Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 05, 2016
Good relationships with parents may benefit children's health decades later
Growing up in a well-off home can benefit a child's physical health even decades later -- but a lack of parent-child warmth, or the presence of abuse, may eliminate the health advantage of a privileged background, according to a Baylor University study.

Study shows infants pay more attention to native speakers
The connection between language and social preferences is well-established. New research, recently published in Frontiers in Psychology, demonstrates that infants also pay attention to language cues in deciding where to place their attention.

Drug restores hair growth in patients with alopecia areata
Seventy-five percent of patients with moderate to severe alopecia areata -- an autoimmune disease that causes patchy, and less frequently, total hair loss -- had significant hair regrowth after treatment with ruxolitinib, reported researchers from Columbia University Medical Center.

Rapid blood test can rule out serious infections in children
Using a simple decision rule and a finger prick, general practitioners can now detect serious infections in children very quickly.

Climate change, species invasions harming popular native fish in Ontario lakes
A popular recreational and commercial fish -- the native walleye -- is at risk of disappearing as invasions of the competitive, predatory smallmouth bass move into Ontario lakes, a new study from York University has found.

A nerve agent antidote that could be taken before an attack
Nerve agents are molecular weapons that invade the body and sabotage part of the nervous system, causing horrific symptoms and sometimes death within minutes.

EBV-derived microRNAs silence immune alarm signals of the host cell
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) prevents infected cells from being attacked by the immune system.

Believing that others understand helps us feel that we do -- even when we don't
New research on how people think supports the idea of a 'community of knowledge,' in which people blend the perceived expertise of others into their assessment of their own understanding.

Smartphone microscope creates interactive tool for microbiology
An easily assembled smartphone microscope provides new ways of interacting with and learning about common microbes.

Sensors -- quantum leap
By exploiting some exotic quantum states, researchers have conceptually designed a sensor that features unparalleled sensitivity.

College job market to continue torrid pace
The hiring of college graduates at all degree levels should be very strong in 2016-17, according to Michigan State University's Recruiting Trends, the largest annual survey of employers in the nation.

Roundworms even more useful than researchers previously thought
The 1-millimeter-long roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has been used as a model organism in scientific research, and has therefore been extensively examined.

Grant to TSRI-led consortium expands to $207 million
The National Institutes of Health has expanded a five-year funding award to The Scripps Research Institute from $120 million to $207 million, marking a significant increase in scope from the initial award and providing additional details about the network of partners in the TSRI-led consortium.

Does brain size really matter?
Brain size may matter. In the world's largest MRI study on brain size to date, USC researchers and their international colleagues identified seven genetic hotspots that regulate brain growth, memory and reasoning as well as influence the onset of Parkinson's disease.

Food scientists: We can detect much more food fraud
Researchers point out that 'non-targeted' methods of analysis can reveal far more food fraud.

NASA sees Tropical Depression 22W form
Tropical Depression 22W has formed northeast of the northern Philippines and NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of the storm.

Sustainability projects offer potential seeds for a more just future
It is rare to hear environmental scientists sounding positive about the future.

Transgender women who begin hormone therapy more likely to quit smoking
While there has been much concern about the potential harm from transgender medical intervention (hormone therapy), a new study has found that transgender women who receive hormone therapy are more likely to quit or decrease smoking cigarettes as compared to the general population.

Preschoolers form body images -- but parents are unaware, study says
Preschoolers may express awareness about body-image issues -- but their parents may miss opportunities to promote positive body-image formation in their children because parents believe them to be too young to have these concerns, new research suggests.

Reservoirs are a major source of greenhouse gases
Dammed rivers are often considered environmentally friendly, carbon-neutral energy sources, but the reservoirs they create release large amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

Reporting of adverse events in targeted therapy and immunotherapy trials is 'suboptimal'
A significant number of trials of targeted therapies and immunotherapies in recent years show suboptimal reporting of adverse events, particularly the reporting of recurrent or late toxicities and the duration of the adverse events.

Custom-tailored strategy against glioblastomas
Glioblastomas are incurable malignant brain tumors. Usually the patients affected survive for only months.

