Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 18, 2016
National Stem Cell Foundation funds neurodegeneration research at NYSCF Research Institute
The National Stem Cell Foundation and the New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute announced that a grant from NSCF will be used to fund NYSCF research studying how astrocytes can be manipulated to halt or prevent neurodegeneration.

A battery inspired by vitamins
Harvard researchers have identified a whole new class of high-performing organic molecules, inspired by vitamin B2, that can safely store electricity from intermittent energy sources like solar and wind power in large flow batteries.

Satellite spots remnants of ex-Tropical Cyclone Celia
Tropical Cyclone Celia weakened to a remnant low pressure area.

Researchers discover key mechanism for producing solar cells
Researchers from the University of Houston have reported the first explanation for how a class of materials changes during production to more efficiently absorb light, a critical step toward the large-scale manufacture of better and less-expensive solar panels.

Hummingbird vision wired to avoid high-speed collisions
Hummingbirds are among nature's most agile fliers. They can travel faster than 50 kilometers per hour and stop on a dime to navigate through dense vegetation.

Genetic error that increases risk of aortic rupture identified
A study led by Washington University School of Medicine in St.

Smallest hard disk to date writes information atom by atom
Every day, modern society creates more than a billion gigabytes of new data.

Helping doctors transform their practices into patient-centered models of health care
The article demonstrates the effectiveness of teaching practice facilitators how to use cognitive task analysis to help them guide doctors's office staff in changing to a patient-centered model.

Synthetic membranes created to mimic properties of living cells
Biochemists at the University of California San Diego have developed artificial cell membranes that grow and remodel themselves in a manner similar to that of living mammalian cells.

ACR receives $335,000 grant from Office of Minority Health to improve lupus health outcomes
The American College of Rheumatology's The Lupus Initiative announced today the award of a one-year, $335,000 grant from the Office of Minority Health to continue the expansion of its established, national education program by developing an expert-informed program model intended to improve health outcomes for people with lupus.

Stem cells engineered to grow cartilage, fight inflammation
With a goal of treating worn, arthritic hips without extensive surgery to replace them, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St.

Genetic target could help fight deadly drug-resistant infections
Fungal infections pose a major threat to hospital patients and have proven difficult to combat, but scientists have unlocked evidence that could lead to more effective treatment.

EARTH -- Illustrating geology
In the August issue of EARTH Magazine, explore some of geology's most historic images, and hear from experts about what made these depictions so valuable to the field and why they continue to be useful educational resources.

Study points to critical periods in early-life learning for brain development
A new study on infantile memory formation in rats points to the importance of critical periods in early-life learning on functional development of the brain.

Intranasal flu vaccine produces long-lasting immune response in mice
Intranasal flu vaccines may be able to provide long-lasting protection against pandemic flu strains, according to a new study from immunologists at Columbia University Medical Center.

New venomous snake discovered in Costa Rica
An international team of scientists has solved a case of mistaken identity and discovered a new species of venomous snake.

Researchers invent 'smart' thread that collects diagnostic data when sutured into tissue
Researchers led by Tufts University engineers for the first time have integrated nano-scale sensors, electronics and microfluidics into threads -- ranging from simple cotton to sophisticated synthetics -- that can be sutured through multiple layers of tissue to gather diagnostic data wirelessly.

Exploring superconducting properties of 3-D printed parts
While many techniques can be used for 3-D printing with metals, most rely on computer-controlled melting or sintering of a metal alloy powder by a laser or electron beam.

Ridiculously cute mouse lemurs hold key to Madagascar's past
Scientists studied mouse lemur DNA to determine how Madagascar's landscape changed over time -- since the lemurs are forest-dependent, changes in their DNA show how Madagascar's forests changed thousands of years ago.

'Jumping film' harnesses the power of humidity
Scientists have developed a film that curls up and straightens out autonomously when exposed to tiny, barely measurable changes in ambient humidity.

