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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 03, 2016

Leading cancer research organizations to host cancer immunotherapy conference
The Cancer Research Institute (CRI), the Association for Cancer Immunotherapy (CIMT), the European Academy of Tumor Immunology (EATI), and the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) will sponsor the second International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference at the Sheraton New York Times Square Hotel (811 7th Ave., New York, NY 10019) and the New York Hilton Midtown ( 1335 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10019), Sept.
Next generation anode to improve lithium-ion batteries
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside have created a new silicon-tin nanocomposite anode that could lead to lithium-ion batteries that can be charged and discharged more times before they reach the end of their useful lives.
Study of Israelis & Palestinians rethinks how HDL protects against coronary heart disease
Studying a population of Israelis and Palestinians, researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem found that medium-sized HDL particles (MS-HDL-P) and the number of HDL particles (HDL-P) are better markers of coronary artery disease than high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).
Brazilian study identifies new target for treatment of melanoma
A Brazilian study shows that inhibition of an RNA named RMEL3, which is encoded by a previously uncharacterized gene (also named RMEL3), can reduce the viability of cultured melanoma cells by up to 95%.
Programmable ions set the stage for general-purpose quantum computers
In a paper published as the cover story in Nature on Aug.
NIH begins testing investigational Zika vaccine in humans
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases launched a clinical trial of a vaccine candidate intended to prevent Zika virus infection.
UCLA astronomers make first accurate measurement of oxygen in distant galaxy
UCLA astronomers have made the first accurate measurement of the abundance of oxygen in a distant galaxy.
Lasers melt rocks to reveal development of super-Earths and how giant impacts make magma
New experiments provide insight into how Earth-type planets form when giant asteroids or planetesimals collide and how the interiors of such planets develop.
The role of N-acetylcysteine in the management of COPD: A review of recent literature
Recent studies indicate the clinical significant effects of N-Acetylcysteine such as reducing exacerbation frequency are seen at daily doses 1,200 mg or greater.
University of Arizona psychologist's new book explores love's many layers
David Sbarra, professor of psychology at the University of Arizona, has spent most of his career studying love and relationships.
Trading farmland for nitrogen protection
Excess nitrogen from agricultural runoff can enter surface waters with devastating effects.
Research shows new neurons created through exercise don't cause you to forget old memories
Research has found that exercise causes more new neurons to be formed in a critical brain region, and contrary to an earlier study, these new neurons do not cause the individual to forget old memories, according to research by Texas A&M College of Medicine scientists, in the Journal of Neuroscience.
Free Chrome plugin visualizes PubMed gene, protein, drug and disease connections
A new text-mining tool developed at University of Colorado Cancer Center and published today in Bioinformatics helps researchers map connections between genes, proteins, drugs, diseases.
Clinical trial results support adalimumab treatment for painful skin condition
The results of two phase 3 clinical trials that led to FDA approval of adalimumab for treatment of the chronic inflammatory skin disease hidradenitis suppurtiva are being published in the Aug.
Study provides a new method to measure the energy of a lightning strike
By investigating 'fossilized' sand cylinders made by lightning strikes, sometimes thousands of years old, a University of South Florida geology professor's study provides a unique history of lightning and a new method to measure the energy contained in a single strike.
Detecting blood alcohol content with an electronic skin patch
Overconsumption of alcohol can lead to errors in judgment, causing, for example, some people to get behind the wheel when they are impaired.
Imaging study shows link between inflammatory biomarkers and increased heart disease in men with HIV
A cardiac imaging study uncovers a correlation between the high prevalence of coronary artery disease in men infected with HIV and in increase in inflammatory biomarkers.
Consumption of natural estrogens in cow's milk does not affect blood levels or reproductive health
A new study published in the Journal of Dairy Science® investigated cow milk's effects on blood hormone levels in adult mice and found that naturally occurring levels, and even levels as high as 100 times the average, had no effect on the mice.
ASTRO awards $275,000 in grants to support early career researchers in radiation oncology
The American Society for Radiation Oncology has selected four early career scientists to receive a total of $275,000 in research awards, including one winner of the ASTRO Junior Faculty Career Research Training Award and three recipients of ASTRO Resident/Fellows in Radiation Oncology Research Seed Grants.
