Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 20, 2016
Thinking inside the box -- How our brain puts the world in order
Neuroscientists have investigated what happens when we put the world around us in order.

New dinosaur species may give clues to evolutionary origin of megaraptorid clade
A new species of megaraptorid dinosaur discovered in Patagonia may help discern the evolutionary origins of the megaraptorid clade, according to a study published July 20, 2016 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Rodolfo Coria from the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Argentina, and Phillip Currie from the University of Alberta, Canada.

Speakers announced for Max Planck Florida's Sunposium 2017 Neural Circuits Conference
Sunposium™ 2017, Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience's (MPFI) biennial neural circuits conference, will be held February 13-14, 2017 at Palm Beach County Convention Center in West Palm Beach Florida.

Yale scientists apply new imaging tool to common brain disorders
A Yale-led team of researchers developed a new approach to scanning the brain for changes in synapses that are associated with common brain disorders.

Higher-income students have an edge when it comes to working memory
University of Toronto and MIT researchers have discovered important differences between lower and higher-income children in their ability to use working memory, a key brain function responsible for everything from remembering a phone number to doing math in your head.

Habitat needs of nestling and fledgling songbirds
Both before and after they leave the nest, baby birds face a host of challenges.

Preventing HIV in transgender people -- JAIDS assembles critical evidence
Programs to reduce the high risk of HIV infection among transgender people are urgently needed--but efforts are hindered by a lack of accurate information on HIV prevalence, HIV incidence, and specific risk factors facing this key population.

Functionalized surfaces with tailored wettability determine Influenza A infectivity
Findings pave the way for the design of new and more effective antimicrobial surfaces.

New method reconstructs highly detailed 3-D eyes from a single photograph
A digitally created face can have the most realistic looking skin imaginable and still look fabricated to audiences if the eyes aren't quite right.

Case Western Reserve University researchers block common colon cancer tumor type in mice
A new scientific study has identified why colorectal cancer cells depend on a specific nutrient, and a way to starve them of it.

Surgeons' disclosures of clinical adverse events
Surgeons who reported they were less likely to discuss preventability of an adverse event, or who reported difficult communication experiences, were more negatively affected by disclosure than others, according to a study published online by JAMA Surgery.

Exercise as effective as surgery for middle aged patients with knee damage
Exercise therapy is as effective as surgery for middle aged patients with a common type of knee injury known as meniscal tear (damage to the rubbery discs that cushion the knee joint), finds a study in The BMJ this week.

World first discovery gets to the heart of birth defects
For the first time, scientists believe they've discovered a cause of multiple types of birth defects triggered by environmental stresses.

Gaining a better understanding of the way we taste
For the first time Japanese researchers discovered that the extracellular domain of taste receptor proteins undergoes a change in structure by binding together taste substances.

Tapping into behavioral economics to boost clinical trial participation
Behavioral economics may offer a powerful tool for improving patient enrollment in clinical trials, argue Eric VanEpps, Kevin Volpp, and Scott Halpern in this Focus.

Three new India projects to be launched
A powerful boost for the cooperation of the Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg (JMU) and partner universities in New Delhi.

Energy Department grants $2.5M for biorefinery waste use, renewable bioproduct study
The US Department of Energy granted $2.5 million to Texas A&M AgriLife Research to find ways to use biorefinery waste to make new, marketable products.

TSRI team finds potential drug candidates that could intervene in deadly diseases
In a new study, scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have identified drug candidates that can boost a cell's ability to catch the 'typos' in protein production that can cause a deadly disease called amyloidosis, revealing a new approach to intervene in human disease.

PCORI approves Group Health for $2.8 million research funding award
Treating hypertension is crucial to help prevent heart attacks and strokes.

USF researchers find dangerous bacteria after sewer spills
After a sewer line break, a strain of bacteria found in wastewater tested resistant to vancomycin, an antibiotic considered to be a 'last resort' treatment for serious infections that do not respond to other antibiotics.

