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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | June 15, 2016

Adolescent sleep duration is associated with daytime mood
A new study of adolescents suggests that obtaining an insufficient amount of sleep increases variability in sadness, anger, energy and feelings of sleepiness.
A male-killing bacterium results in female-biased sex ratios in green lacewings
A maternally transmitted Spiroplasma bacterium is the likely cause of the green lacewing's female-biased sex ratio, according to a study published June 15, 2016, in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Masayuki Hayashi from Chiba University, Japan, and colleagues.
A simple numbers game seems to make kids better at math
Although math skills are considered notoriously hard to improve, Johns Hopkins University researchers boosted kindergarteners' arithmetic performance simply by exercising their intuitive number sense with a quick computer game.
Bristol and Leeds collaboration reveals a new mechanism for protein secretion
A UK research team has discovered that a cell's protective layer acts like a turnstile, allowing proteins to be exported while preventing them from moving back in.
AAS Nova wins online media award
AAS Nova, a 10-month-old website featuring research highlights from the Astronomical Journal and the Astrophysical Journal family, won 'Best Health/Education News Site' at the Drum Online Media Awards on Tuesday, June 7.
ARRS to host abdominal and pelvic MR imaging event
ARRS, working in conjunction with its members, will hold the 2016 ARRS Abdominal and Pelvic MR Imaging Symposium Sept.
ASU multi-million program to develop an automated, high-throughput radiological test
Arizona State University's Biodesign Institute announced today it is entering a new, $7 million phase of a multi-million, multi-institutional development project to produce a diagnostic test to measure an individual's level of absorbed radiation in the event of an unplanned radiological or nuclear event.
Droughts across Europe affect British trees most
Environmental scientists from the University of Stirling have found beech forests across western Europe are increasingly at risk from drought -- with areas of southern England worst affected.
Sylvester scientists provide proof of concept for potential new class of cancer drugs
A recent study led by scientists at Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, in collaboration with the Univerity of Maryland School of Pharmacy and StemSynergy Therapeutics, Inc., has identified a small-molecule inhibitor of the Notch pathway, paving the way for a potential new class of personalized cancer medicines.
Tohoku University demonstrates sub-nanosecond operation of nonvolatile memory
A research group at RIEC demonstrated the sub-nanosecond operation of a nonvolatile magnetic memory device.
New 3-D printed polymer can convert methane to methanol
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists have combined biology and 3-D printing to create the first reactor that can continuously produce methanol from methane at room temperature and pressure.
SNMMI Image of the Year: Novel PET imaging shows tau buildup link to neurodegeneration
Positron emission tomography with three different radiotracers can now measure amyloid plaques, tau tangles and metabolic activity in the brains of living Alzheimer's patients.
When it comes to evolution, testes may play a key role, IU studies find
A pair of studies on dark-eyed juncos, led by Indiana University led by Kimberly Rosvall, assistant professor in the IU College of Arts and Sciences' Department of Biology, finds that the gonads play a larger role than previously thought in evolution.
New X-ray method allows scientists to probe molecular explosions
A team led by researchers from the US Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory used the high-intensity, quick-burst X-rays provided by the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to look at how the atoms in a molecule change when the molecule is bombarded with X-rays.
Scientists detect second pair of colliding black holes
The new window onto the universe just opened a little bit wider.
Celgene joins DNDi's 'Drug Discovery Booster'
The biopharmaceutical company Celgene has become the fifth company to join the 'Neglected Tropical Diseases Drug Discovery Booster' consortium, a new initiative to accelerate and cut the cost of early stage drug discovery for two of the world's most neglected diseases, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.
Seven servings of whole grains a day keep the doctor away
A recent meta-analysis shows that consuming a lot of whole grains decreases the risk of dying prematurely.
Historic fossils find new life telling the story of ancient proteins
A few snippets of protein extracted from the fossil of an extinct species of giant beaver are opening a new door in paleoproteomics, the study of ancient proteins.