Growing up on an Amish farm protects children against asthma by reprogramming immune cells
By probing the differences between two farming communities, an interdisciplinary team of researchers found that substances in the house dust from Amish, but not Hutterite, homes is associated with changes to immune cells that appear to protect children from developing asthma.
MASE Astrobiologists study Mars-like environments on Earth
Recently, a team of astrobiologists from the EU funded MASE (Mars Analogues for Space Exploration) project descended 1.1 kilometers below Earth's surface to the Mars-like environment of the Boulby Mine in the UK looking for answers about life on other planets.
A leader in light
UCSB professor and photonics expert John Bowers receives the 2017 IEEE Photonics Award
And the Oscar goes to ... climate change
New research finds that Tweets and Google searches about climate change set new record highs after Leonardo DiCaprio's Academy Awards acceptance speech, suggesting celebrity advocacy for social issues on a big stage can motivate popular engagement.
Sussex-led research explodes the myth of a 'West vs. Rest' cultural divide
The research into global concepts of selfhood, involving 73 researchers working in 35 nations, reveals that the self-beliefs of members of Western cultural groups have much more in common with the rest of the world than was previously suggested, contradicting the generally accepted view of a 'West vs. the rest' divide.
Tiny high-performance solar cells turn power generation sideways
University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have created high-performance, micro-scale solar cells that outshine comparable devices in key performance measures.
Sprinkling of neural dust opens door to electroceuticals
Monitoring electrical signals from muscles and nerves has become easier with a 1x1x3 mm sensor that can be implanted anywhere in the body, powered and read out by ultrasound.
Story tips from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, August 2016
ORNL's PenDoc combines mass spectrometry with direct sampling to identify materials in seconds; ORNL study providing watershed-scale understanding of mercury in soils and sediments; Salt, ammonia key ingredients of high-efficiency heating system; ORNL taking closer look at microscopic soot particles, advanced combustion engines; Steel-concrete storage vessel may be ticket to clearing path for hydrogen-powered vehicles; Study examines climate change, power demands; ORNL gains better understanding of how defects in complex oxides alter behavior.
'Second skin' protects soldiers from biological and chemical agents
In work that aims to protect soldiers from biological and chemical threats, a team of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists has created a material that is highly breathable yet protective from biological agents.
Asian giant honeybees may move in synchrony to ventilate nests
Asian giant honeybees may use synchronized movements to ventilate and cool their nests, according to a study published Aug.
Three new species identified amongst the Tegu lizard family
The golden tegu lizard, previously thought to be a single species, may actually comprise four distinct clades, including three new cryptic species, according to a study published Aug.
Live-streaming crime -- how will Facebook Live and Periscope challenge US privacy law?
In a new study, 'Up, Periscope: Mobile Streaming Video Technologies, Privacy in Public, and the Right to Record,' Jeremy Littau, assistant professor of journalism at Lehigh University, and Daxton Stewart, associate dean and associate professor in the Bob Schieffer College of Communication at Texas Christian University, examine the legal rights of people to record and live stream and any potential right to be free from being recorded and streamed in public places.
Sustainable rice production in Southeast Asia: LEGATO Final Conference
The large-scale research project LEGATO will hold its Final Conference from Aug.
Routinely measured lipids show contrasting associations with risk of coronary artery disease, diabetes
An analysis using genetics finds that increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and possibly triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with a lower risk of diabetes, and increased LDL-C and TG levels are associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease, according to a study published online by JAMA Cardiology.
Blood sugar slumps affect how lean men treat the more rotund
When slim men suffer bouts of low blood sugar, chances are that they will make unfair decisions involving the more rotund people they engage with in the workplace.
Carbon nanotube 'stitches' make stronger, lighter composites
MIT aerospace engineers have designed carbon nanotube 'stitches' that strongly bind composites, which could produce lighter, more damage-resistant airplanes.
Desert elephants pass on knowledge -- not mutations -- to survive
Despite reported differences in appearance and behavior, DNA evidence finds that Namibian desert elephants share the same DNA as African savanna elephants.