A chair for getting fit and trim
Getting fit and athletic -- while sitting? Researchers at the Cluster of Excellence Cognitive Interaction Technology (CITEC) of Bielefeld University are developing an active chair as part of the KogniHome research project.

Super-eruptions may give a year's warning before they blow
A microscopic analysis of quartz crystals from an ancient California super-eruption indicates that the process of decompression immediately preceding the eruption began about a year before the eruption itself.

Three Alzheimer's genetic risk factors linked to immune cell dysfunction
A Genentech study has uncovered details of how a type of immune cell helps the brain get rid of the tiny amyloid-beta aggregates that can clump together to form the plaques characteristic of Alzheimer's.

Harvesting water from air with less energy
Getting clean water to communities in parched areas of the planet remains an ongoing challenge.

This week from AGU: Amazonian drought, polar ice loss, and 3 research spotlights
Drought caused the Amazon to stop storing carbon The Amazon Basin's carbon sink was completely shut down by a recent drought, according to a new study, published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles.

Columbia University to provide data and research support for NIH PMI cohort
Columbia University Medical Center will play an important role in the launch and operations of the Data and Research Support Center for the NIH's Precision Medicine Initiative® (PMI) Cohort Program -- a landmark study of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors affecting the health of one million or more US participants.

Putting software on a diet
Concerns about battery life, heat creation, fan noise and overall high energy costs have driven the development of more energy-efficient computers and mobile devices over the past two decades.

Underwater terrain may be key factor in little auk foraging
Little auks forage in the same areas off East Greenland -- the continental shelf and its edge -- regardless of whether sea ice is present or absent, according to a study published July 20, 2016 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Françoise Amélineau from the University of Montpellier, France, and colleagues.

Reading Harry Potter lowers Americans' opinions of Donald Trump
Can Harry Potter defeat Donald Trump? A new study from University of Pennsylvania professor Diana Mutz found that Americans who read Harry Potter books hold a lower opinion of Donald Trump, even after controlling for many factors like party, gender, education, and age.

New probe developed for improved high resolution measurement of brain temperature
In a new paper published in Biomedical Optics Express, from The Optical Society (OSA), Stefan Musolino of the University of Adelaide and the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics, Australia, and his colleagues describe a new optical fiber-based probe capable of making pinpoint brain temperature measurements in moving lab animals.

New review on optimal first foods for babies reveals gap between research and reality
While there were close to 8 million babies born over the past two years in America, many parents are uncertain and seeking guidance on the optimal first foods to serve this population.

New data on bird population trends and the climate conditions they occupy
A new study of population trends among 46 ecologically diverse bird species in North America by avian ecologist Joel Ralston and colleagues at UMass Amherst overturns a long-held assumption that the climate conditions occupied by a species do not change over time.

Neurons form synapse clusters
The contact points of cells in the cerebral cortex form functional groups.

Opened up new channels for antibacterial therapies to combat respiratory infections
A piece of research led by the Agrobiotechnology Institute (IdAB) used a pioneering methodology to identify bacterial components involved in the infection caused by a pathogen that colonises the respiratory tracts of people with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

Urocortin-3: A signaling molecule for making friends
Molecular messenger helps mice find new friends

UC Riverside researchers to study health impacts of drought
The University of California, Riverside has been awarded $284,680 by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to determine whether drought and adverse weather conditions cause health problems, and whether water policy affects the link between extreme temperatures and health.

Menthol-like cigarettes still sold in Canada despite ban
Despite a recent ban on the sale of menthol cigarettes in the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Nova Scotia, cigarettes made with similar coloring and marketed as having the same taste are still being sold, new research from the Institute for Global Tobacco Control at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health suggests.

New superconducting coil improves MRI performance
A multidisciplinary research team led by University of Houston scientist Jarek Wosik has developed a high-temperature superconducting coil that allows magnetic resonance imaging scanners to produce higher resolution images or acquire images in a shorter time than when using conventional coils.

To protect yourself from malaria sleep with a chicken next to your bed
For the first time, scientists have shown that malaria-transmitting mosquitoes actively avoid feeding on certain animal species such as chickens, using their sense of smell.