Solving the problem of glare
If you have ever turned on your car's high beams while driving through fog, you've seen glare in action.

'Virtual physiotherapist' helps paralyzed patients exercise using computer games
A simple device can improve the ability of patients with arm disability to play physiotherapy-like computer games, according to new research.

Past climate linked to mammal communities today
Paleoclimate of the mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum were frequently better predictors of mammal community structure than modern climate.

'The Nobel Prize in Economics' and society
In 1968, the scientific status of economics was strengthened by the creation of the 'Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences.' After financial crises, low economic growth and increasing social tension, many are questioning this scientific status.

How much does that fertilizer REALLY cost?
To adequately account for the cost of nitrogen pollution, researchers from the University of Minnesota Institute on the Environment have proposed a framework that accounts for all of the damages that occur when reactive nitrogen enters our air or water.

New evidence supports biological link between Zika infection, Guillain-Barré Syndrome
In a collaborative effort with scientists at six Colombian hospitals, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report what they believe to be the strongest biological evidence to date linking Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Survey -- 2/3 of Americans don't think presidential campaign addresses their most important concerns
Americans remain just as frustrated and angry about the election in the last six weeks of the 2016 presidential campaign as they were in May when the primaries were drawing to a close.

Discovery: A new form of light
Scientists have discovered a new method to create fluorescent light that may have promising applications from LEDs to medical imaging.

Researchers modify yeast to show how plants respond to a key hormone
Researchers at the University of Washington have developed a novel toolkit based on modified yeast cells to tease out how plant genes and proteins respond to auxin, the most ubiquitous plant hormone.

E-cigarette vapor does not cause oxidative stress in viable lung epithelial cells
E-cigarette vapor is much less harmful to lung cells than cigarette smoke.

Eating your greens could enhance sport performance
Nitrate supplementation in conjunction with Sprint Interval Training in low oxygen conditions could enhance sport performance a study has found.

Lowering the heat makes new materials possible while saving energy
A new technology developed by Penn State researchers, called cold sintering process, opens a window on the ability to combine incompatible materials, such as ceramics and plastics, into new, useful compound materials, and to lower the energy cost of many types of manufacturing.

Study shows potential disease treatment in newborns via drug delivery to amniotic fluid
Study shows that antisense oligonucleotides can be safely injected into the amniotic cavity.

Distracted much? New research may help explain why
New research offers evidence that one's motivation is just as important for sustained attention to a task as is the ease with which the task is done.

New technique for quickly diagnosing breastfeeding pain developed by Ben-Gurion U.
A new article in the clinical research publication Breastfeeding Medicine details how using a dermatoscope for examination during lactation is an important advance for rapidly and accurately identifying the factors responsible for nipple pain that can cause mothers to abandon nursing.

First results on semen quality from the world's oldest group of ICSI men
First results from the world's oldest group of young men conceived by means of intracytoplasmic sperm injection fertility treatment because of their fathers' infertility have shown that they have lower sperm quantity and quality than men who were spontaneously conceived.

Flying jewels spell death for tarantulas: Study of a North American spider fly genus
North American jeweled spider flies are a genus of metallic green, purple, or blue insects that are widely known as important pollinators of flowers.

Watching stem cells change provides clues to fighting osteoporosis in older women
For years, scientists have studied how stem cells might be used to treat many diseases, including osteoporosis.

Planet formation: The death of a planet nursery?
The dusty disk surrounding the star TW Hydrae exhibits circular features that may signal the formation of protoplanets.

Students of all races prefer teachers of color, finds NYU Steinhardt study
Middle and high school students, regardless of their race and ethnicity, have more favorable perceptions of their black and Latino teachers than of their white teachers, finds a study by NYU's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development.

African ancestry contributes to kidney disease risk in Hispanics/Latinos
African ancestry contributes to the risk of chronic kidney disease among some Hispanic/Latino adults, according to a study co-authored by Loyola University Chicago researchers.

Heparin derived from cattle is equivalent to heparin from pigs, study finds
As demand for the widely used blood-thinning drug heparin continues to grow, experts worry of possible shortages.