Sea anemone proteins could repair damaged hearing
Damage to the sensitive hair cells that detect sound in our ears can lead to deafness and now a team of scientists from the University of Louisiana, USA, have shown that repair proteins produced by sea anemones can repair damaged mouse cochlear hair cells, raising hope that the proteins could one day be used to treat hearing loss.
Recycling carbon dioxide: U of T researchers reduce climate-warming CO2 to building blocks for fuels
Turning carbon dioxide into stored energy sounds like science fiction: researchers have long tried to find simple ways to convert this greenhouse gas into fuels and other useful chemicals.
Schizophrenia simulator: When chemistry upends sanity's balance
Schizophrenia goes hand in hand with brain chemistry out of kilter, and treatment options for a major symptom aren't great.
Scientists keep a molecule from moving inside nerve cells to prevent cell death
A groundbreaking scientific study has found one way an RNA binding protein may contribute to ALS disease progression.
Next steps towards preventing cancer and Alzheimer's
A new generation of drugs that prevent cancer and Alzheimer's could be developed, thanks to a new database of the proteins needed for autophagy, from the University of Warwick.
Researchers inhibit tumor growth in new subtype of lung cancer
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths.
Deadly bat fungus in Washington state likely originated in Eastern US
Results of a US Geological Survey and USDA Forest Service study indicate that the White-nose Syndrome fungus recently detected for the first time in western North America is genetically similar to strains found in the eastern United States and did not likely originate in Eurasia, according to a study published today in the journal mSphere.
Health-care costs are bad medicine
New research shows one in four chronically ill Australians is skipping health care because of high costs.
Federal grant to Rice targets ovarian cancer
Rice University bioengineer Junghae Suh has been awarded a prestigious R01 grant by the National Institutes of Health to research the use of viruses to fight ovarian cancer.
Hatching the reward deficiency egg: Neurogenetic and nutrigenomic translational research links
A recent publication in Current Pharmaceutical Design, by Kenneth Blum, Ph.D., and associates entitled: 'Neuronutrient Amino-Acid Therapy Protects Against Reward Deficiency Syndrome: Dopaminergic Key to Homeostasis and Neuroplasticity' may have clinical relevance in providing evidence for the 'hatching of the addiction egg' with possible solutions.
This week from AGU: Greenland's thawing ice sheet, Nepal's landslides, and more
This week from AGU are papers on Greenland's thawing ice sheet, Nepal's landslides, and four more research spotlights.
Early snowmelt reduces forests' atmospheric CO2 uptake, decreases streamflow volume
Earlier, slower snowmelt hinders a subalpine forest's ability to regulate atmospheric carbon dioxide and reduces streamflow, a phenomenon with potentially drastic consequences for agriculture, municipal water supplies and recreational opportunities in Colorado and the western US.
First evidence of sleep in flight
Birds engage in all types of sleep in flight, but in remarkably small amounts
New finding helps understand feeding ecology of Pleistocene proboscideans
A Sino-British team of palaeontologists explored the feeding ecology of these Chinese proboscideans from different Pleistocene stages, using cutting-edge 3-D dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA).
Squash and science: A new pathway to STEM success
Boston University School of Medicine's CityLab program has received a Science Education Partnership Award from the National Institutes of Health.
McMaster partners with industry to find innovative solutions to treating wastewater
McMaster University engineers are working with Brantford-based company Aevitas to find innovative ways to treat industrial wastewater.
Successful treatment of rare forms of obesity
As part of a phase II study at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Berlin Institute of Health, two obese patients with a rare genetic disorder were given a drug treatment to stimulate the satiety center in the brain.
Better contrast agents based on nanoparticles
Scientists at the University of Basel have developed nanoparticles which can serve as efficient contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.
New cause of immune neuropathy discovered
Wuerzburg neurologists have discovered an antibody that is involved in triggering certain forms of neuropathies.
Novel genetic mutation may lead to the progressive loss of motor function
Researchers from the National Institutes of Health and their colleagues identified the genetic cause and a possible therapeutic target for a rare form of pediatric progressive neuropathy.