One-third of women with ADHD have anxiety disorders, almost half have considered suicide
Women with ADHD are much more likely to have a wide range of mental and physical health problems in comparison to women without ADHD, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Toronto.

Latina mothers, families at the core of $500,000 grant to UH
A $500,000 grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation will create the Latina Maternal and Family Health Center, an academic-community partnership joining forces with community agencies to serve children and families in need.

Penn-led team develops plant-based Polio booster vaccine
University of Pennsylvania scientists developed an oral vaccine booster for polio by manipulating plants to express a protein found in the polio virus.

Putting the sloth in sloths: Arboreal lifestyle drives slow motion pace
University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers set out to measure the energetics of wild two- and three-toed sloths at a field site in in northeastern Costa Rica.

Study finds differences in older adults who fall indoors versus outdoors
According to a new study by NYU's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, patient characteristics and outcomes differ for people who fall outdoors versus indoors.

Diseases that run in families not all down to genes, study shows
Family history of disease may be as much the result of shared lifestyle and surroundings as inherited genes, research by the University of Edinburgh has shown.

Liquid biopsies offer hope for earlier treatment, better tracking of ovarian cancer
Researchers at the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine have found a promising new way to monitor and treat recurrence of ovarian cancer -- a hard-to-detect disease that claims many lives.

New sun cream compound offers unprecedented protection against UVA radiation
A new wonder compound developed by University of Bath scientists in collaboration with King's College London offers unprecedented protection against the harmful effects of UVA radiation in sunlight, which include photo-ageing, cell damage and cancer.

Mayo Clinic study shows power of Twitter for sharing physician-generated medical news
Over a one-year period, academic cardiovascular physicians at the Mayo Clinic used a new Twitter account to share medical news and gained more than 1,200 followers, with tweets of original journal content garnering the greatest response, according to an article published in Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking.

Study examines opioid agonist therapy use in Medicare patients
Few Medicare enrollees appear to be receiving buprenorphine-naloxone, the only opioid agonist therapy for opioid addiction available through Medicare Part D prescription drug coverage, according to a study published online by JAMA Psychiatry.

Reversing ants navigate successfully despite going backwards
Desert ants are remarkable navigators, but how do they locate home when they have to shift into reverse when dragging a heavy load?

More for less in pastures
Research comparing pastures with multiple types of plants to those with less variety shows surprising results in land productivity and soil health.

How cells master the art of reading life's recipes
A research project led by the Australian National University has closed an important gap in the understanding of a fundamental process of life -- the creation of proteins based on recipes called RNA.

New reaction for the synthesis of nanostructures
The collaboration between the research groups of professors Pau Ballester and José R.

Majority of physicians have favorite patients, study finds
Physicians like the majority of their patients, but a majority like some more than others, a study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health finds.

Aripiprazole reduces severity of tics in children with Tourette's disorder
A meta-analysis of clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of aripiprazole for the treatment of Tourette's disorder (TD) in children and adolescents showed a significantly greater overall improvement in total tics and tic severity from pretreatment to post-treatment for the aripiprazole compared to the placebo group.

Rationing healthcare: More than half of US doctors say no to clinical services
More than half of US physicians included in a national survey have withheld certain medical interventions with small benefits from their patients because of the cost-implications these hold.

Winter overseeding and colorant treatments compared for bermudagrass
A two-year study evaluated effects of winter treatments on performance, turfgrass injury, and spring transition of bermudagrass under a supplemental irrigation schedule.

Nanoparticle versus cancer
The Lomonosov Moscow State University researchers in collaboration with their German colleagues have succeeded in proving that silicon nanoparticles can be applied to diagnose and cure cancer.

Titanium + gold = new gold standard for artificial joints
Titanium is the leading material for artificial knee and hip joints because it's strong, wear-resistant and nontoxic, but an unexpected discovery by Rice University physicists shows that the gold standard for artificial joints can be improved with the addition of some actual gold.

North American forests unlikely to save us from climate change, study finds
An unprecedented study combining projections of future climate with more than two million tree-ring records spanning all of North America suggests that forests ache more and more under the burden of climate change.