Loss of employer-based health insurance in early retirement affects mental, physical health
The loss of private health insurance from an employer can lead to poorer mental and physical health as older adults transition to early retirement, according to a study by Georgia State University.

Modified rye bread helps patients with irritable bowel syndrome
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are often concerned that certain foods may trigger or worsen their symptoms, which can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, or constipation.

NASA sees a tightly wrapped Tropical Cyclone Abela
NASA satellite imagery shows that Tropical Cyclone Abela's center has become tightly wrapped.

Continental tug-of-war -- until the rope snaps
Continents initially stretch very slowly along the future splitting zone, but then move apart very quickly before the onset of rupture.

Flood damages in Germany could multiply under climate change
Flood-related losses can be expected to increase considerably in Germany as a result of climate change, a new study shows.

New guidelines OK less antibiotics for hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated pneumonia
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) -- which account for 20 to 25 percent of hospital-acquired infections -- should be treated with shorter courses of antibiotics, according to new guidelines released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and American Thoracic Society and published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Size matters: Advance could increase sensitivity of liquid biopsies
A University of Utah School of Medicine-led study reports an advance that could increase the accuracy of liquid biopsies.

Partially automated cars provide enough benefits to warrant widespread adoption
Carnegie Mellon College of Engineering researchers have concluded that the public could derive economic and social benefits today if safety-oriented, partially automated vehicle technologies were deployed in all cars.

Managing an endangered river across the US-Mexico border
A new study from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis shows how improving communication and involvement could bring consensus solutions for the embattled Rio Grande/Bravo, which is shared between the USA and Mexico.

A glimpse inside the atom
Scientists at TU Wien have calculated how it is possible to look inside the atom to image individual electron orbitals.

Used consistently, monthly vaginal ring may be highly effective against HIV in women
When used consistently for a month at a time, a vaginal ring containing the antiretroviral drug, dapivirine, provides significant protection against HIV, suggest new results from the ASPIRE study announced today at The International Conference on AIDS (AIDS 2016) in Durban, South Africa.

Nasal irrigation may prevent chronic sinus ailments; however, steam inhalation not effective
Advising patient with chronic sinus congestion to use nasal irrigation -- a popular nonpharmacologic treatment -- improved their symptoms, but steam inhalation did not, according to a randomized controlled trial published in CMAJ.

Hard-to-treat hypertension may jeopardize sleep apnea patients' heart health
In a study of patients with hypertension, those with resistant hypertension -- meaning that their blood pressure remained elevated despite concurrent use of three antihypertensive agents of different classes -- had a higher rate of sleep apnea (9.6 percent) than those without resistant hypertension (7.2 percent).

3rd International Symposium on Transnational Aging
The research group 'Transnational Aging' headed by Professor Cornelia Schweppe and located at the Institute of Education at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz in Germany announces the 3rd International Symposium on Transnational Aging on the topic of 'Long-term care for the elderly across borders.' The International Symposium will be held in Mainz on Oct.

What are gut bacteria doing in critically ill lungs? New discovery could change ICU care
No one knows for sure how they got there. But the discovery that bacteria that normally live in the gut can be detected in the lungs of critically ill people and animals could mean a lot for intensive care patients.

Robot therapist hits the spot with athletes
Trials of a prototype robot for sports therapy have just begun in Singapore, to create a high quality and repeatable treatment routine to improve sports recovery, reducing reliance on trained therapists.

NIH scientists discover that defective HIV DNA can encode HIV-related proteins
Investigators from the National Institutes of Health have discovered that cells from HIV-infected people whose virus is suppressed with treatment harbor defective HIV DNA that can nevertheless be transcribed into a template for producing HIV-related proteins.

Queen's researcher examines the evolution of flight
Research by postdoctoral fellow Alexander Dececchi challenges long-held hypotheses about how flight first developed in birds.