Contribution increases by tenfold the mouse mutation resources of one type available
The world's supply of one type of mouse mutation available for research increased nearly tenfold with a recent transfer from the UT Southwestern Medical Center laboratory of Nobel Laureate Dr.

Absolute structure determination: Pushing the limits
It was the Softenon disaster that made the pharmaceutical industry fully aware of the importance of knowing the enantiomeric purity and chirality of drugs and their metabolites.

Brookhaven Lab to play major role in 2 DOE exascale computing application projects
Scientists will help develop modeling and simulation applications for next-generation supercomputers to enable advances in nuclear and high-energy physics and chemistry research.

Scientists devise a more accurate way to gauge blood sugar averages in diabetes
Marrying advanced math with standard blood-sugar tests, Harvard Medical School scientists have devised a more accurate way to measure three-month average blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.

Researchers found unexpected biogeographical boundaries in Amazonia
The new information necessitates revising the scenarios on how the enormous species richness in Amazonia has evolved and which factors define species distributions.

Atlantic Ocean's slowdown tied to changes in the Southern Hemisphere
Unlike in the movies, and in theories of long-term climate change, the recent slowdown of the Atlantic circulation is not connected with melting of Arctic sea ice and buildup of freshwater near the North Pole.

NASA satellite sees stubborn Atlantic Tropical Storm Nicole
Vertical wind shear has the ability to tear a tropical cyclone apart, but recently formed Tropical Storm Nicole in the western Atlantic Ocean is holding fast to its strength despite being battered by wind shear.

Surgery timing after neoadjuvant chemoradiation in Stage IIIA NSCLC impacts OS
The timing of surgery after neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer affects the overall survival of patients receiving trimodality therapy.

To help or not to help?
Emergency situations amplify individual tendencies to behave egoistically or prosocially.

Penn: Plant-made antimicrobial peptide targets dental plaque and gum tissues
University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine scientists have found a new approach for delivering a protein drug to treat and prevent oral diseases, including dental caries, commonly known as cavities.

On issue of undocumented immigrants, survey finds young people of color prefer Clinton, young whites Trump
A new survey released today highlights how race and ethnicity shape the opinions of America's young people by exploring critical issues such as the 2016 presidential race, experiences with police, and immigration.

Non-toxic solvent removes barrier to commercialization of perovskite solar cells
Scientists at Oxford University have developed a solvent system with reduced toxicity that can be used in the manufacture of perovskite solar cells, clearing one of the barriers to the commercialization of a technology that promises to revolutionize the solar industry.

A college degree may have become more valuable in 2000s
A four-year college education provided Americans with a 12 to 14 percent private rate of return on their investment during the 2000s, a new analysis shows.

Smoking bans persuade light users to give up the habit
A new national study shows for the first time how smoking bans in cities, states and counties led young people living in those areas to give up, or never take up, the use of cigarettes.

Pleasant family leisure at home may satisfy families more than fun together elsewhere
While family fun often is associated with new and exciting activities, family leisure spent at home in familiar pastimes may be a better route to happiness, according to a Baylor University study.

Jetlag is given the swerve by adjusting meal times on the ground, find researchers
Long-haul cabin crew can ease symptoms of jetlag by regulating meal times on their days off.

Electrons in graphene behave like light, only better
Researchers have directly observed -- for the first time -- negative refraction for electrons passing across a boundary between two regions in a conducting material.

Genome: It's all about architecture
How do pathogens such as bacteria or parasites manage to hide from their host's immune system?

Mayo Clinic researchers map prostate cancer relapse using C-11 choline PET and MRI
A team of Mayo Clinic researchers has, for the first time, successfully mapped patterns of prostate cancer recurrence, following surgery.

MIT engineers design beaver-inspired wetsuit material
Beavers and sea otters lack the thick layer of blubber that insulates walruses and whales.

The Lancet: Policies and programs to support early child development a 'wise investment' as 250 million children at risk of not reaching their full potential
Although child mortality has dropped worldwide, approximately 250 million (43 percent) children in low and middle income countries are at risk of not meeting their developmental potential because of extreme poverty and stunting.