Russian scientists develop a minimally traumatic and inexpensive ceramic laser scalpel
The newly created technology shows an effectiveness more than twice as high as any of the previously developed solid state lasers.

Groundwater discharge to upper Colorado River Basin varies in response to drought
Groundwater discharge that flows into the Upper Colorado River Basin varies in response to drought, which is likely due to aquifer systems that contain relatively young groundwater, according to a new US Geological Survey study published in Hydrogeology Journal.

People estimate their own abilities based on others' performance
Ratings of our own abilities are strongly influenced by the performance of others, according to a study published July 20 in Neuron.

Ocean acidification -- the limits of adaptation
The most abundant single-celled calcifying alga of the world's oceans, Emiliania huxleyi is basically able to adapt to ocean acidification through evolution.

HPTN 073: Consistency between self-report and drug levels for PrEP among black MSM in US
HPTN announced key results from HPTN 073 at AIDS 2016 in Durban, South Africa.

Come on baby, (re)light my fire
Many couples find that their sexual desire has dwindled over time.

Imaging after thyroid cancer treatment does not necessarily mean better outcomes
More imaging after thyroid cancer treatment identifies recurrence, but it does not always improve survival, a new study suggests.

Asteroid that formed moon's Imbrium Basin may have been protoplanet-sized
The asteroid that slammed into the moon 3.8 billion years ago creating the Imbrium Basin may have had a diameter of at least 150 miles, according to a new estimate published in Nature.

'Perfect storm' brought sea louse epidemic to BC salmon: University of Toronto study
High ocean temperatures and poor timing of parasite management likely led to an epidemic of sea lice in 2015 throughout salmon farms in British Columbia's Queen Charlotte Strait, a University of Toronto-led study has found.

Making parenting a national priority
A National Academies of Sciences, Engineering & Medicine report calls for a new national framework to support struggling parents.

Social robots -- programmable by everyone
The startup LuxAI was created following a research project at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Security, Reliability and Trust (SnT) of the University of Luxembourg.

Synthetic biology used to limit bacterial growth and coordinate drug release
Researchers have engineered a clinically relevant bacterium to produce cancer drugs and then self-destruct and release the drugs at the site of tumors.

How do cells recover their shape after being subjected to external forces?
Human cells show deformation under the influence of external forces.

3-D-printing lab instruments 1 block at a time
Building lab instruments for chemistry and biology experiments used to be an expensive, time consuming process only done by scientists with specialized training.

Guiding EU researchers along the 'last mile' to Open Digital Science
To address societal challenges, the European Commission has identified the need for a European Open Science Cloud, a complete socio-technical environment where publicly funded research data are Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Re-usable (FAIR).

Improving health facility efficiency could markedly expand HIV treatment
Health facilities in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia could extend life-sustaining antiretroviral therapy to hundreds of thousands of people living with HIV if facilities improved the efficiency of service delivery.

Cosmetic therapy: The link between makeup and a down economy
The 'lipstick effect' phenomenon has occurred during every major recession in US history and multiple explanations for it have been proposed, but new research from the University of Notre Dame and Bocconi University, for the first time, shows that women's motivations during these economically challenging times have moved beyond women's instinctive need for a male provider.

After the age of dinosaurs came the age of ant farmers
Soon after the demise of the dinosaurs, ants learned how to farm.

Adaptive rendering method reduces discolored pixels in photo-realistic images
Disney Research has developed a new method to improve the rendering of high-quality images from 3-D models by drastically reducing the noise, or discolored pixels, contained in the animated images, while preserving fine detail.

ESA announces finalists for the 2016 YouTube Your Entomology contest
Since 2009, the Entomological Society of America (ESA) has held a contest called 'YouTube Your Entomology,' which invites entomologists to showcase their talents and creativity through video.

European-wide study to examine the prevalence of heart disease in apes
The Ape Heart Project is a European-wide research program led by leading primate specialists at Twycross Zoo, in collaboration with the University of Nottingham, to investigate why great apes such as chimpanzees and gorillas are prone to heart disease.