Fluctuations in 'bad' cholesterol may be linked to worse brain health
Greater fluctuations in 'bad' cholesterol levels may be linked to declining brain health in older adults.

Scientists determine structure of enzyme linked with key cell-signaling protein
Scientists have captured atomic level snapshots showing how one key enzyme modifies a protein involved in turning genes on or off inside cells.

Design tool transforms objects into intricate works of art
Just as wrought-iron fences and ornaments connect straight and curved elements to form aesthetically pleasing 3-D shapes, a new computational design tool developed by Disney Research enables people to design 3-D objects whose surfaces are formed from interconnected circles, hearts and other shapes.

Genomic region associated with autism plays role in specific cognitive functions
A new study in Biological Psychiatry reports that variations in 16p11.2, a region of the genome associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), have distinct effects on cognition.

HOPE open-label study of vaginal ring for preventing HIV begins
Women who took part in ASPIRE, a trial that found a vaginal ring containing an antiretroviral drug called dapivirine was safe and helped protect against HIV, will soon be offered the opportunity to use the ring through a new study called HOPE.

Blue, green or 'nol'?
New Northwestern University research shows that even in infants too young to speak, the object categories infants form and their predictions about objects' behavior, are sculpted by the names we use to describe them.

Mindfulness key to eating what you want while preventing overeating
Americans spend more than 60 billion dollars a year on weight loss products; two-thirds of these dieters are estimated to regain more weight within four or five years than they originally lost according to the Live Strong Foundation.

Genome of 6,000-year-old barley grains sequenced for first time
Researchers have succeeded for the first time in sequencing the genome of Chalcolithic barley grains.

Macular degeneration insight identifies promising drugs to prevent vision loss
In a study published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a University of Wisconsin-Madison research team pinpoints how immune abnormalities beneath the retina result in macular degeneration, a common condition that often causes blindness.

Dual antigen targeting may improve CAR T cell cancer therapy
In this month's issue of the JCI, a team led by Nabil Ahmed at Baylor College of Medicine demonstrated that CAR T cells that were engineered to target two different tumor antigens were more effective at controlling tumors in an animal model than typical CAR T cells, which target a single antigen.

How to decide if watchful waiting is the right choice
A new tool helps remove the emotion around choosing the right approach for prostate cancer.

Hundreds of years later, teeth tell the story of people who didn't get enough sunshine
Researchers at McMaster University have found a rich new record of vitamin D deficiency, one that resides in the teeth of every person and remains viable for hundreds of years or more.

Liver tissue model accurately replicates hepatocyte metabolism, response to toxins
A team of researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Engineering in Medicine have created a 'liver on a chip,' a model of liver tissue that replicates the metabolic variations found throughout the organ and more accurately reflects the distinctive patterns of liver damage caused by exposure to environmental toxins, including pharmaceutical overdose.

Study reveals new link between periodontal and cerebrovascular diseases
A new study has revealed a relationship between chronic periodontitis and lacunar infarct, two common diseases in the elderly.

Genetic cause of 15 percent of colorectal cancer diagnoses identified
Up to 15 percent of colorectal cancers show a genetic mutation known as DNA mismatch repair deficiency, or dMMR.

Hard-to-treat chest pain may be improved with a patient's own stem cells
A patient's own stem cells may treat chest pain that cannot be treated with current therapies.

Grandpa's obesity affects the health of his grandchildren
With more than 14 million Australians now overweight or obese, researchers are warning of the harmful legacy that parental obesity can have on future generations.

Toxicological cross-check
Flame retardants are invisible assistants in car seats, gasket sealants, furniture and even in airplanes.

ANU leads effort to develop drought-proof crops
International research led by the Australian National University has found how plants, such as rice and wheat, sense and respond to extreme drought stress, in a breakthrough that could lead to the development of next-generation drought-proof crops.

Sexualizaton of female video game characters has diminished since the 1990s
Researchers at Indiana University, examined portrayals of playable female characters from 1983 to 2014.