The adolescent brain is adapted to learning
Teenagers are often portrayed as seeking immediate gratification, but new work suggests that their sensitivity to reward could be part of an evolutionary adaptation to learn from their environment.

Frontline PARP inhibitor shrinks tumors in BRCA-positive breast patients
All 13 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with BRCA mutations had their tumors shrink significantly when treated with a PARP inhibitor ahead of frontline presurgical chemotherapy in a pilot study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

Samsung licenses ORNL transparent superhydrophobic glass coatings for electronic devices
Samsung Electronics has exclusively licensed optically clear superhydrophobic film technology from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory to improve the performance of glass displays on smartphones, tablets and other electronic devices.

Case of the missing continental crust solved: It sank
University of Chicago scientists and a colleague at Miami University of Ohio have concluded that half the original mass of Eurasia and India disappeared into the Earth's interior before the two continents began their slow-motion collision approximately 60 million years ago.

Do proactive primary health-care programs preserve functioning for older adults?
Researchers from the Netherlands recently create a study to see whether or not a personalized primary care program for frail older adults might improve quality of life and daily functioning.

'Smart clothing' could someday power cell phones with the sun's rays
Batteries in smart phones and other portable electronics often die at inopportune times.

Scientists speed up muscle repair -- could fight dystrophy
When skeletal muscles are injured, muscle stem cells wake up from dormancy and repair the damage.

Your next nurse could be a robot
The nursing assistant for your next trip to the hospital might be a robot.

Scientists find new path in brain to ease depression
Scientists have discovered a new pathway in the brain that can be manipulated to alleviate depression.

Early marijuana use associated with abnormal brain function, study reveals
In a new study, scientists in London, Ontario have discovered that early marijuana use may result in abnormal brain function and lower IQ.

The truth about lying? Children's perceptions get more nuanced with age
Parents don't like it when children lie. But what do the kids themselves think about it?

Tel Aviv University's Professor Illana Gozes receives top RARE gene award
Tel Aviv University's Professor Illana Gozes was awarded the 2016 RARE Champion of Hope -- Science International Prize by Global Genes, a leading global advocacy non-profit organization for patients and families fighting rare and genetic diseases.

E-cigarette vapor non-toxic to human lung cells in lab tests
Vapor from e-cigarettes is non-toxic to human lung cells under normal usage conditions.

Stopping breast cancer metastasis in its tracks
A new Tel Aviv University study finds that combining genetic therapy with chemotherapy delivered to a primary tumor site is extremely effective in preventing breast cancer metastasis.

Age limit for federal food assistance program is increasing food insecurity
New research from the University of Missouri has identified a problem associated with the requirement that when children turn five, they are no longer eligible to receive food assistance through WIC, thus leading to increased food insecurity for the family.

Research to answer a 'crushing' evolutionary question
Studying the physical features of long-extinct creatures continues to yield surprising new knowledge of how evolution fosters traits desirable for survival in diverse environments.

Redox biomarker could predict progression of epilepsy
Approximately 2.9 million people in the United States suffer from epilepsy, according to the CDC.

Low lead levels in children negatively affect test scores
A decrease in the average level of lead in a preschooler's blood reduces the probability of that child being substantially below proficient in reading by the third grade, a new National Bureau of Economics Research working paper reports.

Molecular machines: The 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, explained (video)
Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Ph.D., Sir J. Fraser Stoddart, Ph.D., and Bernard L.

Sir Fraser Stoddart is awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Sir Fraser Stoddart, Board of Trustees Professor of Chemistry in the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences at Northwestern University, today (Oct.

Parkinson's disease protection may begin in the gut
The gut may play a key role in preventing the onset of Parkinson's disease.

Neural membrane's structural instability may trigger multiple sclerosis
Tel Aviv University researchers have discovered an immune system mechanism that may lead to multiple sclerosis.

Heavy hitters: Obesity rate soars among professional baseball players
Major League Baseball players have become overwhelmingly overweight and obese during the last quarter century, say health researchers.