From happiness on Twitter to DNA organization
Twitter users who are happy tend to be more connected with other happy users.
ORNL optimizes formula for cadmium-tellurium solar cells
Solar cells could move closer to theoretical levels of efficiency because of findings by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
For the love of trash films
So-called 'trash films' do not stand in opposition to taste and education.
The push for more clinical research data sharing is paying off
In an ideal medical research landscape, clinical data would quickly be made available to all public and private researchers in the quest to speed up medical advances.
Stanford-led study challenges view that sickle cell trait increases mortality risk
Health experts have long believed that sickle cell gene variants, which occur in about one in 13 African-Americans, increase the risk of premature death, even when people carry only a single copy of the variant.
Contagion in popular places: From Zika to political extremism
The alert is out and South Floridians are taking heed.
Satellite spots new Tropical Storm Ivette far from Baja California
Tropical Depression 10E formed on Aug. 2 around 5 p.m.
Paper: Strategic trade-offs in automobile design affect market-share value
Car companies can either 'design for satisfaction' by investing in function and ergonomics or 'design for delight' by investing in form, says new research from Raj Echambadi, a professor of business administration at Illinois.
Synaptec senses growth opportunities with six figure investment
A spinout company from the University of Strathclyde has secured funding from one of Scotland's leading angel syndicates to help it break into the renewable energy and subsea markets.
Forensic research finds bone density affects size of bullet holes
A proof-of-concept study finds that the density of bones in the skull affects the size of bullet holes in the skull.
Why parents are the new 'heroes' in policing young drivers
Parents are vital in encouraging their children to obey the road rules and young drivers are keen to show their parents they can be trusted, which means they may hold greater power in enforcing driver restrictions compared with traditional policing, according to QUT research.
Researchers discover Sandman's role in sleep control
Oxford University researchers have discovered what causes the sleep homeostat -- a switch in our brains -- to flip and wake us up.
UTMB researchers shed new light on signals that trigger labor and delivery
In a normal full-term pregnancy, signals from the mature organs of the fetus and the aging placental membranes and placenta prompt the uterus' muscular walls to begin the labor and delivery process.
Magnetic atoms arranged in neat rows
Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg and the Vienna University of Technology have successfully created one-dimensional magnetic atom chains for the first time.
New research explores why people 'pass the buck'
People are more likely to del­e­gate decisions -- or 'pass the buck' -- when faced with choices that affect others than when those deci­sions affect only them­selves, according to new research from Mary Steffel, assis­tant pro­fessor of mar­keting in the D'Amore-McKim School of Busi­ness at Northeastern University.
Eight leading science and engineering societies express concern for the welfare of the Turkish scientific community, following failed coup in Turkey
As the Turkish government restores order after the failed coup, the American Association for the Advancement of Science and seven other leading science and engineering societies today expressed concern for the human rights of the Turkish scientific community, which has reportedly been subject to restrictions including travel bans and the ordered return of Turkish academics working abroad.
New study links risk factors to variations in postpartum depression
A new study shows that depression following childbirth can begin at different times and follow multiple distinct trajectories, emphasizing the need for clinicians to monitor for signs of postpartum depression and be aware of risk factors that may predispose a new mother to depression.
How an enzyme in fireflies, click beetles and glow worms yields different colors
The glow of fireflies at dusk is a welcome sign of summer.
HIV/AIDS: Filarial worm infections double the risk of infection
Since the start of the HIV epidemic, there have been speculations as to why HIV and the immunodeficiency syndrome it causes have spread so much more in Africa than in other countries around the world.
Global warming, a dead zone and surprising bacteria
Climate change is expanding oxygen minimum zones -- virtual dead zones -- thus drawing the ire of scientists.
Making nail polish while powering fuel cells
Hydrogen is widely regarded as a promising and clean alternative energy source.
Infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus i
Less than fifty percent of HIV-infected patients achieve viral suppression in medically underserved areas.
Inosine treatment helps recovery of motor functions after brain injury
Brain tissue can die as the result of stroke, traumatic brain injury, or neurodegenerative disease.