Researchers create means to monitor anthropogenic global warming in real time
A research team simulated in a computer model, for the first time, the realistic evolution of global mean surface temperature since 1900.

Scientists delve into 'black box' of DNA research
In a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers show that an unusual DNA repeat element on an inactive X chromosome is actually essential to the overall three-dimensional structure of this female-specific genetic phenomenon.

Eight-year-old boy discovers early turtle fossil that solves the mystery of the turtle shell
It is common knowledge that the modern turtle shell is largely used for protection.

New method of calculating protein interaction to speed up drug development
Incorrect behavior of proteins in cells is a cause of many dangerous illnesses, such as cancer or the Alzheimer's disease.

Landsat -- The watchman that never sleeps
In western North America, mountain pine beetles infest and ravage thousands of acres of forest lands.

Registration opens for largest epilepsy conference in the world
More than 5,000 epilepsy professionals from around the world will gather Dec.

Study: Fracking industry wells associated with increased risk of asthma attacks
People with asthma who live near bigger or larger numbers of active unconventional natural gas wells operated by the fracking industry in Pennsylvania are 1.5 to four times likelier to have asthma attacks than those who live farther away, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research suggests.

New discoveries about photosynthesis may lead to solar cells of the future
For the first time, researchers have successfully measured in detail the flow of solar energy, in and between different parts of a photosynthetic organism.

FSU gets $10 million for nuclear research center
Florida State University will receive $10 million from the US Department of Energy to create a new Energy Frontier Research Center that will focus on accelerating scientific efforts needed to support nuclear waste cleanup.

Tiny transformers: Chemists create microscopic and malleable building blocks
Taking a page from Jonathan Swift's 'Gulliver's Travels,' a team of scientists has created malleable and microscopic self-assembling particles that can serve as the next generation of building blocks in the creation of synthetic materials.

New evidence on why young women in South Africa are at high risk of HIV infection
Evidence by the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa consortium of South African and North American researchers will be presented on July 18 at the International AIDS 2016 Conference in Durban, shedding new light on why young women in South Africa have high rates of HIV infection.

Character animation technique produces realistic looking bends at joints
Bending of an elbow or a knee is common in most computer animations of human or animal figures, but current techniques often result in unwanted pinching or bulging near the joints.

Researchers build a crawling robot from sea slug parts and a 3-D printed body
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University have combined tissues from a sea slug with flexible 3-D printed components to build 'biohybrid' robots to manage different tasks than an animal or purely manmade robot could.

Research examines how to optimize nanoparticles for efficient drug delivery
Nanoparticles are being studied as drug delivery systems to treat a wide variety of diseases.

Rice wins NIH grant to test 'T box' tolerance
A National Institutes of Health grant to Rice University will allow researchers to take a deep look into riboswitches that regulate the activity of tRNA-mediated gene expression in cells.

Chronic fatigue syndrome flare-ups caused by straining muscles and nerves
Mild to moderate muscle and nerve strain provokes symptom flares in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome.

Scientists develop way to upsize nanostructures into light, flexible 3-D printed materials
Researchers have devised a new process to create lightweight, strong and super elastic 3-D printed metallic nanostructured materials with unprecedented scalability, opening the door for applications in aerospace, military and automotive industries.

NASA looks at Hurricane Darby's cloud-filled eye, winds
NASA satellite imagery revealed a cloud-filled eye in a weaker Hurricane Darby.

Novel biomarkers can help detect illegal blood doping in athletes
Increasing oxygen delivery to muscles can help athletes perform better and give them the edge needed to win elite competitions.

Researchers map Zika's routes to the developing fetus
Zika virus can infect numerous cell types in the human placenta and amniotic sac, according to researchers at UC San Francisco and UC Berkeley who show in a new paper how the virus travels from a pregnant woman to her fetus.