Shorter radiation course recommended for early-stage breast cancer patients
Early-stage breast cancer patients receiving a shorter course of whole breast radiation with higher radiation doses per fraction reported equivalent cosmetic, functional and pain outcomes over time as those receiving a longer, lower-dose per fraction course of treatment, according to researchers from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
New study highlights power of crowd to transmit news on Twitter
The tiny fraction of headlines that news editors push out on Twitter draw a large share of eyeballs, but it's the stories recommended by friends that trigger more clicks.
New genetic research can significantly improve drug development
According to a new study published in the International Journal of Epidemiology this week, genetic research in large-scale prospective biobank studies can significantly improve the drug development pipeline and reduce costs.
Access to affordable housing provides refugees with more than just shelter
Research conducted in major Canadian cities shows that refugee newcomers with large families struggle to find suitable housing.
At any skill level, making art reduces stress hormones
A Drexel University study found that no matter a person's skill level, taking time to make art is likely to reduce their stress hormone levels.
Loofah-based material could give lithium batteries a boost
Today's mobile lifestyle depends on rechargeable lithium batteries. But to take these storage devices to the next level -- to shore up the electric grid or for widespread use in vehicles, for example -- they need a big boost in capacity.
Antibiotics disrupt infants' gut microbiome, studies suggest
Two new studies of more than 80 infants together offer a clearer picture of how antibiotics, along with birth mode and diet, can disrupt the development of the gut microbiome.
Legions of immune cells in the lung keep Legionella at bay
A team of specialist researchers in Melbourne believe they have found a major response that helps keep the Legionella infection at bay.
Why people help distant kin
It's easy to understand why natural selection favors people who help close kin at their own expense: it can increase the odds the family's genes are passed to future generations.
Restaurant improbable: Costs, productivity may prompt restaurant reinvention
As unpalatable as the thought may be to some, tight profit margins and increasing labor costs may force restaurant owners and food service professionals to reinvent their business models, according to a team of researchers.
Functional traits of Giant Sequoia crown leaves respond to environmental threats
As many as 2 billion leaves on a sequoia vie for resources.
Defining the consequences of genetic variation on a proteome-wide scale
Combining two emerging large-scale technologies for the first time -- multiplexed mass spectrometry and a mouse population with a high level of natural genetic diversity --researchers at Harvard Medical School (HMS) and The Jackson Laboratory (JAX) can crack an outstanding question in biology and medicine: how genetic variants affect protein levels.
Malware, data theft, and scams: Researchers expose risks of free livestreaming websites
Millions of people use free livestreaming websites to watch sports and other live events online, but this comes with a considerable security risk.
New type of meteorite linked to ancient asteroid collision
An ancient space rock discovered in a Swedish quarry is a type of meteorite never before found on Earth, and likely a remnant of a massive asteroid collision 470 million years ago that sent debris raining to Earth.
An innovative daily irrigation advisory service for the whole of the Basque
The Basque Country's farmers can as from today onwards avail themselves of a practical tool designed by the Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development Neiker Tecnalia and which calculates on a daily basis the need for them to irrigate their land.
Bioactive film improves how implants bond with bone in animal study
Researchers have developed a technique for coating polymer implants with a bioactive film that significantly increases bonding between the implant and surrounding bone in an animal model.
Returns in fine art have been overestimated
Investors should buy paintings if they like looking at them, but not to make money, according to new research from the Luxembourg School of Finance of the University of Luxembourg, which found that returns of fine art have been significantly overestimated.
Invasive Asian carp respond strongly to carbon dioxide
Bighead carp and silver carp are species of invasive Asian carp that threaten the Great Lakes.
Study compares manual versus robotic approach to treating dangerous heart arrhythmia
Whether ablation of the highest-risk heart arrhythmia is best handled by a robot or the hands of an electrophysiologist should be answered by an international comparison of the two.
Depressed, out of work? Study suggests skills to help land a job
Unemployed people were more likely to land a job if they used skills commonly taught as part of cognitive therapy for depression, a new study found.
International Tree Nut Council funds study linking tree nut consumption to prostate cancer mortality
New study on nut consumption and prostate cancer published in the British Journal of Cancer.
