Just a few more bites: Defining moderation varies by individual, study finds
Though eating in moderation might be considered practical advice for healthy nutrition, a new University of Georgia study suggests the term's wide range of interpretations may make it an ineffective guide for losing or maintaining weight.
Operation IceBridge completes 2016 Arctic spring campaign
Operation IceBridge, NASA's airborne survey of polar ice, ended its eighth spring Arctic campaign on May 21.
Penn study describes a better animal model to improve HIV vaccine development
Vaccines are usually medicine's best defense against the world's deadliest microbes.
Babies don't just look cute, scientists find
What is it about the sight of an infant that makes almost everyone crack a smile?
Asteroseismologists listen to the relics of the Milky Way
Astrophysicists from the University of Birmingham have captured the sounds of some of the oldest stars in our galaxy, the Milky Way, according to research published today in the Royal Astronomical Society journal Monthly Notices.
Longer life, disability free
Harvard researchers are among the co-authors of a new study that shows that the increase in life expectancy in the past two decades has been accompanied by an even greater increase in life years free of disability, thanks in large measure to improvements in cardiovascular health and declines in vision problems.
Substantial numbers of British adults find new sexual partners while travelling abroad
Substantial numbers of British adults find new sexual partners while travelling abroad, find two studies, published online in the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections.
Clinical trial opens new avenues for pharmacological therapy in Down's syndrome
The results of the phase 2 study suggest that participants who had received the treatment had better scores in the visual memory recognition and inhibition tasks, and improvement in adaptive behaviour than those in the control group.
Study concludes that ultralow-dose CT may substitute for standard-dose CT in some COPD patients
A Japanese retrospective study that reviewed the CT data of 50 emphysema patients found that ultralow-dose CT (ULDCT) can substitute for standard-dose CT (SDCT) in disease quantification if both iterative reconstruction (IR) and filtered back projection are used.
Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, June 2016
New battery technology a boost for Formula E race cars; New ORNL roof coating helps keep roofs cool; ORNL technique reveals defects in solar cell material; ORNL finding shows promise for alternating current conduction for oxide electronics.
More is better: The diversity and number of soil animals determine leaf decomposition
Leipzig/Goettingen (Germany). Small animals that decompose fallen leaves in the forest form complex food webs and are essential to a functioning ecosystem.
More than just hippos and crocs: The hidden biodiversity of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park
Lake St. Lucia, South Africa, may be the famous tourist drawcard in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, but aquatic scientists have recently found that there may be proportionally more diversity of life in the small freshwater puddles and ponds surrounding the lake than in the lake body itself, or anywhere else in the park for that matter, and it comes in the form of water beetles.
The mystery of the initial mass function solved
For the first time, scientists used methods of network science to solve a fundamental astrophysical problem -- explaining the so-called 'initial mass function', a distribution of stars by mass in galaxies and starclusters.
World Oceans Day: Bring the seas into your home, exploration is one click away
In the years after the HMS Challenger set sail from Portsmouth, England, in 1872, researchers made discoveries that laid the foundation of the science of oceanography.
Wild parents' genomes reveal complex genetic past for garden variety petunias
An international consortium of researchers has sequenced the two wild parent species of the domesticated petunia.
Dartmouth researchers develop a new method to transparently measure health care value
Dartmouth researchers used Hospital Compare and Medicare expenditure data for 2012 to construct a hospital-level measure of value.
Interracial friendships decrease over time in elementary and middle school
As elementary and middle school students progress in school, they are less likely to have friends of a different race, even from the beginning to the end of a single school year, finds a study led by NYU Steinhardt.
New support for human evolution in grasslands
Buried deep in seabed sediments off east Africa, scientists have uncovered a 24-million-year record of vegetation trends in the region where humans evolved.
A matter of orientation
The German Research Foundation (DFG) approves the creation of a new collaborative research centre (SFB) 'Anisotropic Particles as Building Blocks: Tailoring Shape, Interactions and Structures' at the University of Konstanz.
Roads 'a serious threat' to rare bats
Roads present a serious threat to bat populations, indicating that protection policies are failing.
'Breaking me softly:' UCF fiber findings featured in Nature
A finding by a University of Central Florida researcher that unlocks a means of controlling materials at the nanoscale and opens the door to a new generation of manufacturing is featured online today in the journal Nature.
Cancer drug trial success
The successful results of a University of Liverpool led drug trial aimed at developing new therapeutic approaches to cancer have been presented at two American medical conferences.
Scientists develop protein with potential to modify brain function, memory in mice and fish
Scientists have developed a protein that can hasten the degradation of synaptic proteins.