Researchers identify how queen bees repress workers' fertility
Researchers from New Zealand's University of Otago have discovered the molecular mechanism by which queen honeybees carefully control worker bees' fertility.
Prescription drug abuse in Europe is a bigger problem than previously thought
International collaborations across the EU are needed to monitor prescription drug abuse, identify its scope and develop targeted interventions, according to the first comparative study of prescription drug abuse in the European Union.
University of Toronto chemists create vitamin-driven battery
A team of University of Toronto chemists has created a battery that stores energy in a biologically derived unit, paving the way for cheaper consumer electronics that are easier on the environment.
Is there difference in surgical site infection using sterile vs. nonsterile gloves?
Outpatient cutaneous surgical procedures are common and surgical gloves are standard practice to prevent postoperative surgical site infection.
What's really in your swimming pool?
Whether you're just cooling down or swimming competitively, the pool is a summer staple.
Insomnia? Oversleeping? Both may increase your risk of stroke
There is growing evidence that sleep disorders like insomnia and sleep apnea are related to stroke risk and recovery from stroke, according to a recent literature review.
Minorities less likely to have knee replacement surgery, more likely to have complications
Minority populations have lower rates of total knee replacement utilization but higher rates of adverse health outcomes associated with the procedure, according to a new study appearing in today's issue of the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery.
Pregnancy procedure associated with increased risk of preterm birth and neonatal loss
Researchers are urging surgeons to reconsider using a particular type of thread for a procedure to prevent premature birth, after new research found this thread was associated with an increased rate of premature birth and baby death compared with a thinner thread.
Honey bee colonies fall by nearly 12 percent
The number of honey bee colonies fell by nearly 12 percent last winter, an international study involving the University of Strathclyde indicates.
Waste not: Edible wax coating slicks liquids with ease
Colorado State University materials scientists have created a 'superhydrophobic' coating that easily slicks away viscous liquids like syrup, honey and ketchup.
Mayo researchers identify breast microbiome/bacterial differences between healthy and cancerous tissue
A team of Mayo Clinic researchers has identified evidence of bacteria in sterilely obtained breast tissue and found differences between women with and without breast cancer.
Good attitudes about aging help seniors handle stress
New psychology research finds that having a positive attitude about aging makes older adults more resilient when faced with stressful situations.
Insect tibias are best suited for jumping and other emergency behaviors
Insect tibias are best suited to withstand the high stress of emergency behaviors rather than the fatigue stress of normal behaviors, according a study published Aug.
Can you teach koalas new tricks?
Griffith University researchers have found that koalas are more clever than they thought them to be in a world-first study that tracked the Australian animal more comprehensively than ever before in suburban Brisbane.
Rich bugs revealed: Homes in wealthier neighborhoods host a greater diversity of insects
Researchers are looking beyond homes' nooks and crannies to consider the socioeconomic context of insect-packed households.
Shorter telomeres reveal stress in migratory birds
The stress of birds' continent-spanning annual migrations, it appears, leads to faster aging and a potentially earlier death.
NASA sees tropical storm Howard weakening
Infrared data from NASA's Terra satellite has revealed that Tropical Storm Howard is weakening quickly as it continues to move over cooler waters in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
Researchers at Sandia, Northeastern develop method to study critical HIV protein
Mike Kent, a researcher in Sandia National Laboratories' Biological and Engineering Sciences Center, is studying a protein called Nef involved in HIV progression to AIDS with the ultimate goal of blocking it.
Researchers work to understand causes of search and rescue in the Arctic
Search and rescue operations in Nunavut have more than doubled over the past decade.
Team led by SF State astronomer catalogs most likely 'second-Earth' candidates
An international team of researchers has pinpointed which of the more than 4,000 exoplanets discovered by NASA's Kepler mission are most likely to be similar to Earth.
Challenging the 'rigidity' for smart soft electronics
A team of Korean researchers has found a way to solve a dilemma and developed a low crystalline conducting polymer that shows high-field effect mobility.
Hospitals that send the most heart patients to the ICU get the worst results, study finds
Patients who suffer heart attacks, or flare-ups of congestive heart failure, can be cared for in a variety of hospital locations.