Certain citrus species produce repellent against huanglongbing
A new strategy for combating the vector of the bacterium that causes huanglongbing, also known as greening, considered the most destructive citrus disease in the world can be developed from the discovery that three citrus plants produce an essential oil that repels the insect.

New animal research explores red raspberries in supporting healthy weight and motor function
The latest issue of the Journal of Berry Research includes two new animal studies that investigate the effects of raspberry consumption in helping to support healthy weight and motor function (strength, balance and coordination).

UTIA receives grant to improve farm financial performance in Tennessee
The University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture has received a USDA grant to expand the farm financial management database FINBIN to include Tennessee farms, making Tennessee the only Southeastern state currently contributing data.

Strange 'chimeras' defy science's understanding of human genetics
The human genome is far more complex than thought, with genes functioning in an unexpected fashion that scientists have wrongly assumed must indicate cancer, research indicates.

New grants explore role of brain's 'garbage truck' in mini-stokes and trauma
More than $4.5 million in new grants to the lab of University of Rochester Medical Center scientist Maiken Nedergaard, M.D., D.M.Sc., underscore the important role the brain's waste disposal system may play in a range of neurological disorders.

Got eczema? It may just be bad evolutionary luck, study finds
A new study probes the evolutionary history of eczema, examining a genetic variant strongly associated with the most common form of eczema, atopic dermatitis.

Perinatal risk factors linked with higher risk of obsessive compulsive disorder
A range of perinatal factors appear to be associated with higher risk for children later developing obsessive compulsive disorder, according to an article published online by JAMA Psychiatry.

Donald or Hillary? Why listening to them makes a difference to voters
Does listening to Donald Trump's or Hillary Clinton's opinions humanize them to voters more than reading their opinions?

Investing in early childhood development essential to helping more children thrive
An estimated 43 percent -- 249 million -- of children under five in low-and middle-income countries are at an elevated risk of poor development due to extreme poverty and stunting, according to findings from The Lancet's new Series, Advancing Early Childhood Development: from Science to Scale.

This Week from AGU Oct. 5, 2016
This Week from AGU: Saturn's moon Dione may harbor a subsurface ocean.

NASA sees Hurricane Matthew heading for the Bahamas
Satellites from NASA and NOAA have been tracking and analyzing powerful Hurricane Matthew since its birth just east of the Leeward Islands on Sept.

A tough day could erase the perks of choosing 'good' fat sources, study finds
The type of fat you eat matters, but a new study suggests that the benefits of good fats vanish when stress enters the picture.

Pokémon Go and the potential for increased accidents
New research published by Oxford Medical Case Reports indicates that augmented reality games like Pokémon Go, while holding great promise to promote exercise, also increases the potential for distraction-related death.

Schools use corporal punishment more on children who are black or have disabilities
In parts of the 19 states where the practice is still legal, corporal punishment in schools is used as much as 50 percent more frequently on children who are African American or who have disabilities, a new analysis of 160,000 cases during 2013-2014 has found.

Breakthrough for bone regeneration via double-cell-layered tissue engineering technique
Tokyo Medical and Dental University researchers developed a technique for attaching two distinct layers of cells on top of each other on an amnion-based scaffold.

NASA sees Chaba becoming extra-tropical
Tropical Storm Chaba moved into the Sea of Japan as NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead and captured a visible picture of the storm as it was becoming extra-tropical and affected by wind shear.

New discoveries offer critical information for improving crop yield
Danforth Center research is addressing environmental issues related to production agriculture.

Rapid spread of dog disease can be stopped with diligent infection control
Protocol for keeping dogs from transmitting diseases to one another has, until now, lagged decades behind efforts to contain human infectious disease.

Technique mass-produces uniform, multilayered particles
In the latest issue of the journal Lab on a Chip, researchers from MIT's Microsystems Technology Laboratories report a new microencapsulation technique that yields particles of very consistent size, while also affording a high rate of production.

Online software helps citizen scientists solve real-world problems
With proper training and recently launched online software and web-portal, citizen scientists can follow scientific-based practices to improve environmental decision-making and even secure funding to help solve environmental problems, says a new study.