First direct evidence for ultra-fast responses in human amygdala to fear
For the first time, an international team of scientists lead by researchers from the Campus de Excelencia Internacional Moncloa has shown that the amygdala in the human brain is able to detect possible threats in the visual environment at ultra-fast time scales.
New 'GreenWeb' tools aim to create an energy-efficient web
Researchers in the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin have developed a new, open-source computer programming framework that could make the web significantly more energy efficient,
PET/CT imaging of prostate cancer proves accurate biopsy guide
Prostate cancer is the leading cancer among men, second only to skin cancer.
Face of the future
A new technique developed at Columbia Engineering by Biomedical Engineering Professor Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic repairs large bone defects in the head and face by using lab-grown living bone, tailored to the patient and the defect being treated.
Bee vampire picks the right host to suck
New insights into the reproductive secrets of one of the world's tiniest and most destructive parasites -- the Varroa mite -- has scientists edging closer to regulating them.
South Pole medical evacuation flight launched
Officials with the National Science Foundation (NSF) have launched a medical evacuation flight to NSF's scientific station at the geographic South Pole.
Using espresso machines to do chemistry
Many chemists are familiar with taking trips to the espresso machine while running late-night experiments, but until now these excursions were merely undertaken for the caffeine boost.
A broken calorie sensing pathway: How overeating may lead to more eating
New research shows that overeating reduces levels of a hormone that signals the feeling of fullness in the brain, potentially promoting more eating.
Gravitational waves detected for a second time
On Dec. 26, 2015 scientists observed gravitational waves -- ripples in the fabric of spacetime -- for the second time.
Did gravitational wave detector find dark matter?
When an astronomical observatory detected two black holes colliding in deep space, scientists celebrated confirmation of Einstein's prediction of gravitational waves.
EARTH: Double trouble
A 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo that killed more than 100 people also triggered an earthquake eight months later that shook the town of Kalehe in the Lake Kivu region.
This week from AGU: Clues to life's origins, Martian dust storms, and more
This week from AGU are clues to life's origins, Martian dust storms, and two more research spotlights.
Study finds intervention helps newborns get screened for hearing loss
Researchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center found that targeted intervention helps improve follow-up rates by more than 70 percent for newborns who fail initial hearing screenings at birth hospitals.
Penn-led study resolves long-disputed theory about stem cell populations
A team from the University of Pennsylvania has helped identify key characteristics that distinguish reserve stem cells from other stem cell populations that had been purported to have similar properties.
Personalized medicine will employ computer algorithms
Russian scientists have developed a software program enabling them to quickly compare sets of DNA of microorganisms living in different environments.
Changed gut bug mix linked to C-section, antibiotics and formula lasts through baby's first year
Birth by C-section, exposure to antibiotics and formula feeding slow the development and decrease the diversity of a baby's microbes through the first year of life.
VTT releases a painless, quick and reliable method for diagnosing Helicobacter from exhaled air
In the future, several illnesses can be quickly and painlessly diagnosed by the optical analysis of isotopes contained in exhaled air.
Map of teenage brain provides evidence of link between antisocial behavior and brain development
The brains of teenagers with serious antisocial behavior problems differ significantly in structure to those of their peers, providing the clearest evidence to date that their behavior stems from changes in brain development in early life, according to new research led by the University of Cambridge and the University of Southampton, in collaboration with the University of Rome Tor Vergata in Italy.
Video captures tadpole escape artists in Panama
Although red-eyed tree frog embryos appear helpless within their jelly-coated eggs, they can hatch up to two days ahead of schedule, reacting within seconds to attacks by egg thieves.
New gravitational wave observed from second pair of black holes
Gravitational waves from a second pair of colliding black holes has validated the landmark discovery from earlier this year that confirmed Einstein's general theory of relativity.
Diarrheal pathogen measures human body temperature
Using cutting-edge high-throughput sequencing methods, researchers have mapped all RNA structures of a diarrheal pathogen at once.
Toward a diagnostic blood test for endometriosis
Endometriosis is a chronic, often painful disease affecting up to 10 percent of women of reproductive age in the US.