Cancer stem cells in 'robbers cave' may explain poor prognosis for obese patients
University of Colorado Cancer Center study published in the journal Cell Stem Cell offers a compelling hypothesis explaining poor prognosis for obese cancer patients: researchers found that leukemia stem cells

NASA's PACE mission will uncover new information about health of our oceans
NASA's Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission is a first-of-its-kind project that aims to answer key questions about the consequences of climate change on the health of our oceans and their relationship with airborne particles and clouds.

Hormone therapy for brain performance: No effect, whether started early or late
A study led by a scientist at the Stanford University School of Medicine shows that hormone therapy has a negligible effect on verbal memory and other mental skills regardless of how soon after menopause a woman begins therapy.

A recent pause in Antarctic Peninsula warming
The rapid warming of the Antarctic Peninsula, which occurred from the early-1950s to the late 1990s, has paused.

Garnet-type fast ionic conductor for all-solid-state lithium battery
Toyohashi Tech researchers have developed a garnet-type, fast ionic conducting oxide.

Accelerating technological advances in wireless communication
Professors Tiago H. Falk, Long Le, and Martin Maier of INRS's Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications Research Centre have each received a Discovery Accelerator Supplements Program grant from the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada'(NSERC).

Pitt neuroscientists' study sheds light on how words are represented in the brain
Using direct neural recordings from the visual word form area, researchers were able to see words that patients read as the patients read them.

Female birds call the shots in divorce
Research is shedding new light on the causes of divorce in monogamous year-round territorial birds.

First atmospheric study of Earth-sized exoplanets reveals rocky worlds
Scientists from MIT and elsewhere have found two of three potentially habitable planets, just 40 light years away, are made of solid rock, and may host atmospheres similar to Earth, Mars, or Venus.

New Yale-developed device lengthens the life of quantum information
For the first time, researchers at Yale have crossed the 'break even' point in preserving a bit of quantum information for longer than the lifetime of its constituent parts.

Improving artichoke root development, transplant quality
Researchers identified the influence of two nitrogen levels and two fertigation methods (overhead and flotation) of globe artichoke transplants on root/shoot growth and leaf physiology during the nursery period.

Uncovering a new principle in chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer
A laboratory study has revealed an entirely unexpected process for acquiring drug resistance that bypasses the need to re-establish DNA damage repair in breast cancers that have mutant BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.

Entering the health-care system: The challenge of the universal test-and-treat strategy
Results from ANRS 12249 TasP show that there is good take-up of the offer of repeated HIV screening at home in a rural South African population strongly affected by HIV infection.

Greener cities become more unjust
A new research project led by ICTA-UAB researcher Isabelle Anguelovski and funded with 1.5 million Euros by the European Union will assess the 'green gentrification' process by which the creation of green urban amenities tends to attract the higher social classes and excludes the most vulnerable groups.

Single camera can capture high quality facial performance
Facial performance capture, a key component of visual effects for movies and computer games, can be obtained using just a single camera with a new methodology developed by Disney Research.

Infrared imaging technologies offer reduced costs, improved quality of life
Understanding the effects of brain damage in infants is one of numerous challenges in the area of noninvasive medical diagnostics.

CDC scientists review methods to prevent bites and suppress ticks that transmit Lyme disease
Dr. Lars Eisen and Marc Dolan of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have reviewed decades of scientific literature on the effectiveness of various methods of preventing bites and controlling ticks that transmit Lyme disease.

Technology improves clinical trial management and patient experience
UAB has implemented a new application suite to improve clinical trial management, and enhance communication among trial sites and with study participants.

NASA looks at Tropical Cyclone Abela in 3-D
Satellite data enables scientists to look at tropical cyclones in three dimensions and that provides information about rainfall rates and cloud heights.

Study shows changes in brain activity after mindfulness therapy in adolescents
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) are studying how cognitive therapy that uses mindfulness techniques, such as meditation, quiet reflection and facilitator-led discussion, may serve as an adjunct to pharmacological treatments in youth with anxiety disorders.