Leadership expert says political skills important to leader satisfaction
Political skill is a fundamental quality of a transformational leader and being good at it can increase job satisfaction and engagement, according to research published by Andrew Wefald, associate professor in the Staley School of Leadership Studies, and Kansas State University alumni Kyle van Ittersum and Jennifer Mencl.

Coolness, control and community draw people to Pinterest
Cool features with easy-to-follow instructions that provide control and community may keep Pinterest users pinning, liking and inviting, according to researchers, who add that these behaviors may reveal new ways people are using the web and social media.

AHA, Verily Life Sciences, AstraZeneca announce winner of $75M One Brave Idea research award
The American Heart Association (AHA), Verily Life Sciences LLC (formerly Google Life Sciences), an Alphabet company, and AstraZeneca, today announced that the One Brave Idea™; research award.

Clean water-treatment option targets sporadic outbreaks
Environmental and biomedical engineer David Wendell, an associate professor in the University of Cincinnati's College of Engineering and Applied Science, developed a protein-based photocatalyst that uses light to generate hydrogen peroxide to eliminate E. coli, Listeria, and potentially protozoa like giardia and cryptosporidium from drinking water.

Hard-to-control asthma has distinct features, study shows
Striking differences as to how children respond to asthma treatment and nasal symptoms should be treated as part of asthma management.

Retroviral diseases: Children who keep HIV in check
Some HIV-infected -- and untreated -- children do not develop AIDS.

Most gay men not aware of treatment to protect them from HIV
Only four in 10 gay and bisexual men in Baltimore without HIV are aware that pre-exposure prophylaxis medication (PrEP) may significantly reduce their risk of contracting the virus, even those who had recently visited a doctor or been tested for a sexually transmitted disease, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research suggests.

New method to detect aging cells developed by researchers
Scientists have discovered a new way to look for aging cells across a wide range of biological materials; the new method will boost understanding of cellular development and ageing as well as the causes of diverse diseases.

Wireless 'data center on a chip' aims to cut energy use
A Washington State University research team has designed a tiny, wireless data center that someday could be as small as a hand-held device and dramatically reduce the energy needed to run such centers.

Physicists 'dissolve' water in an emerald
Scientists have detected ferroelectric properties of water molecules by placing them into a network of nanoactivities in a crystal.

Adults value overcoming temptation, kids value moral purity
Is it better to struggle with moral conflict and ultimately choose to do the right thing or to do the right thing without feeling any turmoil in the first place?

New survey finds racial and ethnic divide in young people's views on their own economic security
A new GenForward survey released today reveals how young people feel about a wide range of key economic issues and provides comprehensive data on young people's perceptions of their economic future.

New survey shows women still don't understand why sex hurts after menopause
Unfortunately for many postmenopausal women, painful intercourse is a reality due to vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), the thinning of the vaginal walls caused by decreased estrogen.

Common US snake actually 3 different species
New research reveals that a snake found across a huge swath of the Eastern United States is actually three different species.

Study finds wide hospital variation in medicare expenditures to treat surgical complications
In a study published online by JAMA Surgery, Jason C.

Research details industry payments to dermatologists
Connections between industry and clinicians exist and a new study published online by JAMA Dermatology used publicly available data to analyze the nature and extent of industry payments to dermatologists.

Here's looking at you -- finding allies through facial cues
After being on the losing side of a fight, men seek out allies with a look of rugged dominance about them to ensure a backup in case of future fights.

Bragging as a strategy: What boasting buys, and costs, a candidate
Whether it's better to brag or to be humble can depend on what perception one seeks to change, whether hard evidence will come to light and what that evidence says, according to a new study.

$4 million grant funds new UW RAPID facility to investigate natural disasters worldwide
A new disaster investigation center housed at the University of Washington and funded by a $4 million National Science Foundation grant will collect and analyze critical data that's often lost in the immediate aftermath of hurricanes and earthquakes but can help create more resilient communities.

A better blood sugar test for diabetes
A new method for estimating blood sugar levels can cut diagnostic errors by more than 50 percent compared to the current widely used blood test, according to a study of more than 200 diabetic patients.