Four paths to the end of life -- 1 far more expensive than others -- emerge in new study
Last-ditch, high-tech heroic treatments. Days in the hospital intensive care unit.
Gravitational waves detected from second pair of colliding black holes
On Dec. 26, 2015, at 03:38:53 UTC, scientists observed gravitational waves -- ripples in the fabric of spacetime -- for the second time.
Chemotherapy may boost immunotherapy power in ovarian cancer
Cancer Research UK scientists have found that women with advanced ovarian cancer may benefit more from immunotherapy drug treatments if they are given straight after chemotherapy.
On the path toward bionic enzymes
Berkeley Lab chemists have successfully married chemistry and biology to create reactions never before possible.
Bright spots shine light on the future of coral reefs
In one of the largest global studies of its kind, researchers conducted over 6,000 reef surveys in 46 countries across the globe, and discovered 15 'bright spots' -- places where, against all the odds, there were a lot more fish on coral reefs than expected.
New generation of high-efficiency solar thermal absorbers developed
Researchers from the Universities of Bristol and Exeter are one step closer to developing a new generation of low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells.
Dartmouth team uses smart light to track human behavior
Using the power of the light around us, Dartmouth College researchers have significantly improved their innovative light-sensing system that tracks a person's behavior continuously and unobtrusively in real time.
Piping hot drinks may lead to cancer of the esophagus
Drinking piping hot coffee, tea and the caffeine-infused beverage yerba mate probably causes cancer, the World Health Organization announced.
Disaster Global Health: Respond, Recover, Prepare
The mission of the SDMPH is to advance and promote excellence in education, training and research in disaster medicine and public health for all potential health system responders based on sound educational principles, scientific evidence and best clinical and public health practices.
Elsevier announces the launch of Kidney International Reports
Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical, and medical information products and services, and the International Society of Nephrology, the global medical society devoted to advancing kidney care worldwide, today announced the launch of Kidney International Reports.
Penn researchers find one-third of patients with low flow aortic stenosis do not improve with transcatheter aortic valve replacement
For patients with low flow aortic stenosis, TAVR -- a minimally invasive procedure which corrects the damaged aortic valve -- is often the best option for restoring the heart's normal pumping function.
Age, obesity, dopamine appear to influence preference for sweet foods
As young people reach adulthood, their preferences for sweet foods typically decline.
Cause of heart arrhythmia in adult muscular dystrophy clarified
An international joint research group found that the cause of heart arrhythmia in myotonic dystrophy was RNA abnormalities in the sodium channel in the heart, clarifying the symptom's mechanism.
New Health Union survey reveals importance of online health communities
A new survey from Health Union of more than 2,200 people with chronic health conditions and their caregivers illustrates how patients use online health information to better understand their health condition, learn about symptoms and treatment, and share experiences with other patients living with the same health condition.
Study reveals impact of antibiotic treatment, other factors on the infant gut microbiome
A comprehensive analysis of changes in the intestinal microbial population during the first three years of life has revealed some of the impacts of factors such as mode of birth -- vaginal versus cesarean section -- and antibiotic exposure, including the effects of multiple antibiotic treatments.
New TSRI method opens door to development of many new medicines
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have developed a powerful new method for finding drug candidates that bind to specific proteins, an advance that can be applied to a large set of proteins at once, even to the thousands of distinct proteins directly in their native cellular environment.
ASPB Plant BLOOME 2016 grant winners
The Plant BLOOME Grant is awarded to Society members with education and outreach projects that advance youth, student, or general public knowledge and appreciation of plant biology.
Arthritis linked to suicide attempts
One in every 26 men with arthritis have attempted suicide compared to one in 50 men without arthritis.
Research shows promising results for a device designed to protect athletes from sports-related brain injuries
Two new studies involving high school football and hockey players indicate wearing a specifically designed compression collar around the neck may prevent or reduce the devastating effects of head collisions in sports.
Droplets finally all the same size -- in a nanodroplet library
A single microdroplet is really not very large and certainly does not look like something you can do a lot with.