The effectiveness of treatment for individuals with brain injury or stroke
In the current issue of NeuroRehabilitation leading researchers explore the effectiveness of several neurorehabilitation treatments for individuals with brain injury or stroke.

Rapid, low-temperature process adds weeks to milk's shelf life
A rapid heating and cooling of milk significantly reduces the amount of harmful bacteria present, extending by several weeks the shelf life of one of the most common refrigerator staples in the world, according to a Purdue University study.

How water collector bees know when to quench hot hive's thirst
Thirst is a basic sensation that we must all react to, but how do water collector bees know when it's time to spring into action for a thirsty hive?

Fungus a possible precursor of severe respiratory diseases in pigs
Pneumocystis carinii causes mild forms of pneumonia in pigs and was considered of low diagnostic relevance.

Disturbances in blood cell gene transcription may lead to leukemia
Researchers have succeeded in shedding light on the pathogenesis of DNA breakpoints that are associated with leukemia.

Diversifying clinical science to represent diverse populations
Despite increasing attention to issues of diversity in scientific research, participant populations in behavioral science tend to be relatively homogeneous.

UTHealth receives grant to optimize health-care services provided by mobile clinics
The National Science Foundation has awarded $250,000 to researchers at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston for a project that will help mobile health clinics in Houston optimize their health care services using geographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological data.

Map provides detailed picture of how the brain is organized
A detailed new map by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.

Pap screenings linked to less cervical cancer in elderly women
A new study from the University of Illinois confirms a link between Pap smear screenings and a lower risk of developing cervical cancer in women over age 65.

Breastfeeding alters maternal metabolism and protects against diabetes
An interdisciplinary team of scientists at the Helmholtz Zentrum München has studied the metabolism of women with gestational diabetes after giving birth.

High efficacy of on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis is confirmed
The last phase of ANRS IPERGAY has confirmed that 'on-demand' pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective method of reducing the risk of HIV infection in men who have sex with men and who report high-risk behavior.

Anti-tumor antibodies could counter atherosclerosis, Stanford study finds
Investigators at the Stanford University School of Medicine have learned the signal that tumor cells display on their surfaces to protect themselves from being devoured by the immune system also plays a role in enabling atherosclerosis, the process underlying heart attacks and strokes.

Oceans may be large, overlooked source of hydrogen gas
Serpentinized rocks formed near fast-spreading tectonic plates under Earth's seafloor could be a large and previously overlooked source of free hydrogen gas, a Duke University study finds.

Study raises concerns over unnecessary imaging after thyroid cancer
A marked rise in use of imaging tests after thyroid cancer has been associated with increased treatment for recurrence, but no clear improvement in survival from the disease, finds a study in The BMJ today.

Combining new and old drugs improves survival for soft-tissue cancer patients
Adding a novel monoclonal antibody therapy called olaratumab to traditional chemotherapy increased median survival by nearly a year in patients with advanced sarcoma, according to a multicenter clinical trial led by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center and NewYork-Presbyterian.

How however almost kicked but's butt: Linguistics study
However you're using the word however, be aware you might be getting it wrong.

Hurricane Darby weakens on approach to Central Pacific Ocean
Hurricane Darby weakened to a tropical storm as it approached the Central Pacific Ocean on July 20.

Quantum drag
An University of Iowa physicist proposes that a current in one iron magnetic sheet creates a current in a separate sheet.

Clinical trial tests cord tissue to treat macular degeneration
UIC is part of a national phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate the safety and tolerability of using cells derived from multipotent umbilical cord cells to treat age-related macular degeneration, the most common cause of vision loss in people over 55.

Connectome map more than doubles human cortex's known regions
Researchers have mapped 180 distinct areas in our brain's outer mantle, or cortex -- more than twice the number previously known.

NASA's SMAP Observatory looks at Tropical Storm Estelle's winds
The strongest sustained winds in the Eastern Pacific Ocean's Tropical Storm Estelle covered every quadrant of the storm except the southern area, according to data from NASA's SMAP satellite. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to