Lemur DNA paints a picture of Madagascar's forested past
While there's no question that human activities such as logging and slash-and-burn agriculture have dramatically altered Madagascar's forests since the first settlers arrived about 2,000 years ago, just how much of the island was forested before people got there remains a matter of debate.

Minimizing operating room traffic may help decrease surgical site infections
A safety team at a Canadian hospital determined there was too much traffic in and out of the operating room (OR) during total joint replacement procedures.

Toxic Alzheimer's protein spreads through brain via extracellular space
A toxic Alzheimer's protein can spread through the brain via the extracellular space that surrounds the brain's neurons, finds a study from Columbia University Medical Center.

NASA sees the hint of an eye in Tropical Storm Estelle
Tropical Storm Estelle continues to strengthen in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and NASA satellite imagery showed what appears to be a developing eye in the storm.

Can robots recognize faces even under backlighting?
Researchers at Toyohashi Tech have developed a novel technique to address the problem of vision-based face detection and recognition under normal and severe illumination conditions.

Governors' lobbyists in American politics
Jennifer M. Jensen, associate professor of political science at Lehigh University, explores the role of governors' lobbyists in a new book out later this month.

Discovery yields answers for family with thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection
Through genetic analysis of a family with a history of thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD), investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine in St.

Secrets of the human brain unlocked
Human intelligence is being defined and measured for the first time ever, by researchers at the University of Warwick.

'Bearcam' study focuses on human emotional connection with wildlife, parks
Two Kansas State University researchers are using a 'bearcam' at Katmai National Park to study if people form emotional connections with animals by watching live webcams.

New ORNL tool probes for genes linked to toxic methylmercury
Environmental scientists can more efficiently detect genes required to convert mercury in the environment into more toxic methylmercury with molecular probes developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Trees rely on a range of strategies to hunt for nutrient hot spots
On the surface, trees may look stationary, but underground their roots -- aided by their fungal allies -- are constantly on the hunt and using a surprising number of strategies to find food, according to an international team of researchers.

Soft drink, soft price: Soda prices found to be significantly low
Drexel University researchers found a huge disparity between the price of soda, which is linked to the prevalence of health issues like diabetes, and milk -- a difference in price that could be narrowed by taxes like the one on sugary drinks recently approved in Philadelphia.

Some adolescent cancer survivors may require more comprehensive mental health screening
Research from the Childhood Cancer Survivors Study has identified distinct profiles of psychological symptoms in adolescent cancer survivors; a finding that is expected to advance mental health screening and treatment.

Weight gain studied for second-generation antipsychotics for autism spectrum disorders
Some of the most effective treatments for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are also well known for their risk of weight gain and subsequent health complications.

Scientists cut 'Gordian knot' in the human genome
Females have two X chromosomes in each of their cells.

Bariatric surgery associated with improved mobility, less walking pain
Does bariatric surgery for severely obese teens help them gain better mobility and reduce musculoskeletal pain?

Mass. General study reveals how the body disposes of red blood cells, recycles iron
What happens when red blood cells become damaged or reach the end of their normal life span, and how is the iron required for carrying oxygen recycled?

Unconventional natural gas development associated with increased asthma exacerbation risk
Residential unconventional natural gas development activity, a process that involves fracking and creates a source of energy used both domestically and internationally, was associated with increased risk of asthma exacerbations in a study of patients with asthma in Pennsylvania, according to an article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.

Publication of HPTN 052 final results
The HIV Prevention Trials Network announced today that the final results of the HPTN 052 study were published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Malaria: A genetically attenuated parasite induces an immune response
With nearly 3.2 billion people currently at risk of contracting malaria, scientists from the Institut Pasteur, the CNRS and Inserm have experimentally developed a live, genetically attenuated vaccine for Plasmodium, the parasite responsible for the disease.

Study identifies rare genetic syndrome associated with infections and lung disease in infants
An international team of researchers has identified a new rare genetic condition -- a chromosome breakage syndrome associated with severe infections and lung disease in infants.

