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Science Current Events and Science News | Brightsurf | June 16, 2016


Study: Exercise can help adults better cope with ADHD symptoms
Exercise, even a small amount, can help alleviate symptoms of ADHD in adults, according to a new study by University of Georgia researchers.
Study underscores ongoing need for HIV safety net program
A Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine study of insurance coverage of more than 28,000 people with HIV concludes that a decades-old program that offers free medical care remains a critical necessity despite the availability of coverage under the Affordable Care Act.
Device for irregular heartbeat may be more cost-effective than medication
A new study by a Yale researcher may support the use of a device for patients suffering from irregular heart rhythms.
Impaired decision-making may contribute to motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease
UCLA researchers have discovered that people with Parkinson's disease have a form of impaired decision-making that may be a major contributor to the movement problems that characterize the disease.
Certain factors affect vitamin D levels in children with chronic kidney disease
Two-thirds of the children with kidney disease were classified as vitamin D deficient.
Sandia researchers discover mechanism for Rift Valley fever virus infection
Viruses can't live without us -- literally. As obligate parasites, viruses need a host cell to survive.
Story time: ONR researchers create 'human user manual' for robots
With support from the Office of Naval Research, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have created an artificial intelligence software program named Quixote to teach robots to read stories, learn acceptable behavior and understand successful ways to conduct themselves in diverse social situations.
Climate scientists are more credible when they practice what they preach
Americans are more likely to follow advice about personal energy use from climate scientists who minimize their own carbon footprint, according to Shahzeen Attari of Indiana University's School of Public and Environmental Affairs.
Survival of the fittest sperm: How new technology may help infertile couples
Of the millions of sperm that enter the vagina, only about 10 make it to the egg, demonstrating how rigorous the natural sperm selection process really is.
Lab-grown nerve cells make heart cells throb
Researchers at Johns Hopkins report that a type of lab-grown human nerve cells can partner with heart muscle cells to stimulate contractions.
University of Surrey Professor and BBC presenter receives Stephen Hawking Medal
Renowned physicist, author and broadcaster, Professor Jim Al-Khalili OBE, has been awarded the inaugural Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication.
Pregnant women's high-fat, high-sugar diets may affect future generations
A mouse study by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.
African-American lupus patient immune cell characteristics may increase disease severity
In this issue of JCI Insight, Laurence Menard and colleagues at Bristol-Myers Squibb investigated differences in immune cell characteristics that may contribute to systemic lupus erythematosus severity in African-Americans.
Scientific gains may make electronic nose the next everyday device
Researchers at the Texas Analog Center of Excellence (TxACE) at UT Dallas are working to develop an affordable electronic nose that can be used in breath analysis for a wide range of health diagnosis.
Juan Scheun receives Arnold Berliner Award 2016
The Arnold Berliner Award 2016 goes to Juan Scheun of the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa.
Dull and dirty: Your workplace could affect brain function
A new study by a Florida State University researcher shows that both a lack of stimulation in the workplace and a dirty working environment can have a long-term cognitive effect on employees.
7-day doctors cut weekend emergency hospital visits by 18 percent, study finds
The UK government's pilot of seven-day opening of doctor surgeries has significantly reduced weekend emergency hospital visits, hospital admissions and ambulance call-outs, new University of Sussex research has found.
Gravitational waves caught again
Dec. 26, 2015, for the second time scientists recorded gravitational waves -- the disturbance of space-time metric.
California county health programs yield high returns
Return on investment by California's county public health departments, which focus on prevention, exceeds return on investment in many other areas of medical care, according to a new study by UC Berkeley economist Timothy Brown.
Pitt researcher's work headed to International Space Station
Rocky S. Tuan, Ph.D., has received a research grant from the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space to continue his work on a 3-D microphysiological system to be conducted on board the International Space Station to evaluate the accelerated aging and degeneration process of bones that occurs in space.
Electric fields weaker in slow-healing diabetic wounds
People with diabetes often suffer from wounds that are slow to heal and can lead to ulcers, gangrene and amputation.
Scientists detect most distant signs of oxygen in the universe
An international team of researchers has detected gas containing oxygen in a galaxy 13.1 billion light years from Earth, providing a glimpse into what the universe was like in ancient times, reports a new study published in this week's Science.