Marine invertebrate larvae actively respond to their surroundings
Using larvae of sea urchins as test examples, scientists from HKUST and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution found that these little creatures actively modify their swimming speeds in response to ambient flow conditions.
Spiders put the bite on irritable bowel syndrome pain
Spiders have helped researchers from Australia and the US discover a new target for irritable bowel syndrome pain, as published in Nature today.
Insufficient sleep cycle -- especially for shift workers -- may increase heart disease risk
Insufficient sleep and sleep-cycle disruption can impair the body's rhythms and cardiovascular function, and may explain increased cardiovascular risks observed in shift workers.
Study may help reassure women taking tamoxifen for breast cancer
A study presented at ASCO may help reassure patients who worry the breast cancer drug tamoxifen could increase their risk of uterine cancer.
Marking five years of the National Robotics Initiative in Washington, D.C. on June 9
To mark the five-year anniversary of the National Robotics Initiative -- a multi-agency research effort to accelerate the development of robots that work cooperatively with people -- the Congressional Robotics Caucus will host an expo on Thursday, June 9, 2016, in Washington, D.C.
Reduce cyberslacking and increase physical activity with a tap, a click or a kick
An innovative wearable technology for standing desks that creates a new way of interacting with your computer could reduce cyberslacking and increase healthy movement.
Enzyme-aided recovery methods help in extracting protein from rapeseed press cake
One-third of cold-pressed rapeseed press cake consists of nutritionally valuable protein that could have many other uses besides animal feed.
UTSA receives $1.9 million grant to support underrepresented minority researchers
The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) has received a $1.9 million grant over five years to support its Maximizing Access to Research Centers (MARC) program.
Methotrexate exposure impacts cognitive processes cancer survivors need to multitask
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital reports that higher blood concentrations of methotrexate during cancer treatment are associated with brain changes and impaired executive function in survivors of pediatric leukemia.
Early farmers from across Europe were direct descendants of Aegeans
This week, an international research team led by paleogeneticists of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz publishes a study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America showing that early farmers from across Europe have an almost unbroken trail of ancestry leading back to the Aegean.
Shorter patient consent forms, video formats improve comprehension
To improve patient consent form comprehension, Carnegie Mellon University researchers Tamar Krishnamurti and Nichole Argo have developed approaches to simplify the process by focusing on the information that patients need most when deciding whether to enroll in a trial.
Videoconferencing between hospital clinicians, nursing home staff offers new dementia treatment
Nursing homes care for increasing numbers of people with dementia, yet many lack access to geriatric psychiatrists, behavioral neurologists and other specialists who can help manage dementia care.
New photonic sensor opens the door to high-speed biodetection
Researchers from the University of Illinois have developed a new technique for extremely high speed photonic sensing of the mechanical properties of freely flowing particles using an opto-mechano-fluidic resonator.
Intensive treatment, severe hypoglycemia in adults with type 2 diabetes
A new study of adults with type 2 diabetes suggests more than 25 percent received intensive glucose-lowering therapy, including 18.7 percent who were at risk for treatment-related adverse effects because of advanced age and co-existing illnesses, according to a new study published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.
New gene shown to cause Parkinson's disease
Northwestern Medicine scientists have discovered a new cause of Parkinson's disease -- mutations in a gene called TMEM230.
Doctors unleash new weapon to fight pediatric neuroblastoma
After the first year of receiving the novel treatment combination, more than half of children with relapsed neuroblastoma saw either a complete or partial remission -- a 53 percent response rate compared to the typical 10 to 12 percent response rate.
NRL develops new low-defect method to nitrogen dope graphene resulting in tunable bandstructure
Scientists at the US Naval Research Laboratory demonstrate hyperthermal ion implantation (HyTII) as an effective means of substitutionally doping graphene, resulting in a low-defect film with a tunable bandstructure amenable to a variety of device platforms and applications.
'Pristine' landscapes haven't existed for thousands of years due to human activity
The paper reveals a pattern of significant, long-term, human influence on the distribution of species across all of the earth's major occupied continents and islands.
Physicists predict novel phenomena in exotic materials
Discovered just five years ago, topological semimetals are materials with unusual physical properties that could make them useful for future electronics.
Intervention reduces rates of overweight tots by half
Mothers who practiced responsive parenting -- including reacting promptly and appropriately to hunger and fullness cues -- were less likely to have overweight babies at their one-year checkup than those who did not, say health researchers.
Study finds one-third of women taking bisphosphonates remain at risk for fracture
A recent study of oral bisphosphonates, the most commonly prescribed osteoporosis treatment, found that approximately a third of women prescribed these drugs continue to be at elevated risk for bone fracture, an outcome that may have several origins.