UAB researchers awarded $11.5 million to study asymptomatic congenital CMV and neonatal HSV
The NIH recently awarded UAB $11.5 million to support studies that will assess treatment of babies born with congenital cytomegalovirus but no symptoms, and frequency of neonatal herpes infections in the United States and Peru.

Bugs' flair for foraging inspires quest for new smart therapies
Fresh insight into how ocean bacteria search for food could aid the development of a new generation of bacterial therapies programmed to treat disease.

Federal grant supports UTSA research in espionage prevention
Nicole Beebe, Director of the Center for Education and Research in Information at the University of Texas at San Antonio, and Daijin Ko, UTSA professor of management science and statistics, have received a $649,172 grant from the US Department of Homeland Security to strengthen insider threat detection.

NASA's Kepler confirms 100+ exoplanets during its K2 mission
A team of scientists led by the University of Arizona reports the largest haul of confirmed planets - tallying more than a hundred -- since NASA's Kepler space telescope switched from staring into one patch of sky to detecting planets along a much larger portion of the Milky Way.

NorthShore announces first of its kind clinical trial for cancer risk assessment
Researchers have launched the first clinical trial to investigate a genetic risk score to predict the risk of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer.

New training videos leverage ESnet's expertise to improve network performance globally
The Department of Energy's Energy Sciences Network, or ESnet, and the Network Startup Resource Center (NSRC) at the University of Oregon are teaming up to create an extensive video training library to help organizations improve the performance of their networks by deploying the perfSONAR network measurement tools and the Science DMZ network architecture.

Research to help racehorses put their best foot forward
An international research team is working to understand how horseshoes affect foot skeleton stress in racehorses, in a project that is likely to benefit the racing industry and protect horses from injury.

Graphene photodetectors: Thinking outside the 2-D box
The efficient detection of low-energy photons constitutes one of the main challenges faced by future optoelectronics.

GW Cancer Center receives $1 million to promote health equity through training program
The GW Cancer Center received a $1 million dollar grant from the Pfizer Foundation to advance equitable, patient-centered cancer care by providing resources for patients and health care providers to have improved conversations, including a focus on patient health literacy, and cultural sensitivity.

The pains and strains of a continental breakup
Scientists spanning Australia and Germany have revealed the underlying mechanics enabling supercontinents to separate.

Kidney toxins and kidney injury biomarker detected in children
Investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Harvard Program in Therapeutic Sciences at Harvard Medical School have assessed environmental exposure to multiple toxins in children living in a region of Mexico with a high incidence of chronic kidney disease, especially among young adults.

The birth of quantum holography: Making holograms of single light particles!
Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics.

Children affected by parental substance use
Children whose caregivers misuse alcohol or use, produce or distribute drugs face an increased risk of medical and behavioral problems.

High-fat Mediterranean diet may protect against breast cancer, diabetes and CVE
According to researchers, a healthy diet can include 'a lot of fat.' A review of available evidence suggests that a Mediterranean diet with no restrictions on fat intake may reduce a person's risk for breast cancer diabetes, and cardiovascular events compared to other diets.

3rd International Symposium on Transnational Aging
The research group

For frozen embryos in dispute, scholars propose guidelines
In a new paper, two scholars -- one medical, one legal -- propose a set of practical guidelines to prevent the bitter arguments over frozen embryos that have confounded US courts.

Genes found in H. pylori that influence biofilm formation
Most bacteria cannot survive in the acidic environment of the human stomach, but Helicobacter pylori, a major cause of ulcers, thrives under such circumstances.

In gauging and correcting errors, brain plays confidence game, new research shows
The confidence in our decision-making serves to both gauge errors and to revise our approach, NYU neuroscientists have found.

Moderate exercise might be more effective at combatting pre-diabetes
Walking briskly on a regular basis may be more effective than vigorous jogging for improving glucose control in individuals with pre-diabetes, according to research from Duke Health.