NTU and Delta Electronics set up S$45 million joint lab for smart technologies
Nanyang Technological University and Delta Electronics have established a joint laboratory to develop smart technologies that will enhance everyday lives, enable better learning and advance manufacturing processes.
Need to remember something? Exercise 4 hours later!
A new study suggests an intriguing strategy to boost memory for what you've just learned: hit the gym four hours later.
New procedure allows long-term culturing of adult stem cells
A new procedure developed at Massachusetts General Hospital may revolutionize the culturing of adult stem cells.
RIT's David Borkholder named 'Distinguished Inventor of the Year' by local law association
Rochester Institute of Technology professor David Borkholder was named 'Distinguished Inventor of the Year' by the Rochester Intellectual Property Law Association.
A single species of gut bacteria can reverse autism-related social behavior in mice
The absence of a one specific species of gut bacteria causes social deficits in mice, researchers report June 16 in Cell.
Does inflammation contribute to premenstrual symptoms?
Women with premenstrual symptoms including mood swings, weight gain/bloating, and abdominal cramps/back pain have elevated levels of C-reactive protein, a biomarker of inflammation associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Eye-tracking system uses ordinary cellphone camera
For the past 40 years, eye-tracking technology -- which can determine where in a visual scene people are directing their gaze -- has been widely used in psychological experiments and marketing research, but it's required pricey hardware that has kept it from finding consumer applications.
Receptor variation influences fingolimod efficacy in mouse multiple sclerosis models
In this issue of JCI Insight, May Han of Stanford University and colleagues tested the hypothesis that genetic variants of the cell surface receptor that responds to S1P, S1PR1, may influence the efficacy of fingolimod.
How do hydrogen droplets behave when hydrogen-oxygen aerosol mixtures burn?
In the framework of research motivated by the Challenger disaster a team of researchers have pursued all possible mechanisms of igniting explosions of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen mixtures in similar situations.
700-year-old West African soil technique could help mitigate climate change
A 700-year-old fertile soil technique could mitigate climate change and revolutionize farming across Africa.
Summer session fruit fly data leads to promising new target in colorectal cancer
University of Colorado Cancer Center study shows role of TIP60 (alongside previously known CDK8) in allowing human colorectal cancer cells to survive at the oxygen-poor centers of tumors.
Researching how to improve certification of intelligent devices
In today's world there are more devices capable of processing and transmitting information that monitor a multitude of physical processes in interconnected global digital networks, such as drones, autonomous cars, industrial robot chains or intelligent trains.
RIT and UW-Madison study high-tech workforce, 21st century competencies
An NSF-funded study exploring how high-tech employees learn to develop competencies relevant to the workplace is the focus of a collaboration between Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
'Half of the people of Turkish origin do not feel recognized'
Emnid survey among people of Turkish origin in Germany: high sense of well-being, but widespread feeling of poor social recognition -- vehement defense of Islam -- fundamentalist attitudes common -- cultural self-assertion particularly in the second and third generations of immigrants -- M├╝nster University's Cluster of Excellence undertakes one of the as yet most comprehensive surveys among people of Turkish origin about integration and religiousness.
Permafrost thawing below shallow Arctic lakes
New research shows permafrost below shallow Arctic lakes is thawing as a result of changing winter climate.
Analyzing how ISIS recruits through social media
A team of University of Miami researchers has developed a model to identify behavioral patterns among serious online groups of ISIS supporters that could provide cyber police and other anti-terror watchdogs a roadmap to their activity and indicators when conditions are ripe for the onset of real-world attacks.
Innovators and leaders in radiation oncology honored with ASTRO Gold Medal awards
Three leaders in radiation oncology, including clinicians and researchers from Duke University, Massachusetts General Hospital and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, have been named recipients of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Gold Medal, the highest honor bestowed upon members of the world's largest radiation oncology society.
Woodside Innovation Centre launches at Monash
Monash University and Woodside today announced the launch of a new Innovation Centre, bringing together the University's pioneering research and design capabilities with one of Australia's leading oil and gas companies.
IBS engineers Landau-Zener-Bloch oscillations
The IBS Center for Theoretical Physics of Complex Systems engineered Landau-Zener-Bloch oscillations within an intricate lattice structure that demonstrated intriguing properties.
Cholera vaccine study in Haiti suggests problems with current booster regimen
Cholera outbreaks are on the rise. To prevent and control them, three oral cholera vaccines are currently approved by WHO.