Almost all food and beverage products marketed by music stars are unhealthy
NYU Langone researchers publish first study to quantify nutritional quality of food and drinks endorsed by music celebrities popular among teens.
The rise of intimate partner violence during the Great Recession
Financial strain has long been one of the leading causes of family discord, but a recent study suggests that simply living through major economic recessions increases a mother's chance of suffering from domestic violence.
Algorithm could construct first images of black holes
Researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and Harvard University have developed a new algorithm that could help astronomers produce the first image of a black hole.
Residents concerned about use of genetically modified mosquitoes to curb insect population
A small survey of residents of a Florida Keys neighborhood where officials hope to release genetically modified mosquitos to potentially reduce the threat of mosquito-borne illnesses such as Zika finds a lack of support for the control method, according to new research from former and current students at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Genetic variations linked with social and economic success
Psychological characteristics link genes with upward social mobility, according to data collected from almost 1,000 individuals over four decades.
Expansion of kidney progenitor cells toward regenerative medicine
The kidney is a difficult organ to regenerate. However, in a big step forward for kidney regeneration research, a collaboration between scientists from Japan and the US has successfully demonstrated a method of increasing kidney progenitor cell proliferation in vitro.
Lean gene discovery could lead to new type 2 diabetes therapies
People with type 2 diabetes could be helped by the discovery of a gene linked to leanness by scientists at the University of Edinburgh.
Soluble elements from a new corner of the periodic table
The world of chemistry has a new first: in the journal Nature Chemistry, a research group at the University of Würzburg has presented the first soluble and stable molecules containing an s-block atom in its elemental state.
Pembrolizumab elicits significant antitumor activity in head & neck cancer patients
Treating head and neck cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease with the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab resulted in significant clinical responses in a fifth of the patients from a phase II clinical trial.
Weak evidence for prescribed alcohol drug, say scientists
A drug being used to treat alcohol problems in the UK was licensed for use despite insufficient evidence to prove its effectiveness, new research led by the University of Stirling has found.
WSU researcher affirms 86-year-old hypothesis
A Washington State University biologist has found what he calls 'very strong support' for an 86-year-old hypothesis about how nutrients move through plants.
Evidence of hearing damage in teens prompts researchers' warning
New research into the ringing-ear condition known as tinnitus indicates an alarming level of early, permanent hearing damage in young people who are exposed to loud music, prompting a warning from a leading Canadian researcher in the field.
Blood test to personalize depression treatment for the first time
Scientists at King's College London have developed a blood test that accurately and reliably predicts whether depressed patients will respond to common antidepressants, which could herald a new era of personalized treatment for people with depression.
A family-based weight management program improved self-perception among obese children
Battling the childhood obesity epidemic is a priority for many researchers, as obesity during adolescence increases the risk of chronic diseases throughout life.
Eddies enhance survival of coral reef fish in sub-tropical waters
Swirling eddies in the ocean have long been thought to be beneficial to organisms such as larval fishes residing within them because of enhanced phytoplankton production.
Walking and talking behaviors may help predict epidemics and trends
Mobile phone data may reveal an underlying mathematical connection between how we move and how we communicate that could make it easier to predict how diseases -- and even ideas -- spread through a population, according to an international team of researchers.
Combo immunotherapy for advanced melanoma: Two therapies may be better than one
A new metastatic melanoma study suggests that a combination of two immunotherapies may be better than one.
Polar weather and climate week
Nearly 80 prominent atmospheric scientists, representing 18 countries from around the world, are attending a week of workshops and meetings at The Ohio State University to discuss the latest scientific developments regarding Antarctic and Arctic meteorology and climate change.
Inbred Neanderthals left humans a genetic burden
The Neanderthal genome included harmful mutations that made the hominids around 40 percent less reproductively fit than modern humans, according to estimates published in the latest issue of the journal GENETICS.
New molecular design to get hydrogen-powered cars motoring
A radical new process that allows hydrogen to be efficiently sourced from liquid formic acid could be one step forward in making the dream of hydrogen-powered cars an economic reality.
Rice study details stress-diabetes link
A study led by Rice University has found a positive link between emotional stress and diabetes, with roots in the brain's ability to control anxiety.
Genomic Data Commons at University of Chicago launches new era of cancer data sharing
The Genomic Data Commons, a next-generation platform that enables unprecedented data access, analysis and sharing for cancer research, publicly launched at the University of Chicago on June 6, opening the door to discoveries for this complex set of diseases.

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