Suicides under crisis services lead to concerns over pressures on mental health care
Over 200 suicide deaths per year now occur in patients under mental health crisis teams, three times as many as in in-patients, according to a report by the University of Manchester's National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness.

Vitamin E may prevent pneumonia in nonsmoking elderly men
Administration of 50 mg per day of vitamin E decreased the risk of pneumonia in elderly male smokers by 72 percent after they quit smoking, according to a paper published in Clinical Interventions in Aging.

RIT awarded nearly $1 million from NSF to develop food waste solutions
Callie Babbitt, an associate professor at Rochester Institute of Technology's Golisano Institute for Sustainability, has received a nearly $1 million award from the National Science Foundation to research sustainable solutions for minimizing and managing the growing and complex challenges of food waste generated across the food supply chain.

PharmaMar shows new clinical data on Yondelis® and lurbinectedin at ESMO 2016
During this congress, PharmaMar will inform in an oral session the results of its Phase II clinical trial with lurbinectedin in patients with BRCA 1/2 metastatic breast cancer.

Urban warming slows tree growth, photosynthesis
New research finds that urban warming reduces growth and photosynthesis in city trees.

IRCM researchers explain how evolution has equipped our hands with 5 fingers
The research team of Professor Marie Kmita just responded in part to the question: why do we have five fingers in each hand, knowing that human hand comes from the fish fin rays, which have more than five?

Science at cusp of 'transformational' grasp of life via cell modeling, researchers say
Advances in molecular biology and computer science may lead to a three-dimensional computer model of a cell, the fundamental unit of life, heralding a new era for biological research, medical science, and human and animal health.

How do birds dive safely at high speeds? New research explains
Some species of seabirds plunge-dive at speeds greater than 50 miles per hour to surprise their prey.

How natural selection acted on 1 penguin species over the past quarter century
University of Washington biologist Dee Boersma and her colleagues combed through 28 years' worth of data on Magellanic penguins to search for signs that natural selection -- one of the main drivers of evolution -- may be acting on certain penguin traits.

Alternative treatment approaches may be needed for some children with asthma
Researchers at Henry Ford Health System found that children who suffer from frequent asthma symptoms, despite receiving high doses of preventive medication, might fare better with a tailored approach to treatment.

For normal heart function, look beyond the genes
Berkeley Lab researchers have compiled a comprehensive genome-wide map of more than 80,000 enhancers considered relevant to human heart development and function.

Targeting cardiovascular disease risk factors may be important across a lifetime
New findings suggest that all adults, including those over 65, should be mindful of risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Studies identify differences underlying the airway responses of patients with asthma
Two research teams from Massachusetts General Hospital MGH have used innovative imaging technology and other novel approaches to identify key differences in both the immune response and the sensitivity of airway cells to inflammation between allergic individuals with and without asthma.

Certain healthy habits may shorten the time older adults spend disabled at end of life
Recently, researchers studied whether or not having a healthy lifestyle later in life could shorten the period of time before death that older adults spend living with disabilities that limit their independence.

Conservation decisions rely on balancing incentives with unpredictable variables
In deciding whether to enter into a permanent conservation agreement or to convert their land to intensive agricultural use, landowners require a higher lump-sum payment to cover their loss of options.

Scavenger cells repair muscle fibers
Everybody knows the burning sensation in the legs when climbing down a steep slope for a long time.

Volunteering may have benefits for memory among older adults
A new research study has shown that volunteering regularly over time may have benefits for older adults.

Can older adults with dementia continue to drive? More study is needed
How do you know when it's time for an older adult with mild dementia to stop driving?

New imaging method could enable dentists to detect and heal tooth cavities much earlier
Dental caries -- tooth decay --is one of the most prevalent oral diseases worldwide, but can be healed if detected early enough.

Space agriculture topic of symposium
New frontiers of soil and plant sciences may grow crops in space.

Hebrew University study reveals a biological link between stress and obesity
For the first time researchers revealed a connection between anxiety and metabolic disorders at the molecular level; the discovery opens new possibilities for detecting and treating both symptoms.

Citrus greening disease pathogen has gut-wrenching effect on insect vector
The Asian citrus psyllid starts an immune response against the bacterium that causes citrus greening disease by triggering cell death in the gut.