Football performance impaired by mental fatigue
Research from the University of Kent has demonstrated for the first time that mental fatigue can have a negative impact on football performance by reducing running, passing, and shooting ability.
Innovative device allows 3-D imaging of the breast with less radiation
Adding a new device to an existing breast molecular imaging system allows the system to get six times better contrast of cancer lesions in the breast, providing the same or better image quality while also potentially reducing the radiation dose to the patient by half.
Sweden's biggest contribution yet to the world's largest radio telescope
Sweden's biggest contribution yet to the world's biggest radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array, has passed a major milestone.
Mosquito saliva increases disease severity following dengue virus infection
Insects transmit diseases when, probing for blood vessels, they inject saliva together with viral, bacterial, or parasitic pathogens into the skin of mammalian hosts.
New insights into California electricity crisis may help prevent future crises
Between 2000 and 2001, California experienced the biggest electricity crisis in the US since World War II.
Three GM cars top the 2016 Kogod Made in America Auto Index
The Buick Enclave, Chevrolet Traverse, and GMC Acadia rank as the most American-made car models, according to the 2016 Kogod Made in America Automotive Index.
In science essay, WPI professor says FBI approach to investigations puts security at risk
In an essay in the June 17, 2016 in Science, Susan Landau, professor of cybersecurity policy at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), says the FBI's efforts to compel Apple to write software to unlock an iPhone used by a terrorist reflects an outdated approach to law enforcement that threatens to weaken smartphones security, putting the private information of millions of people at risk and undermining the growing use of smartphones as trusted authenticators for accessing online information.
Combined radiotherapy and immunotherapy improve efficacy in a murine lung cancer model
In this issue of JCI Insight, researchers from the NYU Langone Medical Center and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute used a genetically engineered mouse model of non-small cell lung cancer to examine the efficacy of treatment with radiotherapy and a PD-1 inhibitory antibody.
Color vision helps birds find good food and the right partner
New research discoveries at Lund University in Sweden show that in almost any lighting conditions, color vision is crucial for chickens -- and probably other birds as well -- in order to find good food that is ripe to eat and identify high quality partners to mate with.
Modeling the behavior of pro-ISIS groups online, to make predictions
Researchers developed a model aimed at identifying behavioral patterns among online supporters of ISIS and used this information to predict the onset of major violent events.
The FBI must develop 21st-century investigative savvy
The FBI must develop modern technological capacities rather than relying on out-of-date approaches, Susan Landau argues in this Policy Forum, zeroing in on the organization's recent request to Apple to develop software through which to access an iPhone -- rather than tackling the issue through its own technological efforts.
Rice U. health economists launch project to study physician-hospital integration
The Affordable Care Act and changing economic conditions have encouraged the integration of physicians and hospitals, particularly through accountable care organizations and medical homes.
Stem cell transplant from young to old can heal stomach ulcers
Basic and translational research paves the way for breakthroughs that can ultimately change patient care.
Research may point to new ways to deliver drugs into bacteria
An exhaustive look at how bacteria hold their ground and avoid getting pushed around by their environment shows how dozens of genes aid the essential job of protecting cells from popping when tensions run high.
Mechanisms & therapeutic targets of microRNA-associated chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer
This review provides an overview of current therapeutic targets of miRNA-associated chemoresistance in EOC and illustrates the therapeutic potential and molecular mechanisms by which miRNAs influence the development and reversal of chemoresistance.
Identification of an adrenaline receptor mutation in a family with atypical lipodystrophy
In this issue of JCI Insight, Abhimanyu Garg and colleagues at UT Southwestern Medical Center identify a genetic mutation that caused atypical lipodystrophy in a single family.
Black holes and measuring gravitational waves
The supermassive black holes found at the center of every galaxy, including our own Milky Way, may, on average, be smaller than we thought, according to work led by University of Southampton astronomer Dr.
Gravitational waves detected from second pair of colliding black holes
On Dec. 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC, scientists observed gravitational waves -- ripples in the fabric of spacetime -- for the second time.
How older people learn
As a person ages, perception declines, accompanied by augmented brain activity.
China's environmental programs pass the test
China's first national ecosystem assessment shows that major protection and restoration projects are improving ecosystem services, or 'natural capital,' a new study reports.