New guidance system with 3-D sounds for the visually impaired
The visually impaired will be able to use a new system of sensorial guidance that uses 3-D sounds.

Five-year survival data: Brentuximab vedotin may be curative in some with Hodgkin lymphoma
This multinational Phase II study examines brentuximab vedotin (BV) in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma who relapsed after stem cell transplant.

Better understanding post-earthquake fault movement
Preparation and good timing enabled Gareth Funning and a team of researchers to collect a unique data set following the 2014 South Napa earthquake that showed different parts of the fault, sometimes only a few kilometers apart, moved at different speeds and at different times.

HIV therapy for breastfeeding mothers can virtually eliminate transmission to babies
For HIV-infected mothers whose immune system is in good health, taking a three-drug antiretroviral regimen during breastfeeding essentially eliminates HIV transmission by breast milk to their infants, according to results from a large clinical trial conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and India.

Quality of care in VA health system compares well to other settings, study finds
A new study finds that the Veterans Affairs health care system generally performs better than or similar to other health care systems on providing safe and effective care to patients.

Columbia Engineering researchers use acoustic voxels to embed sound with data
Columbia Engineering, Disney Research, and MIT researchers have developed a method to control sound waves, using a computational approach to inversely design acoustic filters that fit within an arbitrary 3-D shape while achieving target sound filtering properties.

Scientists discover how proteins in the brain build-up rapidly in Alzheimer's
Cambridge researchers have identified -- and shown that it may be possible to control -- the mechanism that leads to the rapid build-up of the disease-causing 'plaques' that are characteristic of Alzheimer's disease.

NIH funds yellow fever vaccine research at Saint Louis University
As Angola grapples with an outbreak of yellow fever, Saint Louis University scientists are studying an investigational vaccine to protect against Zika's deadly cousin, which also is spread by Aedes mosquitoes.

Genetic drivers of immune response to cancer discovered through 'big data' analysis
Scientists at the Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) have identified over 100 new genetic regions that affect the immune response to cancer.

Rice's 'antenna-reactor' catalysts offer best of both worlds
In a find that could transform some of the world's most energy-intensive manufacturing processes, researchers at Rice University's Laboratory for Nanophotonics have unveiled a new method for uniting light-capturing photonic nanomaterials and high-efficiency metal catalysts.

New in the Hastings Center Report: Research on nonhuman primates
During the recent Ebola outbreak, scientific developments involving infection challenge experiments on nonhuman primates (NHPs) sparked hope that successful treatments and vaccines may soon become available.

Simple measures reduce risk of death in cancer patients in ICU
Daily meetings between physicians, implementation of care protocols and the presence of pharmacists are associated with increase in survival rates in ICUs.

New surgical tool for mitral valve repair shows success in first human clinical study
Researchers investigating a novel device to repair the mitral heart valve, report 100 percent procedural success in a safety and performance study, the first such study done in humans.

Long-awaited breakthrough in the reconstruction of warm climate phases
Scientists from the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research have overcome a seeming weakness of global climate models.

By causing cells to cannibalize themselves, researchers prevent lung injury in mice
Study offers a new solution to prevent Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD), the most common chronic lung disease in premature infants.

Oral PrEP 'on demand' -- An alternative to daily PrEP?
PrEP will be at the center of the next IAS Conference in Durban where the most recent results of international studies will be discussed.

Multi-million dollar grant to support waste cleanup
Washington State University and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers have received a four-year, multimillion dollar grant from the US Department of Energy to study the chemical reactions that cause nuclear waste to change over time.

Sponges and shells get settled at ZIK B CUBE
ZIK B CUBE -- a research center for molecular bioengineering at TU Dresden -- is extending its research scope and welcomes a new junior research group led by Dr.

Positive preliminary results of a heat stable Ebola vaccine formulation
A biopharmaceutical company collaborating with Hawai'i scientists on an Ebola vaccine announced encouraging news about its vaccine today.