Presurgery chemotherapy may make advanced ovarian cancers responsive to immunotherapy
Metastatic ovarian cancer patients treated with chemotherapy prior to surgery had altered immune cells in their tumors, and specific alterations identified suggest that immunotherapy given after chemotherapy may help in preventing the cancer from coming back.
Misleading images in cell biology
Virtually all membrane proteins have been reported to be organized as clusters on cell surfaces, when in fact many of them are just single proteins which have been counted multiple times.
Making vinyl records even groovier
Audiophiles have reason to celebrate. Vinyl records are experiencing a comeback, and scientists are working to make their sound quality even better.
RIKEN enters collaboration with Grace Science Foundation for research on NGLY1
RIKEN has entered into a collaboration with the Grace Science Foundation to conduct research on NGLY1 deficiency, a rare genetic disorder that was discovered in 2012 by American doctors.
'Mosh pits' in star clusters a likely source of LIGO's first black holes
Northwestern University astrophysicists have predicted history. They show their theoretical predictions last year were correct: The merger of two massive black holes detected Sept.
Scientists using sunlight, water to produce renewable hydrogen power
University of Iowa researchers are working with a California-based startup company to make clean energy from sunlight and any source of water.
New imaging technique could ID additional ovarian tumors not visible to surgeons' eyes
A newly devised tumor-specific fluorescent agent and imaging system guided surgeons in real time to remove additional tumors in ovarian cancer patients that were not visible without fluorescence or could not be felt during surgery.
Antibiotics increase availability of nutrients in the gut, enabling growth of pathogens
Research led by Andreas Bäumler, professor of medical immunology and microbiology at UCDavis Health System, has identified a new mechanism explaining how antibiotics change the gut microbiota, increasing nutrients that benefit the growth of pathogens, like Salmonella.
When Britain was fringed by tropical seas
A team from the University of Bristol has shed new light on the creatures that inhabited the tropical seas surrounding Britain at the start of the age of the dinosaurs.
Cardiff University to investigate new epilepsy treatment
Researchers at Cardiff University's School of Medicine are about to explore whether it's possible to treat human temporal lobe epilepsy by transplanting immature neuron cells into the brain.
High rate of patient factors linked to hospital readmissions following general surgery
An analysis of risk factors for hospital readmission following general surgery finds that a large number of readmissions were not caused by suboptimal medical care or deterioration of medical conditions but by issues related to mental health, substance abuse, or homelessness, according to a study published online by JAMA Surgery.
UCLA scientists discover protective strategy against pesticide-linked Parkinson's disease
A new UCLA study sheds light on the toxicity of the pesticides related to Parkinson's while also suggesting a strategy that may help protect against the disease.
The Muffin Study: Mono- vs. polyunsaturated fats in patients with metabolic syndrome
A batch of muffins, made with a special recipe formulated by the US Department of Agriculture, yielded unexpected health benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome during a first-of-its-kind clinical study at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.
For tropical mayflies, mountain passes are higher indeed
A study led by Colorado State University biologists shows that insect populations in the tropics exhibit a higher number of distinct species than in the Rockies.
Antidepressive treatment during pregnancy can affect newborn brain activity
A new Finnish study shows that fetal exposure to commonly used SRI drugs may affect brain activity in newborns.
Researchers find potential key to preventing heart attacks, strokes in older adults
Researchers at the University of Missouri have found that Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), a protein that is naturally found in high levels among adolescents, can help prevent arteries from clogging.
Asking patients where they want to die when admitted to hospice linked to fewer hospitalizations
Patients who were asked where they wanted to die upon entering hospice had lower rates of hospitalization at the end of life, as did those in hospices that monitored symptoms more frequently, according to a new study led by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.
Allina Health presents LifeCourse developments at national conference
These are three new tools to help caregivers involved in late life care from LifeCourse in Minneapolis.
How red-eyed treefrog embryos hatch in seconds
When they come under attack by a predatory treesnake, red-eyed treefrog embryos must escape in seconds or risk becoming lunch.