Cancer-preventing protein finds its own way in our DNA
Geneticists from KU Leuven, Belgium, have shown that tumor protein TP53 knows exactly where to bind to our DNA to prevent cancer.
ClinicalTrials.gov vs. Drugs@FDA: A comparison of results reporting for new drug trials
Researchers Lisa Schwartz and Steven Woloshin from The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice recently worked with researchers from the National Library of Medicine to compare the validity of sponsor-submitted results posted on ClinicalTrials.gov with corresponding information on Drugs@FDA.
China's big investment to fix environmental wrongs shows both people and nature can win
China's massive investment to mitigate the ecosystem bust that has come in the wake of the nation's economic boom is paying off.
Genetic mutation causes ataxia in humans and dogs
Cerebellar ataxia is a condition of the cerebellum that causes an inability to coordinate muscle movements.
Lacking family support, those transitioning out of foster care need financial assistance
Every year, more than 23,000 youth leave foster care after turning 18 and begin adulthood.
Pitch range produced by vocal cords
Vocal cords are able to produce a wide range of sound frequencies because of the larynx's ability to stretch vocal cords and the cords' molecular composition.
Pre and post testing show reversal of memory loss from Alzheimer's disease in 10 patients
A small trial of 10 patients using a personalized systems approach to memory disorders shows an unprecedented reversal of memory loss in those diagnosed with early stage Alzheimers.
Vitamin D may not be the great solution to health problems
A review published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine examines the evidence for 10 common beliefs about vitamin D.
Carrots and sticks fail to change behaviour in cocaine addiction
People who are addicted to cocaine are particularly prone to developing habits that render their behaviour resistant to change, regardless of the potentially devastating consequences, suggests new research from the University of Cambridge.
CSEP announces new Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for children and youth
The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology announces the world's first 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth (5-17 years) released today in the 2016 ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.
Study of flowers' co-evolution with bees and hummingbirds earns professor major grants
With a pair of grants from the National Science Foundation together totaling $2.5 million, a researcher at the University of Kansas is investigating how natural selection has enabled flowers to shift strategies from bee-pollination to hummingbird pollination, contributing to this stunning diversity in flower form.
Biodegradable quick test reveals blue-green algae toxins in swimming water
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and the University of Turku have developed an easy-to-use and affordable blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) test.
Diverting redirection spam
Web browsers might soon use fuzzy logic to spot redirection spam and save users from being scammed, phished or opening malicious sites unwittingly, according to researchers in India writing in the International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics.
Researchers to study how microbes become 'fungi in ant's clothing'
A pair of grants worth more than $2 million will enable Penn State researchers to study how microbial parasites control the behaviors and characteristics of their animal hosts.
Innovative approach makes for a smoother ride
Moving through water can be a drag, but the use of supercavitation bubbles can reduce that drag and increase the speed of underwater vehicles.
Statin drugs reduce infection risk in stroke patients
A Washington State University researcher has found that statin drugs can dramatically lower the risk of infections in stroke patients.
In human clinical trial, UAB to test diet's effect on ovarian cancer patients
Metabolism-based therapies such as the ketogenic diet have the potential to become a valuable adjunct to standard cancer treatment.
Let there be light
University of Utah materials science and engineering associate professor Mike Scarpulla and senior scientist Kirstin Alberi of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have developed a theory that adding light during the manufacturing of semiconductors can reduce defects and potentially make more efficient solar cells or brighter LEDs.
Absent investments, 200 million children may not reach their potential: Experts
Thirty-one academic experts in children's health argue that absent urgent action by international aid agencies, 200 million children around the world could sustain serious, lifelong cognitive impairment.
Extent of resection associated with likelihood of survival in glioblastoma
The extent of resection in patients with glioblastoma, an aggressive and often fatal brain tumor, was associated with the likelihood of survival and disease progression, according to a new study published online by JAMA Oncology.
Your weight as a teenager is linked to your risk of heart failure in early middle age
Research, published in the European Heart Journal, that followed more than 1.6 million Swedish men from adolescence onwards between 1968 and 2005 has shown that those who were overweight as teenagers were more likely to develop heart failure in early middle age.
Stinky or fragrant? Predicting changing odor preferences
Pleasant and unpleasant odors are a part of everyone's life, but how do our reactions to smells change when other odors are present?