Big step towards cure for lifelong viral infections
New research has taken us a step closer to finding a cure for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as well as other infections including the glandular fever virus, which is associated with the development of lymphoma.
Surgical stitch linked to stillbirth and preterm birth
In a study of almost 700 pregnant women who received a cervical stitch designed to prevent preterm labor, the use of one type of suture over another was associated with three times higher risk of stillbirth and almost twice the risk of preterm birth.
Paving the way toward novel strong, conductive materials
Bulk metallic glasses are metallic alloys whose neatly ordered atomic structure can be altered into an amorphous, non-crystalline structure -- giving metal the malleability of plastic, while maintaining its durability and conductivity.
New microfluidic chip replicates muscle-nerve connection
MIT engineers have developed a microfluidic device that replicates the neuromuscular junction -- the vital connection where nerve meets muscle.
The Lancet Oncology: Immediate aggressive treatment may not be necessary for all adults with advanced kidney cancer
Some adults with advanced kidney cancer (renal-cell carcinoma) who have slow-growing disease can live for months and even years without the disease getting worse with active surveillance, or close monitoring for evidence of disease progression, instead of having to undergo immediate treatment with highly toxic anticancer drugs, suggests new research published in The Lancet Oncology.
The force is strong with embryo cells
For a cell in an embryo, the secret to becoming part of the baby's body instead of the placenta is to contract more and carry on dancing, scientists at EMBL have found.
Preventing dependency when patients first receive opioids: Say no to refills
Clinicians should think twice when prescribing opioid medication to patients for the first time to relieve pain, migraines or severe coughs.
Research associates some pesticides with respiratory wheeze in farmers
New research from North Carolina State University connects several pesticides commonly used by farmers with both allergic and non-allergic wheeze, which can be a sensitive marker for early airway problems.
'Promoting discovery and developing solutions'
UCSB geography professor Dar Roberts is named a fellow of the American Geophysical Union.
Heart disease, stroke risk factors may increase in severity before menopause
The severity of metabolic syndrome and its five risk factors for heart disease, stroke and diabetes may increase more rapidly in the years before, rather than after, menopause.
Foraging strategies of smallest seals revealed in first ever satellite tracking study
The first ever satellite tracking study of one the world's endangered seal species has revealed new information about their migration habits and hunting patterns.
Georgia State Center for Leadership In Disability receives grant for Autism Research
The Center for Leadership in Disability at Georgia State University has won a federal grant to study the relationship between nature walks and behaviors associated with autism stress responses in children.
Discovery: Mantis shrimp use UV color spots, chemical cues to size up opponents
Mantis shrimp, often brightly colored and fiercely aggressive sea creatures with outsized strength, use both the ultraviolet reflectance of their color spots and chemical cues when fighting over resources, according to research led by a Tufts University doctoral candidate.
Microscope imaging system integrates virtual reality technology
CaptiView is a microscope image injection system that overlays critical virtual reality imaging directly onto the brain when viewed through the eyepiece during surgery.
ISU study suggests 'use it or lose it' to defend against memory loss
Iowa State University researchers have identified a protein essential for building memories that appears to predict the progression of memory loss and brain atrophy in Alzheimer's patients.
Soaring metabolic rates place sea otter moms at risk
Southern sea otter moms suffer a disproportionately high mortality rate and new measurements show that their resting metabolic rate soars dramatically by over 50 percent when they are suckling a pup.
Perpetual 'ice water': Stable solid-liquid state revealed in nanoparticles
Researchers have discovered that gallium nanoparticles can form a solid core surrounded by a liquid outer layer over a temperature span of 1000 degrees Fahrenheit.
Gentle cancer treatment using nanoparticles works
Cancer treatments based on laser irridation of tiny nanoparticles that are injected directly into the cancer tumor are working and can destroy the cancer from within.
Massive MIMO, massive win for Bristol student at NI Engineering Impact Awards
A postgraduate student from the University of Bristol is the joint recipient of five separate awards in recognition of their world record achievement in 5G wireless spectrum efficiency using Massive MIMO.

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