Study: Globalization hasn't affected what we grow and eat as much as you might think
A new study published in the Oct. 5 edition of the journal PLOS ONE finds that the impact of globalization is less than expected when it comes to the food we grow and eat.

Corporal punishment is still legal in US public schools in 19 states
A new study, analyzing data from 36,942 US public schools, has found that Black children, boys, and children with disabilities are subjected to corporal punishment with greater frequency than their peers.

Bacterial molecule trains the immune system to tolerate infection without inducing illness
A study from Massachusetts General Hospital investigators has identified a mechanism leading to immune system tolerance of a common, difficult-to-treat bacteria by means of small molecule usually used by the pathogen to monitor its presence in the environment.

Sled track simulates high-speed accident in B61-12 test
Sandia National Laboratories sent a mock B61-12 nuclear weapon speeding down the labs' 10,000-foot rocket sled track to slam nose-first into a steel and concrete wall in a spectacular test that mimicked a high-speed accident.

Study suggests additional benefits to HIV-prevention therapy
A new study suggests just how cost-effective this intervention -- known as pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP -- could be in Toronto, and says there maybe additional benefits to a PrEP program if it brings high-risk individuals into contact with the health-care system and engages them in care.

Thousands of illegally traded wild animals at risk due to gaps in data
The fate of over 64,000 live wild animals officially reported to have been confiscated by CITES enforcement agencies remains untraceable, according to a new report, released by the University of Oxford Wildlife Conservation Research Unit and World Animal Protection.

The incredible shrinking particle accelerator
A new data analysis/visualization toolkit developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is designed to help speed particle accelerator research and design by enabling in situ visualization and analysis of accelerator simulations at scale.

Maximum human lifespan has already been reached, Einstein researchers conclude
A study published online today in Nature by Albert Einstein College of Medicine scientists suggests that it may not be possible to extend the human life span beyond the ages already attained by the oldest people on record.

'Blind dates' in the amber world
Paleontologists at the University of Bonn have discovered a tiny biting midge no larger than one millimeter in 54-million-year-old amber.

Most Americans want government to combat climate change
Sixty-five percent of Americans think climate change is a problem that the government needs to address, including 43 percent of Republicans and 84 percent of Democrats, according to a new survey from the Energy Policy Institute at the University of Chicago and The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research.

Enzyme treatment of gene may reverse effects of Alzheimer's
A Tel Aviv University study suggests a new target for Alzheimer's research: the APOE gene, which has two forms: a healthy form called APOE3 and a disease-related pathological form called APOE4.

Brain study reveals how teens learn differently than adults
Scientists have uncovered a unique feature of the adolescent brain that enriches teens' ability to learn and form memories: the coordinated activity of two distinct brain regions.

Understanding of norms: Children overeagerly seeking social rules
Three-year-olds quickly absorb social norms. They even understand behaviors as rule-governed that are not subject to any norms, and insist that others adhere to these self-inferred 'norms,' a study by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet in Munich psychologist Marco F.

Penn study: Today's most successful fish weren't always evolutionary standouts
A new analysis of more than a thousand fossil fishes from nearly 500 species led by the University of Pennsylvania's John Clarke revealed that the success story of teleosts, a dominating group of fish, is not as straightforward as once believed.

New report: Almost two-thirds of Texans have stable health insurance
Almost two-thirds of Texans ages 18 to 64 stayed insured with health care coverage during the past 12 months, according to a new report released today by Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy and the Episcopal Health Foundation.

Researchers call for global grand challenge strategy to develop clean energy
In a comment in this week's science journal Nature, an international group of researchers from nine countries call for a grand challenges strategy to set global priorities for developing renewable energy.

Journal of Applied Remote Sensing 'best papers' on tech for agriculture, radar, mapping
Outstanding research articles advancing remote sensing technologies for crop management, geologic mapping, and all-weather Earth observation have been recognized with best-paper awards by the Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, published by SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics.

Axios Review relaunches as a non-profit
Axios Review, an independent peer review service, today announced its relaunch as a non-profit society. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to