Emotionally positive situations boost memory for similar future events
Researchers from the Institute of Biomedical Research of Bellvitge have proved that combining a positive emotional component with a given stimulus promotes memory for future stimuli of the same type.
MRSA detection technology developed by TGen-NAU is granted first patent
Antibiotic-resistant infections should be easier to detect, and hospitals could become safer, thanks to a technology developed by the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) and Northern Arizona University (NAU), and protected under a patent issued by Australia.
Gene required for sperm production in blood flukes identified
Scientists can interfere with sperm production in the parasitic blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni by blocking expression of the Nuclear Factor Y-B gene (NF-YB).
Key compound for high-temperature superconductivity was found
A research group in Japan found a new compound H5S2 that shows a new superconductivity phase on computer simulation.
OSA Publishing dominates the Optics category in latest Journal Citation Reports
The Optical Society (OSA) announced today that OSA Publishing remains the market leader in the field of optics and photonics.
Male banana fiddler crabs may coerce mating by trapping females in tight burrows
While male banana fiddler crabs (Uca mjoebergi) in Australia typically court females, some may coerce mating by waiting for females to enter their burrows and then trapping them there, according a study published June 15, 2016 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Christina Painting from The Australian National University, Canberra, and colleagues.
Engineering the immune system to kill cancer cells
A research team led by University of Notre Dame chemist Brian Baker is developing a new immunotherapy, a treatment that enhances immune system function in order to treat or prevent disease, as a means to more effectively target and kill cancer cells.
Homologues temperature of olivine links deformation experiments and rheology of the upper mantle
The homologues temperature of a crystalline material is defined as the ratio between its temperature and the melting (solidus) temperature in Kelvin.
Funding for Ph.D. post in dementia with Lewy bodies research
Research at Plymouth University investigating a potential therapy for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), the second-most prevalent form of dementia, has received a boost with funding from dementia research charity BRACE.
CWRU physicists deploy magnetic vortex to control electron spin
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University have coupled a magnetic vortex with a diamond nanoparticle to swiftly and precisely control electron spins in nitrogen defects at room temperature.
In-hospital mobility program proves successful for patients' posthospital function
A UAB study in the Journal of the American Medical Association shows patients' mobility while hospitalized helps maintain daily activity in older adults.
Promoting dark skies across Europe
Researchers from the University of Southampton are helping citizens across Europe to address the environmental impacts of light pollution.
Rush hour on Palmyra Atoll
Marine biologists discover that shark traffic in and out of a remote Pacific island's lagoon peaks just after dusk.
How the butterfly got its spots
By tweaking just one or two genes, Cornell University researchers have altered the patterns on a butterfly's wings.
First detection of methyl alcohol in a planet-forming disc
The organic molecule methyl alcohol (methanol) has been found by the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the TW Hydrae protoplanetary disc.
Postpartum depression least severe form of depression in mothers
Postpartum depression -- a household term since actress Brooke Shields went public in 2005 about her struggle with it -- is indeed serious.
The use of Camelid antibodies for structural biology
The use of Camelid antibodies has important implications for future development of reagents for diagnosis and therapeutics in diseases involving a group of enzymes called serine proteases.
Study offers explanation for why women leave engineering
Women who go to college intending to become engineers stay in the profession less often than men.
Simulations describe HIV's 'diabolical delivery device'
University of Chicago scientists and their colleagues have developed an innovative computer model of HIV that gives real insight into how a virus 'matures' and becomes infective.
Super-resolution microscopy reveals unprecedented detail of immune cells' surface
Salk scientists show how T-cell receptors reposition during an immune response, revealing more on how the immune system is regulated.
Sleep disorders may predict heart events after angioplasty
People who have had procedures to open blocked heart arteries after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may have a higher risk of death, heart failure, heart attack and stroke if they have sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea, compared to those who don't.
12th National Graduate Research Polymer Conference
Global warming, greenhouse gasses, clean energy, curing cancer -- these challenges of our modern world, and more, will be the focus of the 12th National Graduate Research Polymer Conference at The University of Akron June 19-22.

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