Researchers identify a new genetic cause of Coats plus syndrome
A team of Israeli researchers has discovered that mutations in STN1, a gene that helps maintain the ends of chromosomes, cause the rare, inherited disorder Coats plus syndrome.

'Dream Team' chosen to study basic science of nuclear waste
PNNL's 'Dream Team' has been selected to lead one of four new Energy Frontier Research Centers to accelerate scientific breakthroughs needed to support the Department of Energy's cleanup mission.

Vaginal ring may cut HIV infection risk if used consistently
A new exploratory analysis of data from the ASPIRE study has found that using a drug-infused vaginal ring most or all of the time reduced the risk of HIV infection in women by at least 56 percent.

Scientists glimpse inner workings of atomically thin transistors
With an eye to the next generation of tech gadgetry, a team of physicists at The University of Texas at Austin has had the first-ever glimpse into what happens inside an atomically thin semiconductor device.

Try, try again
Physicist Andrea Young almost gave up on the research for which he has now received the 2016 McMillan Award.

Gas sensors 'see' through soil to analyze microbial interactions
Rice University researchers use programmed bacteria as gas sensors that help them 'see' into soil to learn about the behavior of the microbial communities within.

Poor African-American men have lowest likelihood of overall survival
African-American men living below poverty had the lowest overall survival in a study that examined the effects of sex, race and socioeconomic status on overall mortality, according to an article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.

HIV treatment keeps uninfected partner from contracting the virus
Anti-HIV medications suppress the viral load of people living with HIV and provide durable protection against heterosexual transmission a study led by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill found.

Computational design tool transforms flat materials into 3-D shapes
A new computational design tool can turn a flat sheet of plastic or metal into a complex 3-D shape, such as a mask, a sculpture or even a lady's high-heel shoe.

No blood vessels without cloche
After 20 years of searching, scientists discover the mystic gene controlling vessel and blood cell growth in the embryo.

Jeff Shamma elected IFAC fellow
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology Professor of Electrical Engineering Jeff S.

Heatwaves, typhoons, floods, landslides: Researchers detail rising health risks of disasters
The rising price -- in both money and health -- of extreme weather events amid rapid urbanization, and the corresponding value of applying science and technology to reduce the risks, is underscored in six research papers formally launched at a UN event today.

Mental, physical exercises produce distinct brain benefits
Cognitive brain training improves executive function whereas aerobic activity improves memory, according to new Center for BrainHealth research at the University of Texas at Dallas.

IPM's dapivirine ring may offer significant HIV protection when used consistently
New data analyses announced at the AIDS 2016 conference today provide additional evidence suggesting that the monthly dapivirine vaginal ring developed by the nonprofit International Partnership for Microbicides (IPM) provides significant protection against HIV infection in women when used consistently.

Study finds quality of care in VA health care system compares well to other settings
The quality of health care provided to US military veterans in Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities compares favorably with the treatment and services delivered outside the VA.

The future of perovskite solar cells has just got brighter -- come rain or shine
A team of Korean researchers led by Taiho Park at POSTECH, Korea, has found a new method to improve not only the efficiency, but stability and humidity tolerance of perovskite solar cells.

WSU researchers determine key improvement for fuel cells
Washington State University researchers have determined a key step in improving solid oxide fuel cells, a promising clean energy technology that has struggled to gain wide acceptance in the marketplace.

NJIT receives state bond award to fund classroom and lab space renovations
New Jersey Institute of Technology will receive $20 million in capital funding from the State of New Jersey to renovate classrooms and laboratory spaces.

'Cool, fun factor' motivates e-cigarette use in teens
The novelty factor of e-cigarettes is the key motivation for their use by adolescents, according to a study published in CMAJ.

Rise in avoidable diabetes hospital visits
University of Leicester researchers lead a study into rising hypoglycemia admissions in hospitals. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to