Liquid crystals open new route to planar optical elements
Researchers at Osaka University developed a technology to control the light wavefront reflected from a cholesteric liquid crystal -- a liquid crystal phase with a helical structure.
Natural molecule could improve Parkinson's
A natural molecule shows benefit in a preliminary clinical trial for Parkinson's disease.
ALMA observes most distant oxygen ever
A team of astronomers has used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to detect glowing oxygen in a distant galaxy seen just 700 million years after the Big Bang.
Biochemistry MOOC aims to help get young people into molecular bioscience
A new online course in biochemistry, developed by the Biochemical Society and the University of East Anglia in conjunction with FutureLearn, aims to improve basic skills in molecular bioscience and to encourage students aged 15-19 to develop an interest in further study in this area.
Pitch range produced by vocal cords
Vocal cords are able to produce a wide range of sound frequencies because of the larynx's ability to stretch vocal cords and the cords' molecular composition -- according to a new paper published in PLOS Computational Biology.
Canadian forests a refuge as warming creeps north
A new study from the Harvard Forest shows that boreal forests in far-northern latitudes may one day act as a climate refuge for black spruce, the foundational tree for the northwoods ecosystem -- a major source of the world's paper; home to caribou, snowshoe hare, lynx, and sable; and nesting site for dozens of migratory bird species.
Dividing the spoils of cooperation
When choosing unrelated male partners for cooperative ventures, men value productivity as well as generosity and trustworthiness.
USU engineering faculty receive $5.8 million in nuclear energy research grants
Two professors of mechanical engineering at Utah State University will receive grants from the US Department of Energy totaling $5.8 million for nuclear energy research.
'Disease outbreak guarantees' -- A proposed mechanism for enhancing public health capacity
What if private companies could obtain some coverage to protect their foreign investments in developing countries against crippling infectious disease outbreaks such as Ebola?
Life as we know it most likely arose via 'long, slow dance'
The first eukaryote is thought to have arisen when simpler archaea and bacteria joined forces.
Special education professor advocates for steps to combat replication crisis in research
Jason Travers, assistant professor of special education at KU, calls for more use of single case research design, complementing group design, to address the replication crisis in special ed and scientific research
African subterranean animal exhibits 'extraordinary' cancer resistance
Naked mole-rats (NMR) are the longest-living rodent species and exhibit extraordinary resistance to cancer.
Penn study finds sorority rush process negative, membership positive
Research by University of Pennsylvania psychologist Melissa Hunt and alumna Colleen Kase found that sorority recruitment is often stressful, but once in the group, members feel supported.
The Journal of Pain Research receives first impact factor of 2.363
Dove Medical Press are pleased to announce that the Journal of Pain Research has received its first Thomson Reuters Impact Factor, a score of 2.363.
Overweight adolescent men more likely to develop severe liver disease later in life
The first study that shows that overweight in late adolescence in men is a significant risk factor for developing severe liver disease later in life has been published in the Journal of Hepatology.
How fat becomes lethal -- even without weight gain
New research from Johns Hopkins now adds to evidence that other tissues can step in to make glucose when the liver's ability is impaired, and that the breakdown of fats in the liver is essential to protect it from a lethal onslaught of fat.
Women's long work hours linked to alarming increases in cancer, heart disease
Women who put in long hours for the bulk of their careers may pay a steep price: life-threatening illnesses, including heart disease and cancer.
Cerebral microbleeds in MS are associated with increased risk for disability
Leaky blood vessels in the brain called cerebral microbleeds are associated with an increased risk of physical and cognitive disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a new study by researchers in the Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at the University at Buffalo.
BC Children's Hospital researchers discover an early warning sign of transplant rejection
A new study published today in the journal Blood has identified a protein that could diagnose chronic graft-versus-host disease, a serious, long-term complication that affects some patients after a blood and bone marrow transplant.
ALMA detected the most distant oxygenstem 2
Astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) detected a clear signal from oxygen in a galaxy located 13.1 billion light-years away from us.
A single species of gut bacteria can reverse autism-related social behavior in mice
The absence of one specific species of gut bacteria causes social deficits in mice, researchers at Baylor College of Medicine report June 16 in Cell.
Having a relative with epilepsy may increase your risk of being diagnosed with autism
Having a first-degree relative with epilepsy may increase a person's risk of being diagnosed with autism, according to a study published in the June 15, 2016, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

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